Briefly explain the marketing planning process,sharing videos iphone,marketing campaign template word greek,best free video editing software with filters - PDF Books

DESCRIPTION: This is the largest map of its kind to have survived in tact and in good condition from such an early period of cartography. These place names are in Lincolnshire (Holdingham and Sleaford are the modern forms), and this Richard has been identified as one Richard de Bello, prebend of Lafford in Lincoln Cathedral about the year 1283, who later became an official of the Bishop of Hereford, and in 1305 was appointed prebend of Norton in Hereford Cathedral. While the map was compiled in England, names and descriptions were written in Latin, with the Norman dialect of old French used for special entries. Here, my dear Son, my bosom is whence you took flesh Here are my breasts from which you sought a Virgina€™s milk.
The other three figures consist of a woman placing a crown on the Virgin Mary and two angels on their knees in supplication. Still within this decorative border, in the left-hand bottom corner, the Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus is enthroned and crowned with a papal triple tiara and delivers a mandate with his seal attached, to three named commissioners.
In the right-hand bottom corner an unidentified rider parades with a following forester holding a pair of greyhounds on a leash. The geographical form and content of the Hereford map is derived from the writings of Pliny, Solinus, Augustine, Strabo, Jerome, the Antonine Itinerary, St. As is traditional with the T-O design, there is the tripartite division of the known world into three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. EUROPE: When we turn to this area of the Hereford map we would expect to find some evidence of more contemporary 13th century knowledge and geographic accuracy than was seen in Africa or Asia, and, to some limited extent, this theory is true. France, with the bordering regions of Holland and Belgium is called Gallia, and includes all of the land between the Rhine and the Pyrenees.
Norway and Sweden are shown as a peninsula, divided by an arm of the sea, though their size and position are misrepresented.
On the other side of Europe, Iceland, the Faeroes, and Ultima Tile are shown grouped together north of Norway, perhaps because the restricting circular limits of the map did not permit them to be shown at a more correct distance. The British Isles are drawn on a larger scale than the neighboring parts of the continent, and this representation is of special interest on account of its early date.
On the Hereford map, the areas retain their Latin names, Britannia insula and Hibernia, Scotia, Wallia, and Cornubia, and are neatly divided, usually by rivers, into compartments, North and South Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, England, and Scotland. THE MEDITERRANEAN: The Mediterranean, conveniently separating the three continents of Asia, Africa and Europe, teems with islands associated with legends of Greece and Rome. Mythical fire-breathing creature with wings, scales and claws; malevolent in west, benevolent in east. 4.A A  For bibliographical information on these and other (including lost) cartographical exemplars, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p. 10.A A  For bibliographical information for editions and translations of the source texts, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p. 11.A A  More detailed analysis of these data can be found in my a€?Lessons from Legends on the Hereford Mappa Mundi,a€? Hereford Mappa Mundi Conference proceedings volume being edited by Barber and Harvey (see n. 16.A A  Danubius oritur ab orientali parte Reni fluminis sub quadam ecclesia, et progressus ad orientem, . 23.A A  The a€?standarda€? Latin forms of these place-names and the modern English equivalents are those recorded in the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, ed. From the time when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography. FROM THE TIME when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography. Details from the Hereford map of the Blemyae and the Psilli.a€? Typical of the strange creatures or 'Wonders of the East' derived by Richard of Haldingham from classical sources and placed in Ethiopia. Equally important work was also being done on medieval and Renaissance world maps as a genre, particularly by medievalists such as Anna-Dorothee von den Brincken and Jorg-Geerd Arentzen in Germany and by Juergen Schulz, primarily an art historian, and David Woodward, a leading historian of cartography, in the United States.
The Hereford World Map is the only complete surviving English example of a type of map which was primarily a visualization of all branches of knowledge in a Christian framework and only secondly a geographical object.
After the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, monks and scholars struggled desperately to preserve from destruction by pagan barbarians the flotsam and jetsam of classical history and learning; to consolidate them and to reconcile them with Christian teaching and biblical history. There would have been several models to choose from, corresponding to the widely differing cartographic traditions inside the Roman Empire, but it seems that the commonest image descended from a large map of the known world that was created for a portico lining the Via Flaminia near the Capitol in Rome during Christ's lifetime.
Recent writers such as Arentzen have suggested that, simply because of their sheer availability, from an early date different versions of this map may have been used to illustrate texts by scholars such as St.
Eventually some of the information from the texts became incorporated into the maps themselves, though only sparingly at first. A broad similarity in coastlines with the Hereford map is clear in the Anglo-Saxon [Cottonian] World Map, c.1000 (#210), but there are no illustrations of animals other than the lion (top left). The resulting maps ranged widely in shape and appearance, some being circular, others square. A few maps of the inhabited world were much more detailed, though keeping to the same broad structure and symbolism.
Most of these earlier maps were book illustrations, none were particularly big and the maps were always considered to need textual amplification.
From about 1100, however, we know from contemporary descriptions in chronicles and from the few surviving inventories that larger world maps were produced on parchment, cloth and as wall paintings for the adornment of audience chambers in palaces and castles as well as, probably, of altars in the side chapels of religious buildings. A separate written text of an encyclopedic nature, probably written by the map's intellectual creator, however, was still intended to accompany many if not all these large maps and one may originally have accompanied the Hereford world map. These maps seem largely to have been inspired by English scholars working at home or in Europe.
The most striking novelty, however, was the vastly increased number of depictions of peoples, animals, and plants of the world copied from illustrations in contemporary handbooks on wildlife, commonly called bestiaries and herbals.
Mentions in contemporary records and chronicles, such as those of Matthew Paris, make it plain that these large world maps were once relatively common. At about the same time that this map was being created, Henry III, perhaps after consultation with Gervase, who had visited him in 1229, commissioned wall maps to hang in the audience chambers of his palaces in Winchester and Westminster. The Hereford Mappamundi is the only full size survivor of these magnificent, encyclopedic English-inspired maps. An inscription in Norman-French at the bottom left attributes the map to Richard of Haldingham and Sleaford. As collectors, dealers, and curators across the world make plans to attend the Spring 1999 a€?Asia Weeka€? in New York, they will notice that for the first time in recent memory neither Sothebya€™s nor Christiea€™s has scheduled a specialized auction of Chinese paintings. In my former position as Director of the Chinese Painting Department at Sothebya€™s I devoted much time and energy and more than a decade of my life to establish and maintain New York as a major center of the international Chinese painting market.
I remember clearly the first time I set foot in the old Sotheby Parke Bernet on Madison Avenue. The sale was held on November 2, 1979 and was a watershed event for the market for Chinese paintings in America, as well as the beginning of my career as a Chinese art dealer. With the support of James Lally, then head of the Chinese Works of Art Department, we introduced a full range of Chinese paintings and calligraphy, including purely decorative works, modern and contemporary paintings, as well as pre-modern Chinese paintings, to a small but enthusiastic American audience, and in doing so helped to establish a legitimate price structure for individual artists and for the various types of anonymous Chinese paintings. In May 1980, Sothebya€™s Hong Kong held its first sale of modern Chinese paintings, with Paula taking responsibility for the offerings.
The decade of the 1980s saw the market for Chinese paintings increase exponentially due to a confluence of a number of factors. In order to accommodate regional tastes, both Sothebya€™s and Christiea€™s adopted, for the most part, the strategy of offering the best 19th and 20th century Chinese paintings in Hong Kong while holding sales of Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasty paintings in New York. The most rewarding aspect of working at one of the major auction houses, at least from the standpoint of an expert department, is the ability to discover and make available to the public previously unknown or little-known works of art. Readera€™s Digest has recently been the subject of many art columns because of the highly successful auction held at Sothebya€™s featuring a significant portion of their corporate holdings of Modern and Contemporary paintings. The international character of the Chinese paintings market encouraged a global approach to marketing, in which Hong Kong and New York auctions complemented rather than competed with one another.
Another important work of Yuan dynasty calligraphy appeared in Sothebya€™s New York June 1985 auction of Fine Chinese Paintings.
The great majority of works bought and sold at auction are done so anonymously, particularly in a relatively new market such as Chinese paintings.
The most exciting collection I ever worked on, however, was perhaps more interesting because of its owner than for its contents, although the collection did contain several masterpieces. At this time Zhang Xueliang was technically still under house arrest but, as he had already outlived most of his detractors and he posed no threat to the government of the Republic of China, he led a fairly unfettered existence and was even permitted to visit friends and go out to dinner. By the time Zhang Xueliang was finally released from house arrest in 1988, many of his best paintings had already been sold through New York auctions, but he still retained in Taiwan a large number of paintings and calligraphy, including hundreds of fan paintings.
The success of the Dingyuanzhai auction was the culmination of a trend which had begun in the mid-eighties--the dominance of Taiwanese buyers in the Chinese art market. Taiwanese buyers were not a factor in the sale of a 17th century masterpiece six months later at Sothebya€™s.
The sale of the Wu Bin handscroll in December 1989, was clearly the highlight of my career at Sothebya€™s.
There were many reasons why I resigned from my position at Sothebya€™s in October 1992, after turning down a significant promotion.
In 1995 Christiea€™s began producing semi-annual sales of a€?Fine Classical Chinese Paintingsa€? in Hong Kong, based on the presumption that the majority of buyers were in Asia and that holding sales closer to home would allow Christiea€™s to take advantage of the a€?Pacific rima€? economic boom.
Yet, in the six years that have passed since my resignation, both Sothebya€™s and Christiea€™s have held auctions in New York and they have continued to offer a number of excellent works. Nevertheless, there is no lack of interest for Chinese paintings in America, nor is there a lack of understanding and expertise. As we enter a new year that finds parts of Asia, including Hong Kong, in the midst of the regiona€™s biggest economic decline in decades, we may question the wisdom and timing of Sothebya€™s choice to put all its Chinese painting eggs in one Asian basket. If you would like a printable version of this article in pdf format, please request one by email.
Shadow Skeletons and New Realitiesa€“Guohua and Cultural Identity (Reprinted from Kaikodo Journal VI, October 1997, pp. As the dawn of a new millenium rapidly approaches, modern and contemporary Chinese art is receiving an unprecedented amount of attention throughout Asia and the West. There is now a thriving art market for contemporary Chinese paintings, done in both traditional and Western styles.
As we try to absorb this impressive flood of images and information about 20th century Chinese art we are suddenly encountering, and before we begin to assess the artistic and art-historical merits of these works of art, it is useful to present a brief outline of some of the major issues that have concerned Chinese artists during the last century and identify some of the stylistic trends that have shaped the context in which the art of this period was and is being created. During the past one hundred years the political, social, and economic systems of China have been transformed on an unprecedented scale.
Kanga€™s views represented the prevailing attitude among progressive Chinese intellectuals who associated modernization with Westernization and Westernization with the development of science and technology. Many artists chose not to abandon completely traditional Chinese painting but tried instead to make adjustments in subject matter or style in order to broaden its appeal and update its appearance, making it more responsive to the perceived needs of contemporary society. Most critics, including Kang Youwei, advocated a synthesis of Western and Chinese art: a€?if we adhere to the old way without change, Chinese painting will become extinct.
Kanga€™s approach was based on a formulation that he and the other a€?self-strengthenersa€? of the unsuccessful 1898 reform movement had advocated as a solution to most of Chinaa€™s ills. During the first decades of this century, numbers of young painters took up Kanga€™s challenge in earnest.
Although agreeing on the general premise that Chinese painting needed an infusion of Western artistic know-how in order to advance into the modern age, the three leaders of this Westernizing movement, Xu, Liu, and Lin, did not see eye-to-eye on much else. The arguments among these three and their followers as to which foreign models to follow were as vehement as those waged by traditional painters about whether to imitate the Four Wangs (as did Wu Hufan and his students) or Shitao and Bada Shanren (as did Zhang Daqian and his followers). The decades of the 1920s and 1930s were a period of great creativity and artistic experimentation. By the end of the 1930s the future of Chinese art looked promising, albeit somewhat confused.
The politicization of all aspects of the processes of creating, exhibiting, publishing or otherwise disseminating art in the Peoplea€™s Republic of China is discussed in several recent studies and doubtless will continue to be a subject of inquiry for many years to come. Mao Zedong, in his 1942 a€?Talks at the Yana€™an Conference on Literature and Art,a€? had clearly stated his belief that art must serve the people, and that there could not be art for arta€™s sake.
Each individual is born into a culture, and its orientations and basic beliefs shape him and remain deeply rooted in his personality all of his life. LeShan and Margenau are concerned with the inherent limitations of the physical sciences to adequately describe and explain all manner of phenomena, particularly as new scientific discoveries have revealed microcosms and macrocosms for which standard Newtonian assumptions about time and space do not hold true. In Maoist China the art bureaucracy attempted to condition societya€™s perception of reality by strictly limiting the artistsa€™ range of acceptable themes and styles, and by short-circuiting the natural feedback process through the stringent control of all means of criticism.
Many early attempts to synthesize guohua techniques and approaches with new a€?revolutionarya€? subject matter failed for precisely this reason.
Among all artists, traditional painters had the most difficulty modifying or updating their artistic techniques in order to satisfy the needs of the new society as envisioned by the leaders of the Peoplea€™s Republic. Although the intent of the theoreticians, such as Kang Youwei and Cai Yuanpei, was to modernize Chinaa€™s art following Western models, Xu Beihonga€™s style of academic realism was conservative, perhaps already outdated, by the time it reached China.
Western art was of course undergoing its own revolution, reflecting new concepts of reality engendered by Einsteina€™s Theory of Relativity, quantum mechanics, particle physics and other scientific discoveries and philosophical intuitions. It was the Chinese artists working in Taiwan and abroad, including Zhang Daqian (1899-1983), Wang Jiqian (C.C.
Working outside the constraints of the Maoist regime in relatively free artistic environments, these artists have made great strides in creating a true synthesis of traditional Chinese and modern Western painting styles.
The current exhibition presents the work of a new generation of traditional, guohua painters, active in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and overseas.
This generation of younger artists grew up at a time in which, when political realities renders questions of cultural identity unavoidable. Even for those who have practiced continuously the discipline of traditional Chinese painting, the period of the 1980s and 1990s seems like a new beginning. One may question the extent to which guohua has progressed in the five decades since the founding of the Peoplea€™s Republic, or for that matter, in the nearly nine decades since the fall of the Qing dynasty, but, given the extent and intensity of the criticism aimed at traditional Chinese painting and everything that it stood for, and with the recent availability of so many other artistic options, it is perhaps surprising that the art form has persisted at all. In an age of rapid information exchange and an increasingly global popular culture, it is very possible that a truly international style of art, in oils, acrylics or, more likely, some yet-to-be-invented digital medium, will be developed in the 21st century.
A multicultural environment will recognize shared cultural values but it will also embrace cultural differences and encourage the preservation and development of traditional art forms. I discovered a remarkable collection in Germany which yielded a significant number of important works of Chinese painting, calligraphy, and ink rubbings, which were sold off gradually throughout the decade. Sothebya€™s December 1984 auction of Fine Chinese Paintings included several important works dating from the 13th century to the present. France was also the source of an intriguing album of ten leaves ascribed to the great Southern Song dynasty painter Ma Yuan sold in December 1986. In Germany and Austria today there are signs of the seriousness with which geopathic stress is taken.
If you find time, this geopathic stress documentary is extremely interesting and compliments the work I have been doing over the last 12 years and 30 years my father before me with the same conclusions. Please scroll down the articles on this page for a more scientific understanding of geopathic stress. There is also an interesting piece of research at the end of the page about the credibility of Vega testing for geopathic stress. The most useful research document is below under the heading a€?Vienna Reporta€™ Read my summary and then either open up the original research document in German or the Poor English translation after the summary.
The first studies that proved a link between cancer and geopathic stress were carried out in the early 20th century in Austria and Germany but, so far geopathic stress has been largely ignored in the UK.
A A A  Long term exposure in combination with other types of energy such as Hartman lines, high electromagnetic fields or geological faults can give rise to optimistic abnormal cell growth and cancer.
Germany has long been the seat of research in to the biological effects that pathogenic locations can have on both human and plant biochemistry.
Historic roots of the investigation are built on claims that pathogenic zones exist at certain locations and that sleeping or spending long periods of time above them are linked to cancer, debilitating diseases of the central nervous system, chronic fatigue and general ill health. The research was conducted by a team of distinguished professors, doctors, engineers, scientists and dowsers. To test this hypothesis the research team used the services of three dowsers known for there expertise in locating earth energies. At present, these so called a€?Disturbed Zonesa€™ can only be indicated by dowsers, with its presence being then verified with scientific instrumentation. The Project a€?The project involved the testing of 24 different biological parameters involving 985 trial volunteers in 6,943 investigations using 462, 421 individual measurements.
Decoder Analysis of the Total Bioelectric Status a€?This investigation was significant and was carried out on a number of patients from a country medical practice.
Heart Frequency Reaction (HFR) a€?In these investigations measurements from an electrocardiogram (ECG) were used in both sitting and lying down positions. Akrale Re-warming Time a€?The temperature measurement at the finger tips revealed that after standardized cooling on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ the Rewarming time is delayed significantly. Optical Flicker Fusion Frequency a€?This test measures the psycho sensory capabilities of the person.
Coordinative Vegetative Rhythm a€?Passive rhythms such as breath and pulse frequency operate in balanced Coordinative rhythms especially when at rest. Muscle Frequency Analysis a€?Significant location variations in the distribution of the muscle action frequencies were found in areas of electric muscle potential. Calcium and Potassium a€?On a€?Disturbed Zonesa€™ potassium levels increased with a rising significance and calcium increased significantly.
Serotonin a€?Decreased by a factor of 6 on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ whilst increasing its metabolism to advance Tryptophan in compensation.
The a€?Location Effecta€™ of the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ on regulatory systems of the human organism is proved without doubt and raises the question of which substratum, subsystem or system the location dependent powers primarily attack. The test results were lined up by Biometric Significance and are valued with the Serotonin and the Blood Corpuscle Decline Speed (BSG) in lead position. Serotonin a€?Serotonin is diminished on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ and its metabolism advances the tendency for Tryptophan to be increased. The research team concluded that there was no evidence to relate a€?Location Loada€™ to a specific illness but should be rather determined as a risk factor that can reinforce the effect of different pathogenic factors.
Only rudimental evidence is available today, if such zones could be measured using accepted physical apparatus. One of the reasons why an incontrovertible physical measurement of the assumedly existing electromagnetic fields appears to be impossible at present could be that these are very variable, broad-banded and at the same time only present in very low power strengths, a€?hiddena€? in the surrounding electromagnetic noise. One can assume that there are many origins for the effects of different locations on humans, animals and plants. Low energy, broad-banded and dynamically changing EMFs, creating resonance with structures of the human organism, may well be part of the geopathy phenomenon. In addition, the dipolar nature of H2O-molecules can also be part of the origin of such fields. Piezoelectricity is the ability of certain crystals and certain ceramic materials to generate electrical and magnetic signals in response to applied mechanical stress. Inside an ideal quartz crystal, the electrical charge of the elements silicon and oxygen cancel each other out.
Another well known use of piezoelectricity is found in lighters using piezoelectric ignition: There, sudden mechanical pressure onto a synthetic quartz crystal block (containing high amounts of exactly aligned synthetic lattice crystal cells) leads to the generation of high voltage. Another aspect of the geopathy phenomenon, which appears to be largely underestimated in its importance, could be found in the presence of a€?longitudinal scalar wavesa€? (5).
The existence of longitudinal wave proportions, as also present in the near field of a dipol antenna, could already be shown experimentally by Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) (16-16). Proteins and most other bio-molecules are not at all a€?nonrigida€? structures; in order to fulfill their functions, they possess the ability to dynamically change their shapes within certain limits.
Huge amounts of very tiny magnetic crystals (magnetite crystals) have been found in the brain, and these could react very sensitively to the slightest changes in magnetic fields (20). Even though in today's popular media, pseudo-scientific and quasi-medical reports on the topic of geopathy are presented to the public, no a€?peer revieweda€? medical journal indexed in MedLine had published statistically firm and sound provable evidence of geopathic effects on humans until most recently. Our first concepts how to address the geopathy phenomenon were based on the descriptions and personal discussions with the late Otto Bergsmann (a€  2004) and Alois Stacher (medical doctors, both from Vienna, Austria) and carried out in close co-operation with Adolf Wiebecke and his team (Salzburg and Oberalm, Austria).
For detection geopathic stress, we have followed the design of a randomized, double-blinded non-clinical trial (54-44), following the ethical guidelines of the expanded Helsinki Declaration (56).
During the experiments, the complete GDV system was mounted on a trolley, in order to measure the effects of the two different zones in the laboratory room directly a€?on sitea€? without moving the test person to another place. To gain reliable data, we paid careful attention to a number of issues influencing stability, reproducibility and safety (24, 30, 37, 45): Throughout the whole study, the very same GDV system was used. As overlaying technical fields possibly influencing the results may have been present, we used sophisticated calibrated equipment to scan and record low and high frequency EMFs, potential acoustic noxae or vibrations during the whole study period, as well as a variety of additional physical parameters.
Further analyses were carried out for complementary medical parameters included in the GDV software package.
Those people who are already in the beginning stages of poor health may sense an added sensitivity for diseases of different kinds when staying longer on geopathic locations, as well as notice that healing processes may take longer than usual. As there are no reliable measuring instruments available so far, presently it makes sense to take advice from an experienced dowser. If constructional arrangements are not possible before erecting a building or before starting a reconstruction, which is supposedly the case in most instances, there are also other practical possibilities: provided that there is a will to do so, it should be possible to move beds or desk seats, in order to get them out of interference zones. Everyone can do something to prevent negative influences by sources that cause stress: anything that lowers stress in general also helps one deal with specific stress factors, and zones, from any origin. Furthermore, many studies confirm that people who are a€?living healthilya€? a€“ who manage their weight, refrain from smoking, enjoy the outdoors, participate in sports, etc., - have stronger immune systems and feel definitely less stress than their a€?unhealthy livinga€? fellow men. For those who cannot (or do not want to) adopt many of the above mentioned choices, due to illness, age, or some other reasons, things could become more difficult.
Our studies show that it does matter on which location you stay for a longer period of time. What is the relevance of our findings for hospitals, convalescent homes and rehabilitation centers? The term a€?wellnessa€?, which is composed of the ideals a€?well-beinga€? and a€?fitnessa€? as well as a€?life-stylea€? and a€?happinessa€?, to a modern point of view denotes a holistic concept of health.
In a pilot study (unpublished findings), we have found indications of more aggressive behavior by children living or working on geopathic locations.
Naturally, the negative effects of geopathic stress zones also have considerable commercial impact. The follow-up costs associated with longer a€?chronica€? stays on geopathic interference zones are probably enormous: As said before, geopathy is a matter of a€?burdened work placesa€? leading to decreased ability of the employees to concentrate and to increased probability of employees' illnesses.
So far, the present scientific evidence of effects of geopathic zones on humans has been mainly found using complementary medical methods, with the exception of the GDV a€?area-of-glowa€? parameter. At the same time, we have already started experiments above different geological zones to test such key parameters contained in saliva, using biochemical assaying well accepted by orthodox medicine: various hormones, neuropeptides and immunological relevant substances are going to be tested a€?non-invasivelya€?. The authors extend thanks for their great help in conducting the quoted research and its essential components to this manuscript. For their innovative and far-seeing pioneering work and active scientific exchange in the field of geopathy we thank Univ.-Doz. When it comes to the topic of earth radiation, water veins and earth dislocations a€“ the so-called geological disturbances a€“ the layperson will usually associate this with hocus-pocus concepts such as a€?Dowsers,a€? often a man with large whiskers and an ironic smile.
Many people do not believe the dowsera€™s tale, and associate it with occult illusion a€“ even if successes have been reported simply by moving a bed to a different area of the room. The most common reason for the prejudice of the person listening -- who generally considers himself to be moderna€?and intelligent -- is the fact that nowhere do we find soa€?many absurdities, contradictions and a€?silly thingsa€? as in this area. Ten allegedly qualified dowsers generally come to ten different conclusions in the same apartment or building. I am sickened when I am told how people play tricks with the fears and hopes of seriously ill individuals. I hope to make a contribution in this area so that we may have an objective discussion of this subject.
For years, sensitive electronic measuring devices have verified the old knowledge about earth radiations.
You can actually measure the natural radioactive radiation from the earth, all over the globe.
We are born amid these natural manifold-radiating processes and there is no doubt that they are appropriate, important, healthy, and life protecting. But there are also zones (areas) where radiation intensities are noticeably different from the norm. I might measure a level of radiation along a long-line, for example, and often the intensity will change suddenly, giving me an entirely different value.
Sometimes these higher intensity zones area€?frequent and can be detected every other yarda€?or so. It is interesting to note that gifted dowsers will show swinging of rods or pendulums exactly where you would measure these significant anomalies too. I do not like to define, prematurely, every swing of a rod by a gifted dowser or every measured peculiarity as a a€?water veina€? or a a€?dislocation.a€? I have never dug into the ground to find the object which I assumed to be in existence while I was measuring on top of the ground. It is the task of science to connect one thing with another, and to analyze these connections. My practical experience is sufficient for me to know that concentrations of terrestrial radiation can be measured, and the findings will show noticeable differences from natural points of reference in the natural environment. What do we really measure, with our sensitive electronic instruments, if the objects are earth radiation, geological disturbances, water veins and dislocations? I refer to my own personal experiences, with different measuring approaches, and do not pretend exclusiveness.
That means: when you are above geological disturbances you can measure the distortion of the terrestrial magnetic field, similarly to that of magnetic steel. Here the compass is not the appropriate device because the declinations are so small that they cannot generate any substantial swing.
This measurement approach is not appropriate for house and bedroom examinations, however, because the artificial distortions coming from steel used in construction, materials, metal fixtures, and even the bed itself, can cause a blur in the measurement or make a reading entirely impossible. I think the argument is exaggerated; that these anomalies of terrestrial magnetic fields above geological disturbances are sufficient to cause biological problems. Conclusion: Though you can measure geological peculiarities, the application a€“ in rooms a€“ is rarely reliable.
A second peculiarity, as far as earth radiation is concerned, is that air ions often change. Ion measurements are extremely difficult and ambiguous since many factors in your house mix up the air ions even more than the terrestrial radiation is capable of. This measurement is just impossible under the influence of an electrically radiating wall, or an electrostatically loaded curtain. I have discovered that a plastic bag, within a five-yard distance of the measurement, can change the environment of the air ions more radically than what could be possible from the geological subsoil. Measurements of the VHF field strength often show a drop in the measurement curve when taken above disturbances. Within buildings, however, evaluations are almost impossible as the measurements within walls are highly unreliable. One has to be very critical and attentive so as not to be taken in by too rash and incorrect conclusions. Many manuals say that locating geological disturbances by using the VHF field strength is childa€™s play. The geo-rhythmogram measures the skin resistance of a person from hand to hand with simple electrodes and a fitting ohm-meter.
When the skin resistance of a test person is normal, at 40 kilo ohm (Aschoff), the values can go up to 100, 200, or even higher when you are above zones of disturbance.
Even when all pre-conditions are fulfilled some problems remain: All stimuli towards the test person will be included into the measurement. Only with enough experience can you relate anomalies of the skin resistance to geological stimuli, and totally exclude that they are not produced from radio alarms or a spring mattress. If you can do that, then the physical measurement can be reproduced and give a reliable result. Particularly interesting is the fifth possible approach to measuring terrestrial radiation.
That means: As I measure the natural radioactive radiation with a sensitive radiometer, I will get values of 100 percent or more if the measure is above a so-called disturbance zone.
Though the natural basic radioactivity of the earth has some local differences due to climate and the earth level, the base level is generally consistent. From my experience, regular and reproducible increases in radioactivity above geological stimuli areas, in the range of up to 100 percent, are profound and are significant. If you can sleep for the next 20 years with only half the amount of radioactive disintegrations -- after a change of the bedroom position a€“ then, as a matter of caution, I see no reason to stay in the area that is doubly charged. I think it is greatly exaggerated to speak rashly of a€?cancer zonesa€? if you are referring to terrestrial radiation and other corresponding peculiarities.
According to my own personal experience, and the findings of innumerable research and test reports, the healing successes after moving the bed cannot be discounted merely as psychological reaction placebo or coincidence. During a meeting in Seattle, USA, I detected this phenomenon in a 22 floor hotel, on six different levels: in the underground garage, at the first floor near the reception, and on the roof -- always the same high values, down below and at the top, on the same premises. As you know, I have found houses in which the radioactive radiation was higher than that which could be found in playgrounds and public swimming pools near the Chernobyl accident. The reason for this is radioactive construction materials: cinders, ashes, chemical gypsum, tiles, pumice and metallurgical stones -- all sorts of possible and impossible industry waste. Additionally, certain antiques, minerals and glazes a€“ in direct range of your body a€“ can radiate so strongly that biological risks can become immense. While visiting three patients with brain tumors, I found just beside the head of one person a very old alarm clock that was radiating radioactivity; with another, a dark green glazed image of St. For measuring terrestrial radiation, I use my most expensive instruments: highly sensitive scintillation counters. My experiences with measurements of radioactivity soon led to the decision to build a measuring device especially well-suited for building, biological, and geo-biological work, and one that was constructed to my own specifications.
The very high sensitivity of the third prototype convinced me: more than 250 impulses per second in a normal radiation background, and more than 500 impulses per second on geologically disturbed surfaces.
Besides its extreme measuring preciseness, the scintillation counter has the particular advantage of being extremely sensitive to gamma rays.
With his super-sensitive measuring device (of more than 1,000 impulses per second!), he has shown that you can find water from the ground surface - guaranteed. More than 35 years of experience makes it possible for Stangle to define, with his measurements, the exact depth, the amount a€“ to the very gallon -- the mineralization, and the temperature of the localized water.
The Daimler-Benz company made five expensive unsuccessful drillings before they called Jakob Stangle with his scintillation counter. In 1972 Jakob Stangle walked through Vilsbiburg with his scintillation counter and totally confirmed the work of his sensitive predecessor by exact measurements, in two absolute blind tests.
An architect intended to buy and renovate a large villa at the Baldeney Lake in Essen, Germany.
Another time, a doctor recommended to the manager of a concert agency to have her home examined by me. She also looked into the geological maps and found the disturbance was mapped by the Krefeld agency. After these results, I bought several geological maps from North Rhine Westfalia, Germany, and checked ten plotted geological disturbances with my measuring devices. The circle of the world is set in a somewhat rectangular frame background with a pointed top, and an ornamented border of a zig-zag pattern often found in psalter-maps of the period (#223). Show pity, as you said you would, on all Who their devotion paid to me for you made me Savioress.
Olympus and such cities as Athens and Corinth; the Delphic oracle, misnamed Delos, is represented by a hideous head. James (Roxburghe Club) 1929, with representations from manuscripts in the British Library and the Bodleian Library, and a€?Marvels of the Easta€?, by R. The upper-left corner of the Hereford Map, showing north and east Asia (compare to the contents on Chart 3).
1), however, call attention to a remarkable degree of accuracy in the relationship of toponymsa€”for cities, rivers, and mountainsa€”both in EMM and in Hereford Map legends.A  On the Asia Minor littoral, for example, one passage in EMM links 39 place-names in a running series, 23 of which are found in Chart 4 (and visible, in almost exactly parallel order, on Fig.
5, above).A  Treating islands separately from the eartha€™s three a€?partsa€? follows the organizational style adopted by Isidore of Seville, Honorius Augustodunensis, and other medieval geographical authorities. Note Lincoln on its hill and Snowdon ('Snawdon'), Caernarvon and Conway in Wales, referring to the castles Edward I was building there when the map was being created. In England, a detailed study of its less obvious features, such as the sequences of its place names and some of its coastal outlines by G.
The Psilli reputedly tested the virtue of their wives by exposing their children to serpents. The cumulative effect has been to enable us at last to evaluate the map in terms of its actual (largely non-geographical and not exclusively religious) purpose, the age in which it was created and in the context of the general development of European cartography. The Old and New Testaments contained few doctrinal implications for geography, other than a bias in favor of an inhabited world consisting of three interlinked continents containing descendants of Noah's three sons.
This now-lost map was referred to in some detail by a number of classical writers and it seems to have been created under the direction of Emperor Augustus's son-in-law, Vipsanius Agrippa (63-12 BC) for official purposes. As the centuries went by, more and more was included with references to places associated with events in classical history and legend (particularly fictionalized tales about Alexander the Great) and from biblical history with brief notes on and the very occasional illustration of natural history. Note also the Roman provincial boundaries, the relative accuracy of the British coastlines (lower left) and the attention paid to the Balkans and Denmark, with which Saxon England had close contacts. Some, often oriented to the north, attempted to show the whole world in zones, with the inhabited earth occupying the zone between the equator and the frozen north. They were never intended to convey purely geographical information or to stand alone without explanatory text.
Often a 'context' for them would have been provided by the other secular as well as religious surrounding decorations. For many maps continued to be used primarily for educational, including theological, purposes. They reached their fullest development in the thirteenth century when Englishmen like Roger Bacon, John of Holywood (Sacrobosco), Robert Grosseteste and Matthew Paris were playing an inordinately large part in creative geographical thinking in Europe. In most, if not all of these maps, the strange peoples or 'Marvels of the East' are shown occupying Ethiopia on the right (southern) edge, as on the Hereford map.
Exposure to light, fire, water, and religious bigotry or indifference over the centuries has, however, led to the destruction of most of them.
Both are now lost but it seems quite likely that the so-called 'Psalter Map', produced in London in the early 1260s and now owned by the British Library, is a much reduced copy of the map that hung in Westminster Palace. Despite some broad similarities in arrangement and content, however, there are very considerable differences from the Ebstorf and the 'Westminster Palace' maps in details - like the precise location of wildlife, the portrayal of some coastlines and islands, or in the recent information incorporated. Sothebya€™s has effectively closed the department in New York, referring prospective sellers to their Hong Kong office.
The recent decision by the two leading auction houses to eliminate or significantly reduce sales in New York has prompted me to review briefly the history of Chinese paintings at auction and to reflect upon the current state of the market.
It was Autumn of 1979 and I had been approached by Paula Gasparello of the Chinese Works of Art Department to assist in the cataloging of a number of important Ming and Qing dynasty paintings from the estate of Ruth Spelman. In October our fledgling New York department produced an unprecedented sale of 145 works by living Chinese artists, which featured paintings by Zhang Daqian, Cheng Shifa, Huang Junbi, Li Keran, Wang Jiqian, Li Kuchan, Yu Chengyao, Qian Songyan, Xie Zhiliu, Xu Bangda, and others. In the West, particularly in America, academic interest in pre-modern Chinese painting was at a peak and a number of important museum exhibitions--such as a€?Eight Dynasties of Chinese Painting,a€? organized jointly by the Cleveland Museum of Art and the Nelson Gallery-Atkins Museum, Kansas City--provided increased access to an ever-more appreciative public.
This allowed for two major sales per year in each location and enabled both buyers and sellers to consolidate their efforts and focus their energies on those works that most interested them. While at Sothebya€™s I had the good fortune to bring to the market quite a few important works of Chinese painting and calligraphy, many with obscure or unexpected provenances. Because the Readera€™s Digest collection of European paintings was so well known, its appearance on the auction block was accompanied by much fanfare and anticipation, but the art world at large is unaware of the quiet role that the collection played in the development of the Chinese painting market in New York. In addition, collectors and dealers in Hong Kong, taking note of the positive results of the auctions of pre-modern Chinese paintings, began to consign works for sale in New York. One of the early successes from this consignment was the sale, on June 13, 1984, of an album of twenty-five letters by Song and Yuan dynasty calligraphers). Expertise and administrative support were shared between the two auction sites, as were salaries and expenses. Zhao Mengfua€™s 1303 a€?Record of the Repair of the Three Purities Palace at the Temple of the Mysterious and Marvelousa€? (Xuanmiaoguan chongxiu sanqingdian zhiji), a handscroll written in regular script, was consigned by a young Chinese gentleman who had acquired it in France from a French family who knew nothing of its origin or its potential historical or monetary value.
The consignor of this set of landscapes was a wealthy Parisian who was a major collector of modern European paintings and was thus well known to the Sothebya€™s Paris office.
Part of the attraction of the process is the element of surprise; one never knows what may turn up in the next sale.


I refer to the collection of Zhang Xueliang, known to students of modern Chinese history as the a€?Young Marshall.a€? Zhang is the son of the powerful Manchurian warlord Zhang Zuolin, who was assassinated in 1928.
An intermediary had brought two fine 18th century paintings into the Sothebya€™s Taipei office. I met him in person for the first time, along with Rita Wong, and for the next ten years we had many opportunities to visit with him and his wife Edith and we shared several meals with them.
In consultation with Rita Wong he made the bold decision to offer the remainder of his collection at public auction in Taipei, using his studio name Dingyuanzhai. Collectors and dealers from Taiwan were already extremely active in most facets of the market, especially porcelain, jadeite jewelry, and modern paintings. Both of these paintings, as well as most of the top lots in the sale, were purchased by Taiwanese collectors. Wu Bina€™s a€?Ten Views of a Fantastic Rocka€? is one of the most extraordinary Chinese paintings ever to appear on the auction market.
The Chinese paintings market was strong but just as the demand for paintings and calligraphy was reaching a peak, the availability of good quality paintings had greatly diminished.
To some extent, I was not happy with the way the company was being run and I was dissatisfied with the direction in which both auction houses were heading.
The sales were successful but they had the negative effect of competing with New York for both consignments and resources. Christiea€™s, in particular, has been successful because of major consignments, such as the group of important Song dynasty fan paintings from the collection of Stephen Juncunc.
In fact, the level of sophistication among Western buyers (including overseas Chinese) is such that they recognize and demand high quality examples of works by both major and minor artists of all periods. Exhibitions of works in all media by Chinese artists from mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong (once again a part of China after a century of British rule), and overseas have been mounted or are being planned throughout Asia, Europe, and the United States. Auctions of this material are now held on a regular basis in many cities throughout China as well as in New York, Hong Kong, Taipei, and Singapore.
Even before the Imperial monarchy that had ruled China for several thousand years was completely overthrown in 1911, the Chinese had begun to assess their inherited traditions and values and to question their very cultural identity. Traditional Chinese painting (guohua)2 especially as practiced after the Song dynasty, was specifically criticized for its lack of realism or naturalism, and the conscious disregard by its practitioners of the harsh realities of contemporary society in favor of a rarefied vision of an ideal Confucian society which had never existed in fact.
This colloquialization (to borrow a phrase describing a similar but more far-reaching movement in literature) of Chinese painting is epitomized by the work of the great Qi Baishi (1864-1955), whose colorful depictions of common objects from everyday life enlivened the tradition through the introduction of a colloquial vocabulary of familiar images.
Some, like Fu Baoshi (1904-1965) and the Gao brothers (founders of the Lingnan School), traveled to Japan to investigate the process by which Japanese artists were modernizing their native traditions by a selective incorporation of Western techniques and styles. History would note that, at least for the short term, Xu Beihonga€™s academic realism ultimately won out, although more for political and ideological than artistic reasons. Artists were free to work in all media, which they did in an incredible range of styles and with tremendous passion and dedication. 8 Although many questions remain and many individual stories have yet to be recounted, it is clear that one of the casualties of mainland art policy from the 1950s to the 1980s was Chinese traditional painting.
During the 1950s Mao began to make good on his promise by revamping the entire system of art education and production.
If he moves into a new culture with other orientations and basic beliefs, the two versions of reality are dissonant within him. The sources from which a field grew remain within it as a shadow skeleton, and they partly define what is real and what is true, what is sense and what is nonsensea€“in short, what is the basic shape or essence of reality. Alternate realities and multiple truths cannot be understood through their physical means alone. In periods when control over the arts was most absolute (during the many anti-rightist campaigns, for example) artists were not only told what subjects to paint but were also given stylistic directives. Obviously, Western and Chinese painting had very different roots and very different evolutions; they are the products of completely dissimilar world views and emerge from disparate cultural contexts.
The repressive policies of the PRC ensured that this type of painting, with some ideological a€?improvements,a€? became the official means of artistic expression. Just when Chinaa€™s artists were mastering a style of painting which they thought was modern, Western artists and critics were rejecting both the style and the cultural construct it represented, and at a time when Western artists such as Picasso, Paul Klee, Mark Toby, and Jackson Pollock were recognizing and embracing non-Western artistic traditions, including Chinese painting and calligraphy, the Chinese themselves were declaring some of these same traditions invalid. It is thus upon the foundation of their work that the future of guohua is likely to be built. It is true of course that guohua represents only one aspect of Chinese painting, which, in turn, is only one aspect of Chinese art as a whole. Their relationship to the the historical past of China and its traditional values depends to a great extent on where they were raised. This new generation of artists approaches the tradition with fresh eyes and renewed energy. It has been nearly one hundred years since Kang Youwei issued his challenge to a€?begin a new era by combining Chinese and Western art,a€? and now, a century later, it can be argued that not only have these lofty ideals not been fully attained, but the fundamental questions of artistic and cultural identity remain largely unanswered. It is worth noting, however, that as we enter the 21st century, the global context in which we live is vastly different than the one in which Kang Youwei, Cai Yuanpei or Xu Beihong existed. As popular culture becomes more global it also becomes more homogenized and the unique characteristics of a particular culture or ethnic group become all the more distinctive and significant. I use the terms guohua and a€?traditional Chinese paintinga€? interchangeably, to refer to work painted with traditional Chinese pigments on traditional paper or silk.
Kang Youwei, Travels in Eleven European Countries, quoted in Lawrence Wu, a€?Kang Youwei and the Westernisation of Modern Chinese Art,a€? Orientations (March 1990), pp.
Quoted in Michael Sullivan, Art and Artists of Twentieth-Century China, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1966, p. Lawrence Leshan and Henry Margenau, Einsteina€™s Space and Van Gogha€™s Sky: Physical Reality and Beyond, New York, 1982, p. If you continue to stay in these areas especially during sleep, then in the long term the stresses on our bodies will emerge as more serious conditions such as, diseases of the central nervous system, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), miscarriages, and cancer.
Not only are the public more generally aware, but their governments funds aid and continuing research in to the matter.
Geopathic Stress is only one of them and it is becoming more difficult to gauge especially when the natural energy field is constantly changed and amplified by man-made electromagnetic fields. The phenomenon has been linked to insomnia, migraine, headaches, loss of balance, short -term memory loss, joint pain, cot death, infertility, miscarriages, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME) and cancer. It has been known for a long time that when there is flowing water under a dwelling the inhabitants always feel more tired, are prone to premature aging and have a loss of vitality than those who sleep above neutral ground.
I have the original 134 page research document in German and a badly translated version in English. These pathogenic locations defined in the report as, a€?earth radiation's evoked by a discontinuity of the normal physical parameters on the surface of the earth,a€™ and shortened to a€?Disturbed Zonesa€™ are the subject of the research. Such locations have been termed in China and many European countries as either a€?curseda€™ or a€?cancera€™ houses. The functioning hypothesis of the research was that geophysical characteristics of the surface of the earth are not uniform and that location dependent influences exist that can have a detrimental effect on both human and plant biochemical systems.
They were enlisted to independently dowse eight different locations and submit reports and diagrams of the strongest a€?Disturbed Zonesa€™ found, together with a a€?Neutral Zonea€™ at the same location to enable them to carryout double blind experiments with volunteers at each selected location. Technology does not yet exist to do this the other way round; the dowser does not yet appear to be replaceable with scientific instrumentation.
However because of the high standard of the research only significant results were accepted. The stereotypical result on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ was deterioration of the electro-biological functioning in the sense of depression or blockage of bioelectric functions.
In the 15 minute time exposure on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ the results remained under the significance barrier.
An apparatus able to discriminate such low energy broadband EMFs from noise apparently is not yet available.
Both, technical and biological systems can be influenced by EMFs, whereby numerous questions are still open, such as the concerning limits and the nature of physical interference fields (5). As an extremely dielectric medium, water favors the formation of potential vortices, which immediately after their formation contract swiftly.
In nature, piezoelectrical dischargings can occur in some areas of geological a€?warpsa€? containing quartz sand particles, and may be another plausible cause of geopathic stress effects (14). When a crystal lattice cell is compressed by mechanical pressure, an imbalance is the result, manifesting itself in the development of a tiny electrical voltage (Fig.
In spite of the fact that scalar waves in the field theory of Maxwell are usually neglected and set to zero, numerous experiments can lead to the conclusion that they do really exist and influence the human organism (5). The presence of pure physical interactions and in addition also of a€?physiologic sensorsa€? located inside the body can be assumed.
Physical resonance is defined as a synchronization of two sources which vibrate with the same pulse frequency but with contrary polarity. Internal protein dynamics can potentially affect protein function through a variety of mechanisms, some of which are tautological or obvious in nature while others are subtle and remain to be fully explored and appreciated (18).
Black dots on magnetic resonance imaging pictures (MRI) of human brain tissue led researches to the idea that these could be magnetic particles. Evidence that these microscopically small magnetite particles would function for some kind of sensory perception in humans could not yet been confirmed. Previously described effects and descriptions of the pioneers (1, 3 and others) in this area unfortunately arena€™t available in the standardized, scientifically acceptable nor reproducible format required for peer-reviewed medical journals, but rather as monographs. Because of the lack of a€?directa€? physical measurement techniques for the doubtlessly existing a€zenergy fieldsa€? at least partly originating in the ground, we decided to use the human body as an indicator. Being fascinated by its highly sensitive ability to detect stress effects, and also by the fact that this method is being used world-widely for manifold applications combining a€?pure physicsa€? with complimentary evaluation of apparently high accuracy, we could reproducibly show using this method that different zones above ground do exhibit different effects on the human organism. In addition to the promising data presented in numerous publications before, including our own, we are presently in the middle of an evaluation targeting a validation of GDV mean area-of-glow as a reliable measure of certain aspects of stress. All test persons had been informed about the GDV system and related safety issues, and about the fact that they may feel a slight a€?crawlinga€? in their finger tips.
In practice, to capture one a€?static GDV imagea€?, a very stable high voltage (10 kV, 1.024 Hz, square pulses) is pulsed on and off every 10 ms for a duration of 0,5 s.
For each test person and test phase, 50 single static measurements were performed (each finger tip was measured 5 times for 0,5 s). Before use, the GDV camera (kept inside the laboratory at constant room temperature) was switched on at least 30 minutes prior to measurement, and careful calibrations were performed. In addition to the calculation of descriptive data (mean, median, standard deviation etc.), we carried out Gaussian normality tests and subsequently used the paired two-sample t-test for dependent variables to determine whether there are significant differences between the 4 experimental sub-period results. The two measurement areas in the laboratory used for the experiments turned out to be indistinguishable from the aspect of technical fields and acoustic background noise, and the field strength and loudness levels present were far below existing (safety) guidelines. Statistical significance again was enormously high (p < 0,0001) when compared to the results on those zones without the a€?Wavea€? device (24). In later stages, it my not be impossible though that chronic stress caused by geopathic locations may finally even forward the development of malignant disease.
However, according to the Munich barn-experiments (66-68) and other independent investigations, only a low percentage of the people claiming to be successful dowsers are actually capable of making reproducible and reliable conclusions. This includes methods of stress-management and relaxation techniques, such as meditation, tai chi, guided imaginative journeying, and also certain hypnotherapeutic approaches (69-73). Para-scientific reports about sleeplessness or higher rates of occurrence of different diseases have been with us for many years.
In hospitals, observant physicians and nurses sometimes know from experience that there appear to be locations of sickbeds where, remarkably, many patients have a delayed recovery, or in especially blatant cases they may not recover at all.
Wellness enhancing methods and applications aim to increase physical, psychological and spiritual well-being. Individual performance on a€?interference reduceda€? zones increases, and all sides - superintendents, managers and employees - would possibly benefit.
This can produce enormous costs for our social and health systems, and the hidden costs we can only suspect today. As preliminarily presented in this book, we have already obtained data underlining the validity of GSV as a reliable instrument for measuring stress, provided that all pre-cautions are taken into account and that well-trained and experienced persons use it. Adolf WIEBECKE (Oberalm bei Salzburg), whom we want to congratulate for his most promising invention of the a€?Wavea€? device, for the possibility of doing experimental research using his device. Seidel P, Schmidl F, Becker C, Springborn U, Biering S, Grosse V, FA¶rster T, Lorenz P, Bechstein R: Planar high-temperature superconducting dc-SQUID gradiometers for different applications. Hong R, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Weng EQ: Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on DNA of testicular cells and sperm chromatin structure in mice. Chen P, Yang YQ, Tao HH, Yang HC: Effects of electromagnetic fields of different frequencies on proliferation and DNA damage of gallbladder cancer cells. Nylund R, Leszczynski D: Mobile phone radiation causes changes in gene and protein expression in human endothelial cell lines and the response seems to be genome- and proteome-dependent. Grassi C, Da€™Ascenzo M, Torsello A, Martinotti G, Wolf F, Cittadini A, Azzena GB: Effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and their role in modulation of neuroendocrine cell proliferation and death. Hecker R: Emission elektrischer und magnetischer Signale von Gestein infolge A¤uAYerer mechanischer Belastungen. Baureus Koch CL, Sommarin M, Persson BR, Salford LG, Eberhardt JL: Interaction between weak low frequency magnetic fields and cell membranes. Mathie A, Kennard LE, Veale EL: Neuronal ion channels and their sensitivity to extremely low frequency weak electric field effects.
Dobson P, Oa€™Keefe E: Investigations into stress and its management using the gas discharge visualization technique.
Russo M, Choudhri AF, Whitworth G, Weinberg AD, Bickel W, Oz MC: Quantitative analysis of reproducible changes in high-voltage electrophotography.
Bascom R, Buyantseva L, Zhegmin Q, Dolina M, Korotkov K: Gas discharge visualization (GDV)- bioelectrography. Korotkov KG, Popechitelev EP: Method for gas discharge visualization and automation of the system of realizing it in clinical practice. Treugut H, Gorner C, Ludtke R, Schmid P, Fuss R: Reliabilitat der Energetischen Terminalpunktdiagnose (ETD) nach Mandel bei Kranken. Medvedev SN, Mala€™tseva AS, Popkova AM, Serov VV, Igonina NP, Tkacheva OI, Kozin AN: Possibilities of the use of Korean acupuncture Su Jok in the clinical practice. Kato M, Honma K, Shigemitsu T, Shiga Y: Circularly polarized 50-Hz magnetic field exposure reduces pineal gland and blood melatonin concentrations of Long-Evans rats. Burch JB, Reif JS, Yost MG: Geomagnetic disturbances are associated with reduced nocturnal excretion of a melatonin metabolite in humans. Jajte J, Zmyslony M: The role of melatonin in the molecular mechanism of weak, static and extremely low frequency (50 Hz) magnetic fields (ELF). Torpy DJ, Chrousos GP: The three-way interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and gonadal axes and the immune system. This often results in the purchase of expensive screening and de-jamming devices, for which only the unreliable producer and distributor gets any profit. We all know that the earth a€“ in fact, all of life a€“ a€?radiatesa€? as a natural process.a€?There exists a strong terrestrial magnetic field, which guarantees that the top of a compass is always drawn to the north, no matter where you are in the world. It has been known for a long time that underground watercourses and geological dislocation produce spectacular radiation intensities. Sensitive magnetometers can, however, easily make these distortions visible and can be defined as biologically effective by experts. This method is only justified when you know that artificial fields, from say a€“ magnetic steel, are not in the area.
That is hardly possible because the magnetic field of some spring mattresses equals more than a hundred water veins. The importance of these findings to the area above the disturbance is very much in dispute. The results of these unqualified statements are that credulous laymen go over their bedrooms with a 30 dollar portable radio and assume there are water veins (and other phenomena of terrestrial radiation) whenever NBC or ABC gets bad reception, or a song by Elvis is jammed by noise.
The much more exact electro- geobioscopy measures the skin resistance between one hand and acupuncture points on the other hand. You should consider however, that every response of a human being to the stimuli of his environment is a specific one, ita€™s individual, and cannot be easily transferred to others. This radioactive electromagnetic radiation is considered the most penetrating, strongest and biologically most hazardous kind of all of the known radioactive rays.
But no onea€?can deny that an avoidable risk exists undera€?long-term influence, such as sleeping every nighta€?for eight hours in the same physical position, and doing that for many years.
Regardless of the kind of radiation, no sensible scientist dares to contradict this opinion. For measuring construction material, I use proportional and Geiger-Muller-counter tubes, and xenon-large-area detectors.
The rays are converted into light flashes, boosted as electrical impulses via a photo-multiplier and then calculated and displayed by sophisticated electronics. Wust had already reported about measurements of gamma rays at a€?geopathic zones.a€? The scientists, physicists and doctors Williams, Weber, Cody, Lorenz and Bickel (the last one from California) had made similar successful experiments. He, more than anybody else, has shown that there is a relationship between subterraneous water sources and ionizing radioactive radiation.
All bells rang when the drilling machine cut the granite crack 500 yards below a€“ out of which the curative water came.
There turns out to be significant relationships between these zones and cancer patients of the town, as they were sleeping exactly above these zones.
My measurement of the radioactivity, with the scintillation counter, showed a 12-yard wide disturbance that could be detected in the whole house, outside the building, and in the nearby yard. He found there was indeed a water-bearing dislocation, which was officially plotted on two geological maps made in 1911 and in 1980.
In all cases, my scintillation counter showed, for hundreds of yards, values that were well above average. In Phrygia there is born an animal called bonnacon; it has a bulla€™s head, horsea€™s mane and curling horns, when chased it discharges dung over an extent of three acres which burns whatever it touches. India also has the largest elephants, whose teeth are supposed to be of ivory; the Indians use them in war with turrets (howdahs) set on them. The linx sees through walls and produces a black stonea€” a valuable carbuncle in its secret parts. A tiger when it sees its cub has been stolen chases the thief at full speed; the thief in full flight on a fast horse drops a mirror in the track of the tiger and so escapes unharmed. Agriophani Ethiopes eat only the flesh of panthers and lions they have a king with only one eye in his forehead.
Men with doga€™s heads in Norway; perhaps heads protected with furs made them resemble dogs. Essendones live in Scythia it is their custom to carry out the funeral of their parents with singing and collecting a company of friends to devour the actual corpses with their teeth and make a banquet mingled with the flesh of animals counting it more glorious to be consumed by them than by worms. Solinus: they occupy the source of the Ganges and live only on the scent of apples of the forest if they should perceive any smell they die instantly. Himantopodes; they creep with crawling legs rather than walk they try to proceed by sliding rather than by taking steps. The Monocoli in India are one-legged and swift when they want to be protected from the heat of the sun they are shaded by the size of their foot. Flint, a€?The Hereford Map:A  Its Author(s), Two Scenes and a Border,a€? Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser. Nevertheless, it placed a somewhat misleading emphasis on the map's geographical 'inaccuracies', its depiction of fabulous creatures and supposedly religious purpose, all clothed in what for the layman must have seemed an air of wildly esoteric learning and near-impenetrable medieval mystery. Recent research suggests this is a reference to African traders in medicinal drugs who visited ancient Rome. Today, with the map in the headlines of the popular press, it may be time to give a brief resume of what is currently known about it and to attempt to explain some of its more important features in the light of recent research. In the eyes of some (but by no means all) theologians, a fourth inhabited continent, the Antipodes, would implicitly have denied the descent of mankind from Noah, and the depiction of such a continent was deemed to be heretical by them. It was based on survey and on military itineraries and reflected the political and administrative realities of the time.
Where space allowed, reference was also made to important contemporary towns, regions, and geographical features such as freshly-opened mountain passes. Most of the maps, however, like the Hereford Mappamundi, depicted only that part of the world that was known in classical times to be inhabited and they were oriented with east at the top. Traces of the maps' classical origins could regularly be seen in, for instance, the continued depiction of the provincial boundaries of the Roman Empire (which are partly visible on the Hereford map) and for many centuries by the island of Delos which had been sacred to the early Greeks being the centre of the inhabited world.
They and the texts that they adorned continued to be copied by hand until late in the 15th century and are to be found in early printed books.
God dominates the world and the 'Marvels of the East' occupy the lower right edge of the map, as they do on the Hereford map.
Together they would have provided a propaganda backdrop for the public appearances of the ruler, ruling body, noble or cleric who had commissioned them, and some may have been able to stand alone as visual histories. The Hereford map, as an inscription at the lower left corner tells us, was certainly intended for use as a visual encyclopedia, to be 'heard, read and seen' by onlookers.
Because of the maps' size, they were able to include far more information and illustration than their predecessors. More space was also found for current political references and information derived from contemporary military, religious and commercial itineraries.
Today, the earliest survivor, dating from the beginning of the thirteenth century, is a badly damaged example now in Vercelli Cathedral, probably having been brought to Italy in about 1219 by a papal legate returning from England. We know from Matthew Paris that the Westminster map was copied by others, and it is likely to have had a lasting influence even though the original was destroyed in 1265. A Latin legend in the bottom right corner of the Hereford map refers to the 5th century Christian propagandist Orosius as the main source for the map, but as we have already seen, it incorporates information from numerous ancient and thirteenth century sources and adds its own interpretations of them. The map is an outstanding example of a map type that had evolved over the preceding eight centuries.
Christiea€™s plans to include a small selection of paintings within their auction of Chinese Works of Art in New York, followed by a larger specialized sale of Chinese Paintings in April in Hong Kong.
The results of this auction provided compelling evidence that high quality Chinese paintings, rigorously catalogued, could be sold successfully at auction and demonstrated that there was sufficient institutional and private interest in the United States to warrant serious attention on the part of the auction houses.
Many of these artists were unfamiliar to western collectors and few had ever been previously offered at auction. Wong as a specialist in Chinese painting and a mutually beneficial rivalry developed between the two houses.
In the Asia--especially Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore--economic prosperity, political stability, and increased education created an environment conducive to collecting art. In cooperation with their regional offices and representatives throughout the United States and abroad, the auction houses took advantage of their broad networks of contacts to locate potential sellers and to attract potential buyers. In June of 1982, when the Chinese painting department was struggling to gain credibility and recognition, Sotheby Parke Bernet offered for sale an extremely important painting by the most significant living Chinese painter of the time, Zhang Daqian.
By 1984 the increased supply of good works, coupled with evidence of a modest but increasing demand internationally, justified semi-annual specialized sales of Chinese paintings and calligraphy accompanied by the publication of separate catalogues. Included among the leaves were examples of writing by the Song dynasty writers Liu Wuyan, Wang Sheng, Wu Ju, and Fan Chengda, and the Yuan dynasty calligraphers Zhao Mengfu, Xianyu Shu , Qiu Yuan, Zhang Yu, and Ni Zan. Signed Hengshan Wen Bi, and inscribed with a date corresponding to October 30, 1499, this short handscroll was accompanied by a most impressive series of colophons written by many of the luminaries of late 15th-early 16th century Suzhou, including Shen Zhou, Wu Kuan, Zhu Yunming, Wang Chong, Chen Shun, Peng Nian, Wang Guxiang , Wen Peng and others.
The system required cooperation and coordination and it succeeded because the individuals involved were firmly committed to the success of the enterprise.
The new owner knew little more, except that it bore the signature of the famous Yuan dynasty literatus and he purchased it on the chance that it might be genuine. She could not remember where or when she had acquired the album but since it did not fit in with the rest of her collection she decided to sell it. Buyers are always looking to acquire a€?fresh goodsa€? that have not appeared on the market before. After his fathera€™s death, Zhang Xueliang took control over much of northeastern China and was a major player in the subsequent period of warfare, politics, and intrique which shaped the face of modern China.
Prior to this occasion I had seen very few good Chinese paintings in private hands in Taiwan. He was always excited to talk about Chinese art, collecting, and his longtime friendship with Zhang Daqian, who had died in 1983. Although I had already resigned my position at Sothebya€™s, at Zhanga€™s request I assisted in the cataloging of the sale. During the late eighties and early nineties they became increasingly prominent bidders in New York sales of pre-modern paintings. Measuring more than thirty feet in length, the painting consists of ten sections, each depicting a specific view of a scholara€™s rock, as viewed from different angles. We had developed an international interest in an art form that had previously seemed to many to be unapproachable and unsaleable. Many of the new buyers--I hesitate to call them collectors--seemed to be in a hurry to buy a€?masterpieces,a€? major paintings by major artists. The nature of the auction house and its role in the art market had changed over the years; it had become much more of a retail outlet and had lost much of its exclusivity. The establishment of regular auction sales of Chinese painting and calligraphy in Beijing, Shanghai, and elsewhere within mainland China, as well as in Taiwan, has further diluted the supply of quality works available to the New York-based auctions.
The Chang Family Han Lu Studio Collection, sold by Christiea€™s New York in September 1996, featured a rare group of letters by Song dynasty writers in addition to several fine paintings and calligraphic rubbings.
If the market rejects poor works of questionable attribution, that, in fact, is a positive indication for the field of Chinese paintings as a whole.
In New York, the Metropolitan Museum of Art has recently opened their renovated Chinese Galleries and, for the first time, thanks to a generous gift from Robert H. Specialized galleries have been established all over the world and several dealers in ancient Chinese art (including Kaikodo) have begun to feature contemporary paintings as well. The type of guohua practiced by the literati (wenrenhua) was severely attacked by many critics, among the most vocal of whom was the reformer Kang Youwei (1858-1927), who accused: a€?Four or five hundred years ago Chinese painting was the best. However, Qi did not sacrifice such traditional aesthetic values as excellence in brushwork, simplicity of form, and directness of expression; on the contrary, his work may be seen as advancing the art form in each of these aspects. Some of the most famous, including Xu Beihong (1895-1953), Liu Haisu (1896-1994), and Lin Fengmian (1900-1991), went to Europe to experience Western culture at first hand and to learn what they could about European art. Liu Haisu, renowned for being the first in China to employ nude models for life drawing in his art school, was enamored of the Impressionists and post-Impressionists. Realistic oil painting, primarily figural themes, gradually incorporating more and more elements of the Soviet Socialist Realist style, became the new orthodoxy in China.
Even after he is a firmly functioning member of the new culture, the orientations of his beginnings still influence him. When the field develops so that new data contradict these old beliefs, a basic conflict develops in the field of knowledge. Art, parapsychology, ethics, and consciousness all play a part in comprehending these new realities.
Only a chameleon-like illustrator could successfully create in such an environment, so it is not surprising that much of the propaganda art of the period, in style as well as function, is closer to advertising in the West than it is to fine art.
That the two worlds should come together in this age of instantaneous global communication should not surprise us, but one of the most curious, even ironic aspects of this cross-cultural exchange is the way in which contemporary Chinese and Western artists and audiences tend to view the othera€™s culture.
No attempt was made to keep up with new developments in Western science and art; in fact, these were suppressed just as strenuously as traditional painting was being repressed. While many European and American artists explored alternate views of reality, through investigations into Eastern spirituality and art, (assisted, in some cases, by mind-altering drugs), the mainland Chinese artists found themselves mired in Marxist dogma and bound to a tradition of painting that was trapped in a reality-warp. Artists working in mainland China today are, at least for the time being, more free to express themselves than they have been for many decades.
Perhaps they have not all attained the same level of technical prowess that painters of Imperial China would have developed through years of copying calligraphy and old master paintings, but neither are they burdened with the unenviable task of upholding Chinaa€™s artistic legacy and maintaining her outmoded cultural values. Western domination of technology and the world economy is a remnant of her colonial past, and economists, politicians, and businessman now increasingly look eastward for expanding economies and emerging markets. Cross-cultural artistic exchanges will be so commonplace and will occur so quickly, and stylistic influences will be so vast and complex that regional or even national characteristics will be difficult, if not impossible, to discern.
As cultures co-mingle rather than collide the purity of each artistic tradition is free to be rediscovered.
Andrews, Painters and Politics in the Peoplea€™s Republic of China, 1949-1979, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1994, p. Laing, The Winking Owl: Art in the Peoplea€™s Republic of China, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1988. While we are asleep our body should be resting so it can repair body cells, fight infections and absorb nutrients from food.
In some schools children are moved at frequent intervals to avoid possible harmful effects.
If geopathic stress is suspected, it makes sense to move away from the source or to think about dealing with the threat.
Women are more likely to be at risk from geopathic stress because their hormonal systems are more susceptible.
While water running beneath a domestic dwelling should be avoided, a stream situated nearby and open to the sky will favourably discharge its negative energies harmlessly into the atmosphere.
The aim of the report is to establish whether these a€?Disturbed Sitesa€™ can produce statistically significant results to support the high degree of topicality the phenomenon is having in both main stream and alternative medical practices. A number of these were rejected when illnesses (circulation interference and infections) were discovered. Three silver electrodes were used placed on the forehead, palms and soles; a microprocessor based unit automatically produced the results. All measured parameters gave reference to location dependence with the integral rake size for Systolic ventricle work showing significantly different behaviour.
It was thought however, that if the experiment allowed further time exposure the investigation may have achieved a significant result. The Biometric analysis showed that on the a€?Indifferent Zonea€™ the pulse-breath quotient remained in balance but was significantly affected on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™.
One of the main functions of Serotonin is to act as a neurotransmitter in the parasympathetic system which controls energy provision.
Gernot PAUSER: University Clinic for Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and General Intensive Care, Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, University Clinics of the Paracelsus Private Medical University, Salzburg Federal Clinics (SALK), Salzburg, Austria. A recent technological innovation can now aid us in this quest, allowing a sophisticated physical measurability of deviations of the earth's magnetic field: the SQUIDa€“technology. In addition to the discussed weak, broadband transversal electromagnetic and magnetic fields assumed to be originated in the ground, other forms of a€?energiesa€? might exist, such as the often controversially discussed longitudinal scalar waves (5). There is growing experimental evidence that EMFs - at least those of technical origin a€“ can have significant effects on cells and the entire organism. If you turn a water molecule with its electric charge distribution, then from the moving charge a magnetic field results.
The effect was already discovered in 1824 by David Brewster and then experimentally elaborated by Pierre and Jacques Curie in 1880. According to Professor Konstantin Meyl (Furtwangen University, Germany), to a measurement technician scalar waves experimentally manifest as (antenna-)noise, a mixture of frequencies and wavelengths.
However, an extensive discussion of the origin and effects of radioactivity from the ground would go far beyond the scope of this manuscript. In the case of resonance, information is being exchanged, energies are transmitted and, in fact, a component of balance between the sources is being formed (from personal communication, A.
Certain processes of proteins as parts of their 3-D conformation have the ability to oscillate or rotate.
From post mortem brains, magnetite crystals of a size of 50 nm could be isolated, and their magnetic field could be measured. However, speculations are that the presence of magnetite crystals in brain might be understood as proof of a a€?submerged magnetic sensora€?, similar to that of carrier pigeons or whales, theoretically easing human orientation and direction a€“ thus a kind of a€?relict of evolutiona€?.
Nevertheless, this doesna€™t lower their importance and relevance: Those pioneers in research on the geopathy phenomenon neither had the scientific-medical verifiability methods that are available today, nor was the time mature for such publications in the kind of medical journals we know today. In our first approaches, we utilized methods from complementary medicine (bio-resonance, kinesiology, heart-rate variability, etc.). Petersburg, Russia), as used in that work, delivers a number of sensitive and reproducible parameters (25-46).
Although not yet completed, our tests appear to show that this is indeed the case: Parallel measurements of the diurnal time courses of GDV mean area of glow and of biochemical parameters collected from saliva (50-53) indicate that the diurnal curve progressions of GDV image areas and the levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) go parallel, whilst another accepted parameter of stress, saliva alpha-amylase, progresses just the opposite to IgA and GDV. Fifty-two voluntary test persons were measured at two locations, one of which has been identified by a group of six distinguished dowsers as being a a€?geopathic zonea€? and the other a a€?neutral zonea€?. The electric field produces a visible gas discharge glow around the fingertip (Kirlian image), and such corona discharges have been recorded from each of the 10 fingertips of the test person repeatedly.
In addition, we have recorded dynamic GDV images from both ring fingers, repeated 3 times during each test period.
Each test person was asked to thoroughly wash their hands using a pH neutral laboratory soap (without re-fattening properties), followed by wiping the fingertips with alcohol.
From the results of our studies it can be concluded that geopathic zones do cause stress in nearly all of the persons tested. Such zones might cause distress (a€?malignant stressa€?) even when present for a short time, but there are also reports that (not scientifically proven) energetically stimulating zones (a€?positive energy zonesa€?) might exist, often also referred to as a€?power placesa€?. During the planning stage in construction of new buildings, the geopathy phenomenon should be taken into account, so as to consciously design and construct buildings and rooms in a manner that, in areas where people will stay for longer periods of time, geopathic exposure should be as low as possible. Therefore it makes sense to consult with a competent building environment engineer who has experience, skill and expertise in these matters. Interestingly, these positive lifestyle choices may also show up indirectly and in the subconscious: even technically derived EMFs seem to have much less of a negative effect with people who prefer such an a€?awarea€? way of life.
It is clear that the accumulation of different factors stress can have strong effects on humans, animals and even plants. One of the tests, taken in a care center for children displaying behavioral problems, additionally showed, among other changes, that the incidence of bedwetting [nocturnal enuresis] definitely decreased when the a€?Wavea€? was present, and that the learning ability and the quality of sleep changed for the better (unpublished findings).
A serious athlete who doesna€™t sleep well before a competition is far from being as able-bodied as someone who has had a€?a good night's resta€?. When individuals feel better, they will perform better, and be healthier and happier at work too a€“ facts that would also have economic consequences. Parameters measured in saliva in parallel to GDV, such as IgA, alpha-amylase and cortisol, appear to change in level in direct relationship to the GDV mean area of glow.
From an extended vortex and field theory to a technical, biological and historical use of longitudinal waves.
Their findings usually provide shockingly different interpretations of the biological effects of natural conditions. Once I move past this zone, the striking radiation intensity can decrease, giving me a a€?normala€™ value again. In all three cases, the radioactivity coming from these items were several times higher than the law allows for workers in nuclear power plants a€“ and for a short period of time only. Some of the well- known mineral waters exist only because he found their origin deep in the earth.
They found water, which had the prophesied 17 degree hardness, and which flowed abundantly. From its literal meaning in Greek it also signifies the plant ox-tongue, so called from its shape and roughness of its leaves. Conventionally holds a mirror in one hand, combing lovely hair with the other According to myth created by Ea, Babylonian water god. The large city at the top edge is Babylon (its description is the map's longest legend [A§181). 12-30.A  The conservator Christopher Clarkson drew my attention to the gouge in the Mapa€™s former frame. Talbert (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), which I employ throughout my book, but with the caution that in dealing with the manuscript culture of medieval Europe, it is misleading and anachronistic to speak of a€?standarda€? or a€?correcta€? spellings, especially of geographical words. Casual visitors to the dark aisle where it hung could see only a dark, dirty image which they were encouraged to view in a pious, but also rather condescending manner. Crone of the Royal Geographical Society, revealed that despite the antiquity of many of the map's sources much was almost contemporary with the map's creation and was secular. Much of the text that follows is an amplification of information panels and leaflets prepared for the British Library's current display of the map.
Most medieval mapmakers seem to have accepted this constraint, but world maps showing four continents are not uncommon: notably the world maps created by Beatus of Liebana (#207) in the late 8th century to illustrate his Commentary on the Apocalypse of St. It may have incorporated information from an earlier survey commissioned by Julius Caesar and, to judge from some early references, it may originally have shown four continents.


These texts owed much to classical writers, particularly Pliny the Elder (23-79), who himself derived much of his information from still earlier writers such as the fifth century BC Greek historian Herodotus. As befitted the encyclopedic texts that they illustrated, the maps became visual encyclopedias of human and divine knowledge and not mere geographical maps. Many were purely schematic and symbolic, showing a T, representing the Mediterranean, the Don and the Nile, surrounded by an 0, for the great ocean encircling the world, sometimes with a fourth continent being added. It was only from about 1120 that Jerusalem took Oclos' place as the focal point of the map, as it does on the Hereford Mappamundi. They retained and expanded the geographical and historical elements of the older maps - coastlines, layout and place names on the maps frequently reveal their ancestry - but to them they added several novel features.
Inscriptions of varying lengths amplified the pictures and sometimes contained references to their sources.
Much better preserved, until its destruction in 1943, was the famous Ebstorf world map of about 1235. It is difficult to account otherwise for the striking similarities in detailed arrangement and content between the Psalter world map, the recently discovered 'Duchy of Cornwall' fragment (probably commissioned in about 1285 by a cousin of Edward I for his foundation, Ashridge College in Hertfordshire) and the Aslake world map fragments of about 1360. In many of its details it particularly resembles the Anglo-Saxon World Map of about 1000 and the twelfth century Henry of Mainz world map in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. Gasparello, who introduced me a few of her colleagues, including James Lally and Carol Conover.
Chinese Painting began to solidify its position in the art market, and was listed as a separate expert department at Sotheby Parke Bernet beginning in 1979 (although internally Chinese Paintings was under the jurisdiction of the Chinese Works of Art Department).
Although neither sale was a financial triumpha€“the entire New York auction grossed just over $100,000a€“they paved the way for specialized sales of modern and contemporary Chinese paintings in both Hong Kong and New York and established the precedent for holding regular auctions in both locations.
For the next decade auction became one of the primary sources of Chinese painting and calligraphy for private collectors, dealers, and institutions. Twentieth century painting, in particular, satisfied a demand on the part of new collectors for art that was both Chinese and modern. The success of Sothebya€™s Chinese Painting Department was linked, to a great extent, to the overwhelming dominance of our worldwide Chinese Works of Art Department led by James Lally in New York and Julian Thompson in London. The monumental six-panel work a€?Giant Lotusa€? had been purchased by Readera€™s Digest in 1963 from an exhibition of the artista€™s work held at Hirschl and Adler Gallery in New York. The album was of great importance, for both artistic and historical reasons, but since no work of this type had ever been offered at auction before, the presale estimate was a conservative $30,000-50,000. The inclusion of the painting in the Imperial Collection of the Qianlong and Jiaqing Emperors, attested to by the six Imperial seals affixed to the painting and its appearance in the catalogue Shiqu baoji sanbian, added luster to its provenance. I had the good fortune to work directly with many capable and dedicated individuals, including Tammy Mui and Maria Chu in Hong Kong, and Angela Hsu and Laura Whitman in New York, all of whom began as administrators and became specialists in their own right.
Based on the collectorsa€™ seals and colophons, the scroll displayed a magnificent provenance. There was much presale discussion among scholars as to the authenticity of the paintings, four of which bear the signature of Ma Yuan. Sellers, on the other hand, appreciate the ability to dispose of works in a discreet manner. He is most renowned (or notorious, depending on your point of view) for his participation in the Xia€™an Incident of 1936 whereby he captured Guomindang leader Chiang Kai-shek and forced him to negotiate with the Chinese Communist Party to create a united front to fight the Japanese.
Although there were no collectorsa€™ seals on the paintings, my experience told me that such high quality works, beautifully mounted, must be from a serious collection. The auction of Fine Chinese Paintings from the Dingyuanzhai Collection was held in Taipei on Sunday, April 10, 1994.
The ten images of the rock are interspersed with elaborate written descriptions composed and transcribed by the scholar-official Mi Wanzhong. Even as I revelled in a genuine sense of accomplishment, I was wary of the future of the department. They were generally more interested in the artista€™s name than in the quality of the work. Both Sothebya€™s and Christiea€™s had undergone a gradual but undeniable shift in emphasis from expertise to marketing.
During the nineties, the New York auction rooms have been increasingly dominated by international dealers, such as Paul Moss, Harold Wong, and Kaikodo, representing themselves, institutions, and private clients all over the world. To blame every poor sales result on a€?the marketa€? shifts attention away from the real issues, which are the quality and quantity of the offerings.
Ellsworth, Chinese paintings from the 19th and 20th centuries are prominently displayed alongside masterpieces from earlier periods.
They all progress along with the progress of science.a€?4 This emphasis on progress and the sincere belief that Western art (as the Chinese perceived it) was inherently more scientific and modern (and therefore more desirable) presented a serious challenge to advocates of literati painting and nearly signaled the end of the guohua tradition altogether. The degree of Qi Baishia€™s success is indicated most clearly by the fact that his style forms the basis of much of the guohua produced during the past fifty years. There is great difficulty and struggle in recognizing, organizing, and solving the new problems presented by the conflict of the new data and the old beliefs and basic orientations. While much of the booka€“which deals primarily with scientific theorya€“is likely to be incomprehensible to most specialists of art, its observations are relevant here for at least two important insights. Not since the 1920s and 1930s, have young Chinese artists been able to explore such a broad range of stylistic and theoretical options and goals.
Guohua need no longer be seen as the only medium capable of expressing the cultural identity of China because it is now clearer than ever before that there is no single identity and no single tradition that represents all Chinese. Many aspects of popular culture have become globalized and most large companies have internationalized. Artists from all over the world will be able to express their individual perceptions of new global realities in a truly international, multicultural forum. Traditional Chinese painting can coexist with works in other media, as they exist today or as they will appear in the future, and it need not replace nor be replaced by any other art form. Compare my naive and overly optimistic study Painting in the Peoplea€™s Republic of China: the Politics of Style, Boulder, 1980.
However, if we sleep in an area affected by geopathic stress, our body has to use all its energy just to keep its vital organs going.
Reports from other countries such as Switzerland, France, the Netherlands, Belgium and Scandinavia indicate that they too have been taking notice. Geopathic stress - or harmful earth rays - is natural radiation that rises up through the earth and is distorted by weak electromagnetic fields created by underground streams, certain mineral concentrations and fault lines. Foresight, the pre-conception care organisation, even suggests that couples trying for a baby should get their homes checked for geopathic stress and ensure that electrical equipment is not located under their beds as this can cause electromagnetic stress and deplete the immune system.a€?For many of us who fall sick and seek the help of a doctor a few minutes is spent discussing symptoms and lifestyle quickly followed by the doctor scribbling on a proscription pad. In order to rule out possible influences of man made electromagnetic or microwave disturbances at each location an independent report from an electromechanical engineer was requested for each chosen site. Other participants were also used from the Outpatients Department for Physical Therapy in the Rehabilitation Centre, Grobming and from the Surgery of Dr. This deterioration of the HFR was thought to be due to a€?Location loada€™ from the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™. Hacker: Head, IGGMB - Research Institute for Frontier Questions of Medicine and Biotechnology, Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, University Clinics of the Paracelsus Private Medical University, Salzburg Federal Clinics (SALK), Salzburg, Austria. In recent years, the expressions a€?geopathic stressa€? and a€?geopathic interference zonesa€? have been accepted internationally to describe the phenomenon. At present, for most aspects contained herein, only hypotheses can be formed - and there are many of them. With Super-Conducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID), it is possible to quantify variations of one ten billionth [American English] of the earth's magnetic field. Certain ions and metals moved by water can a€“ depending on concentration, composition and flow rate a€“ can indeed lead to geoelectricity. If thus in a pipe a hydrodynamic flow vortex is produced, an electric and a magnetic vortex, the potential vortex and the eddy current, are the result (5).
Although also present in tourmaline, topaz, cane sugar and Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate tetrahydrate), the effect became particularly known for quartz. Vice versa, quartz can be triggered to oscillate by applying a voltage to it (a€?quartz oscillator crystala€?; in use for example in crystal controlled clocks).
In the case of plasma waves, they are charged particles, and in the case of sound waves, they are air particles.
Inside our body, there are the a€?intrinsica€? (internal) structures and molecules of the organism, which are either a€?resonatinga€? because of their physical nature (as with stringed instruments: compare the vibration of the string alone versus string with resonator sound box), or create a certain frequency themselves.
Such only a few nanometers sized processes have been discussed as possible sites of resonance induced by external EMFs, acting as a€?protein-antennasa€? (19). The research was done in a special laboratory room that was completely shielded from the natural magnetic field of the earth by tons of steel. But, if it would really be a relict, those particles would not exist in such a high quantity anymore.
Nonetheless, what these people achieved, and their courage, as well as of the publishers who rightly published their works, deserve high credits. Although successful in some areas addressed, the effects found had not the high statistical significance required, and the methodology used was not a generally accepted one, guaranteeing medical relevance and reproducibility.
For us, the mean a€?area-of-glowa€? was the best possible means for sensitively indicate stress.
In other words, a higher GDV mean area of glow value corresponds to a higher IgA level (to be understood as an sign for lower stress or relaxation), and a lower GDV mean area of glow value can be understood as an indication for higher levels of alpha-amylase, i.e. In the specific setup for the static GDV images used in our study, the overall GDV image area values calculated are to be understood as mean values of 50 single finger GDV images in total, per test period.
A number of further statistical analyses were performed, also including distribution-independent tests. Such areas have been dowsed within some churches and other buildings constructed centuries or often thousands of years ago.
Mental components are just as important: the more someone lives consciously, and even optimistically, in a state of positive thought, the less external stress factors can influence the person somatically.
Possibilities to minimize the effects of geopathy on our organism in general have already been discussed above. Thus, for this practical reason it may be worth considering installing a device that has a balancing effect here. The results of our research are of great relevance for a€?wellness-centersa€? too: sustainable success in relaxation and stress management methods is essentially dependent upon the particular location of sleeping and of therapy beds. The number of staff on sick leave will probably decrease in the long run, when all employees work at geopathically (and otherwise also) more balanced work places. Soon, we shall have completed those experiments testing a number of test persons sufficiently high for good-practice statistical examination.
Petersburg Division of the Russian Ministry of Culture, State Editing and Publishing Unit a€?Kulturaa€™, Petersburg, pp 58a€“83 (1999). After hundreds of tests, I can say: With special ion meters (electronic instruments that measure the number of small ions in the air) you can detect increased measurement values above the area of a disturbance a€“ particularly in the range of positive air ions. My electro-geobioscopic measurements use test devices that are well tested in medicine: Aschoff, MORA, and Vega. Crone points out that this reference has special significance because Augustus had also entrusted his son-in-law, M.
Sometimes identified with Sirens, the mythical enchantresses along coasts of the Mediterranean, who lured sailors to destruction by their singing.
Amazon means a€?without a breast,a€? according to tradition these women removed the right breast to use the bow.
At the right edge, a looping line shows the route of the wandering Israelites in their Exodus from Egypt; it crosses the Jordan to the left of a naked woman who looks over her shoulder at the sinking cities of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Dead Sea (she is Lot's wife, turned into a pillar of salt [A§254]. 400), a text that was often attended during the Middle Ages by diagrammatic a€?mapsa€? illustrating the concept.A  See also David Woodward. Others delved into the question of its authorship, which had previously been assumed to be obvious from the wording on the map itself.
The medievalized depiction on the bottom left corner of the Hereford world map of 'Caesar Augustus' commissioning a survey of the world from three surveyors representing the three corners of the world may be based on a muddled - and religiously acceptable - memory of these classical events. Even though the inscriptions on the maps gradually became more and more garbled and the information more and more embellished, distorted, and misunderstood, they nevertheless retained their tenuous links with ancient learning. More than simple geographical shorthand, such maps were also meant to symbolize the crucifixion, the descent of man from Noah's three sons and the ultimate triumph of Christianity. Palestine itself was usually enlarged far beyond what, on a modern map, would have been its actual proportions.
A note on one of the most famous of them, the Ebstorf, says that it could be used for route planning. Although the maps were still dominated by biblical and classical history and legend, most other information seems to have been acceptable and was accommodated within the traditional framework. Far larger than the Hereford Word Map and much more colorful, it was probably created under the guidance of the itinerant English lawyer, teacher and diplomat, Gervase of Tilbury.
In transmission some facts and text became garbled and some inscriptions are gobbled gook or wrong. The following year I joined Paula Gasparello as a full time specialist in Chinese painting and we began to hold regular auctions of Chinese paintings and calligraphy. Although the art market as a whole was not particularly strong in the early 1980s the Chinese department, fueled in part by a burgeoning Hong Kong economy, held its own.
Sothebya€™s early entry into the market in Asia, particularly Hong Kong, gave us a distinct advantage in cultivating new buyers and sourcing potential consignors of paintings as well as ceramics and works of art.
The curators of the Readera€™s Digest collection had no knowledge or interest in Chinese art, even contemporary Chinese art, and they decided to sell the work at auction. After intense competition, primarily among overseas Chinese collectors, the album sold for $297,000, nearly ten times the presale estimate and easily a world auction record for Chinese calligraphy at the time.
The scroll had been consigned by a young Hong Kong collector and it was finally hammered down for $187,000 to a new North American collector bidding against stiff international competition. Additionally I received tremendous support from my colleagues in the international Chinese Works of Art Department and in Sothebya€™s regional offices, especially Rita Wong, Suzanne Tory, Meeseen Loong, Tony Omura, Timothy Sammons, Jonathan Bennett, David Priestley, and Patti Lam, all of whom were helpful in finding consignments as well as in assisting collectors and cultivating new buyers. Opinions ranged from a€?genuinea€? to a€?Southern Song, but not Ma Yuan,a€? to a€?Ming Academy work,a€? to a€?17th century copy,a€? but in the end the album was sold for $319,000 to a Chinese-American collector who believes it to be a genuine work of the Song master. In the case of famous works or well-established collections, however, the auction houses can also capitalize on the cachet and reputation associated with the individual work or collection. Chiang did give lip-service to the united front effort and flew back with Zhang to Nanjing where Chiang was given a heroa€™s welcome. The presale exhibition was extremely well attended and the salesroom was packed with serious collectors of Chinese art as well as dozens of unfamiliar faces and first-time buyers who were not really art collectors but were aware of the identity of the owner and hoped to come away with a piece of history.
Following the painting are lengthy colophons by Ming and Qing dynasty writers, including Dong Qichang. I found it increasingly difficult to procure enough authentic paintings and calligraphy to satisfy their needs.
But to dwell on these philosophical differences would present a negative picture of what I saw as a very positive decision and a logical career progression. Taiwan buyers are not as active as they once were but they are beginning to be replaced by a new generation of collectors in mainland China. Selectivity is the key to survival, for auction houses and dealers alike, because selectivity is the key to collecting.
Not only were Chinese artists and intellectuals largely cut off from their own past, they were also isolated from artistic and scientific developments in the rest of the world. In the struggle confusions arise, and there is a loss of communication among many of the students of the field of knowledge. 1936), and others, who discovered and pursued the underlying intellectual and spiritual connections between traditional Chinese painting and 20th century Western art, particularly abstract, non-objective painting. An accurate assessment of the visual arts in todaya€™s China would require investigation into an unprecedented variety of media including oil painting, acrylics, watercolor, gouache, sculpture, woodblock prints, ceramics, textiles, film, graphic design, and installation art in addition to the traditional forms of Chinese painting and calligraphy. Hong Kong and overseas Chinese have had to grapple with complex questions of identity on a daily basis.
It is equally clear, however, that, in spite of all attempts to suppress it, traditional Chinese painting is both resilient and relevant.
Young people the world over listen to the same music, eat the same hamburgers, and wear the same sneakers.
Guohua will survive because of its unique and timeless artistic qualities: expressiveness of line, simplicity of form, and purity of spirit. As a result our immune system becomes weakened, which means it has difficulty in absorbing nutrients or fighting off infections as efficiently as it should. Claims and counter claims abound regarding devises to achieve this, leaving the public in total confusion. The wave lengths of the disturbed natural radiation can seriously affect our health, causing cancer, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME) infertility and miscarriage.
It may surprise you therefore, that in many European countries, Germany and Austria in particular, one ofA  the first questions the doctor may ask is about theA  location of your bed and how long have you been sleeping there. Most explanations tried concentrate on the existence of natural electromagnetic fields (EMFs) present at particular locations, a€?interferinga€? with the organisms. Overlapping, or a a€?build upa€? of resonance effects are also part of the geopathic phenomenon. With a proportion of 12 % of the upper eartha€™s crust, quartz is the most frequent mineral after feldspar.
In the case of resonance, both sources attract each other, which can be explained and calculated by the occurrence of field changes during that process (5).
When experimentally irradiated by EMFs of frequencies in between about 1-2 GHz, they displayed a changing of conformation, respectively changing in their manner of oscillation, even when only very low field strengths had been applied (19). Magnetic particles in the brain could turn out to be one of the reasons why dowsing can work. Furthermore, one can acquire a€?corona diagramsa€? in the manner of complementary medicine from the individual allocation of the a€?coronaa€? gas discharge from the different fingertips, following the principles of the energya€“meridian theory and of acupuncture.
The exact test design, as well as the way how dowsers independently labeled the different zones in the laboratory test room, have been described in detail (24).
The glass plate surface of the GDV camera was cleaned using alcohol frequently, and it was taken care that none of the test persons had wet hands.
The corona diagrams directed into a weakening of the energies of the immune system and the pineal organ (which might be understood as an indication of possible changes of the melatonin production) (compare to: 57-60), the cardiovascular and the urinary system in many of the test persons. The a€?Wavea€? device investigated in our study could therefore, by its balancing effect, not only aid in lowering of stress, but also be understood as a tool for disease prevention. Concerning the a€?Wavea€? device especially interesting is the fact, that it substantially reduces stress in people on a€?neutral zonesa€? too, a finding which indicates that there is no real a€?neutral zonea€? existing. In the following, we will briefly show what addressing geopathy do affect health care facilities, public places, and economy.
By inference, if these results are applied to public facilities in general, the a€?Wavea€? could probably have a number of desirable effects in schools, offices, banks, supermarkets, etc. Contrarily, at a€?highly burdeneda€? workplaces, performance will decrease, discontentment grows, and the vulnerability to diseases and the resulting rise of employees' illnesses will be greater. Ursula DEMARMELS-HACKER, for her love and support, and for abandoning many evenings and weekends of togetherness to find time for investigation and creation of this manuscript. The circle one-third of the way from the bottom is Jerusalem, the Map's central point, with a crucifixion scene above it ([A§387-89]). Its images and decoration have been examined from a stylistic standpoint by Nigel Morgan and put into the context of their time, while the late Wilma George examined the animals in the light of her own zoological knowledge [2] The chance discoveries of fragments of other English medieval world maps in recent years [3] have expanded the context within which the Hereford World Map can be examined, and the Royal Academy exhibition, 'The Age of Chivalry' of 1987 enabled the map to be displayed in the company of other non-cartographic artifacts of its own time.
Generally, though, it was not difficult to adapt surviving copies of existing, secular world maps to suit the purposes of Christian writers from the 5th century onwards. This was in order to match its historical importance and to accommodate all the information that had to be conveyed. Christ would, for instance, be shown dominating the world, or the world might even be depicted as the actual body of Christ. The world was shown as the body of Christ and much space was devoted to the political situation in northern Germany: an area of particular concern to the Duke who may have commissioned it.
Ma, Director of Chinese Paintings at Christiea€™s, is determined to maintain a market presence in New York, it would appear that a corporate decision has been made to eventually shift the sale of virtually all Chinese paintings, both classical and modern, to Hong Kong. I readily agreed to research and catalogue the sixteen paintings and one calligraphy, which included works by Wen Zhengming, Lu Zhi, Wang Wen, Wen Boren, Ju Jie, Lan Ying, Wang Duo, Wang Jian, Fa Ruozhen, Wang Hui, Wang Yuanqi, Gao Qipei, Huang Shen, Zheng Xie, Li Fangying, and Luo Ping. By early 1982 economic pressures led to a significant number of layoffs at Sotheby Parke Bernet. It allowed elderly collectors to dispose of works they no longer needed and families to discreetly disperse inherited private collections. The entire auction totaled nearly $800,000, well below the $1,200,000 presale low estimate for the 126 lots, but encouraging nonetheless because nearly 80% (by value) was sold and a number of pieces brought strong prices. Later, the Ming scholar Chen Jiru attached a colophon and the painter Cheng Zhengkui affixed his seal, and it then found its way into the hands of two of the premier collectors of the 17th and 18th centuries, Liang Qingbiao, and An Qi, who recorded it in his Moyuan huiguan. Nestled amongst the leaves of the album was a short note written in French which indicated that the work had been purchased from a soldier who had fought in China, presumably during the Boxer Rebellion of 1900. Paintings that have been exhibited in museums or have appeared in serious publications tend to be more marketable. Zhang Xuelianga€™s efforts to unify China against a common enemy, however, were rewarded with a swift court-martial and more than five decades of house arrest. Without commenting in detail about either of the works I said simply: a€?The owner of these paintings must have many good things.
The sale was a tremendous success and Zhang Xueliang, along with his loving wife Edith, moved to Hawaii where they remain today as Zhang begins his second century on this earth. Wu Bina€™s name does not figure prominently in traditional Chinese accounts of painting history but he is highly regarded by Western scholars. There was now firm evidence that the right Chinese painting in the right economic environment could sell for more than a million dollars, but it had to be just the right painting offered at just the right time.
Perhaps my own notions of quality were too high and my standards for judging authenticity were more strict than the current market necessitated, but I found myself rejecting many works that were later sold successfully elsewhere.
Ma the autonomy to structure the sales in a way that is most beneficial to the company and to his clients. Guggenheim Museum is planning a major exhibition of 5,000 years of Chinese art which will include modern and contemporary works in a variety of media, and the Asia Society is organizing a show of contemporary art by Chinese artists living outside of China for the fall of 1998. Artists in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and abroad have of course had many more artistic options open to them and they have already made significant contributions to the field contemporary art.
However, it is interesting to observe that these individual Chinese artists of diverse backgrounds have found common ground in their choice of medium. It is worth noting that most of the Chinese painters who worked in both Western and Chinese media demonstrated a distinct preference for the latter in their late years.
In cyberspace, national borders do not exist and information is constantly exchanged across continents at lightning speed. From an incredible range of gadgets offered there are many tales about their ineffectiveness or of making the receiver feel much worse.
These questions are routinely asked not only by several thousand doctors, but also many cancer specialist hospitals will recommend a Geopathic Surveyor or Geobiologist as they are often called to investigate your home before deciding on a course of therapy or reaching for the prescription pad.
It was reckoned with over 95 a€“ percentile certainty that there is a location influence on the governing system of the circulation. Many a€?specialistsa€? presume that the origin to be in the ground a€“ below the earth surface.
Furthermore, technically generated EMFs are present on every place on earth; their likely influence on our health is presently the subject of intensive worldwide research.
Whittaker already in 1904 showed mathematically that the known and accepted Laplace Wave Equation of the year 1787, besides indicating transversal electro-magnetic waves, also describes longitudinal scalar waves (15). The magnetite-particles could also be visualized and further analyzed using a high-definition transmission electron microscope. In any case, magnetite crystals in the brain could possibly be a hint to explain how (certain qualities of) geopathic zones may affect the body: Magnetite reacts more than one million times stronger to an external magnetic field than every other biological material. Using that particular aspect, we were able to indicate which organ systems of the body might be affected by geopathic stress. A third marker, saliva cortisol, although displaying its very own rhythmicity, also appears to fit into the concept that GDV could be reliably used for biophysical stress measurement (Hacker and Augner, unpublished results). Altogether, more than 137,000 individual fingertip GDV corona images were captured, interpreted by means of computer-aided image analysis and analyzed in detail using bio-statistics.
For further calculations and analyses, the GDV Meridian Analysis and the GDV Diagram software (both with version no. The latter device had been mounted or de-mounted in another room at an upper floor, and neither the test persons nor the examiners could see if the device was present or not. The test persons were advised to keep their fingers still and relaxed during measurements and not to apply undue pressure when putting their fingers onto the glass plate at an angle of approximately 30-degrees to the instrument axis (28).
If present for a prolonged time, however, eustress may soon turn to distress and thereby suppress the immune system. We would therefore suggest using a terminology towards a a€?more geopathica€? and a€?geologically more neutrala€? zone in this context. Johanns-Hospital, so far, more than 50 a€?Wavea€? devices have been installed to harmonize critical locations - especially in the intensive care unit and in the entire surgical ward), and at other major hospitals (e.g. Thus, especially in already existing establishments, the purposeful placement of a€?Wavea€? devices can be of great benefit.
The aggregate economic success of a company or institution can very well be in the balance; responsible (and visionary) managers should take heed of the results of our studies in their plans and act accordingly.
Petersburg Division of Russian Ministry of Culture, State Editing and Publishing nit, a€?Kulturaa€™, pp 84a€“108 (1999).
Carte marine et portulan au XIIe siA?cle:A  Le Liber de existencia riveriarum et forma maris nostri Mediterranei. The amount of space dedicated to the other parts of the world varied according to their traditional historical or biblical importance and the preoccupations of the author of the text that the map illustrated. Paula Gasparello was one of the casualties and I was given responsibility for all sales of Chinese paintings in New York and Hong Kong. Sothebya€™s and Christiea€™s performed the traditional auction house role of providing a secondary market for dealers, museums, and collectors and, in the case of some contemporary works, occasionally played the unfamiliar role of developing a primary market through the introduction of new artists into the marketplace. I was astounded to be asked by the curator whether the six large hanging scrolls, which are clearly meant to be hung together as a single work, could be sold separately.
The scroll subsequently entered the Qianlong Imperial collection and it is dutifully noted in the Shiqu Baoji xubian. This album must have been looted from the Imperial Palace when the combined Western military forces were called in to quell an anti-Christian, anti-foreign Chinese peasant uprising.
I would like to see them.a€? The intermediary left, saying that she would talk with the owner.
Not surprisingly, this long handscroll was hotly contested by two dealers bidding on behalf of American private collectors, and it was finally sold for $1,210,000. The few buyers at the top were unpredictable, buying in what seemed to me to be a rather indiscriminate manner, often paying high prices for works of dubious merit while ignoring what I considered to be high quality examples. For whatever reasons, my competitor was extremely adept at finding works that suited the tastes and budget of the new clientele and Christiea€™s consistently won the battle of market share, which is a house-to-house comparison performed by auction house accountants, like a bizarre postmortem ritual wake, after every series of auctions. The auction houses are large international corporations with tremendous costs and huge overhead.
An examination of the current state of guohua as a distinct type of Chinese art, however, is useful because the limited focus of the investigation brings heightened clarity to larger artistic issues. Their conscious decision to work with traditional brush and ink applied to absorbent paper, at a time when so many other options are available, indicates at the least a tenuous link to Chinaa€™s artistic past. Modern communications and transportation have made all markets international, including the art market.
There are many products on the market that claim to cure some or all geopathic zones of its noxious energy. However, if we sleep in an area affected by geopathic stress, our body has to use all ita€™s energy just to keepA  vital organs going. The search, using both dowsing methods to locate geopathic energies and scientific instruments to detect man made electromagnetic energies willA  determine whether your illness is linked to geopathic stress electromagnetic stress or both.
Frequencies in between about 0,1 Hz up to the GHz-range are being suggested in public literature. The most exciting result of those experiments was that, most of the regions of the brain appear to contain about five million biogenous a€?single-domaina€? magnetite crystals per gram wet weight on average, and the meninges (pia and dura mater) contain even more than 100 million. Recently, in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, an article describes possible roles that magnetic ferrous amalgamations could play in neurological disease (21).
The accordant calculations and projections were done interactively using specific software for analysis, based on the energy-emission-analysis according to Mandel (47-48), the Su-Jok-System of acupuncture (49) and clinical data of thousands of test persons from the St. In order to minimize chronobiologic influences to a sensible degree, the experiments were carried out only in forenoons, and also in that respect, phase randomization in time was an important prerequisite (24). As already stated above, technical fields and noxae [nocent influences] of different kinds are present everywhere on earth. In the workplace and in the home: this is only part of the whole picture, because a€?ready to goa€? or rested and productive employers and employees should also be able to benefit at peace and harmony at home.
Behind the blue band of the river is a grim array of grotesque figures to indicate the existence of primitive peoples. There may be significance in the soulless mermaid placed in the map close to the unattainable Holy Land, or she may be a possible temptation to sea-faring pilgrims. Phillott, wrote that it shows a a€?rejection of all that savoured of scientific geography, . Because of this, space devoted to the author or patron's homeland was often much exaggerated when judged by modern standards, as in the case of England, Wales and Ireland on the Hereford Mappa Mundi. Crone demonstrated, the Hereford also contains sequences of the more important place names along some major thirteenth century commercial and pilgrimage routes. This afforded me a unique opportunity to build up a new market but I was faced with the daunting challenge of trying to make sense out of a very complicated subject. I was relieved to land the consignment and to receive permission to sell the painting as one lot!
In spite of the impressive pedigree of the handscroll, two of the leading authorities on Chinese calligraphy in America initially expressed doubts about its authenticity, perhaps confusing it with a well known related work in a Japanese collection. As a result of the suppression of the Boxer Uprising, not only did the Qing government suffer the indignity of agreeing to pay a huge indemnity to the foreign powers, but a number of European, Japanese, and American soldiers helped themselves to what they considered to be war booty and souvenirs from the Forbidden City.
Landing an important collection or estate creates an opportunity for promotion and also enhances the reputation of the department within the field and within the company.
Later that day, while Rita Wong, then head of the Taiwan office, was driving me home it occurred to me that the most logical source of the two paintings had to be Zhang Xueliang. The results of the June 1992 New York auctions of Chinese paintings, however, proclaimed Sothebya€™s the victor in market share, winning by a substantial 53% to 47% margin.
As was the case during the first half of this century, the decision to paint guohua will be made for different reasons by different artists. Most of these claims are quite dubious and do not stand up to the most rudimental scientific testing. As a result our immune system becomes weakened, which means it doesna€™t absorb nutrients or fight off infections effectively. If so, you will be advised how to avoid or eliminate these harmful energies from your home so you stand a better chance of responding to any treatment given. In our following attempts at explanation, we will concentrate on natural sources possibly originating from the a€?grounda€?, i.e. As we could show, the a€?Wavea€? device in fact can help, and its exceptional promise as a preventive measure is of great interest.
Gerfried BRANDSTETTER (manager of the science department of the Salzburg federal government); Landeshauptfrau Mag.
On a world map, though, as opposed to the strip itinerary maps produced by Matthew Paris in about 1250, the route planning could only have been very approximate and very much incidental to the main purposes.
At the time Chinese paintings were occasionally sold by Sothebya€™s London as well, where they were included as a postscript to Japanese print sales. The image of a€?Giant Lotusa€? appeared as a wrap-around cover for the June 1982 auction of Chinese Works of Art and Paintings and it attracted interest from across the globe, selling to a collector in Taiwan for $77,000, at the time a world-record auction price for a contemporary Chinese painting. Fortunately two astute overseas Chinese collectors recognized the scrolla€™s importance and they bid it up to a final price of $77,000.
A significant number of paintings and large quantities of Imperial ceramics and other works of art must have found their way into Western collections during the early part of this century in this manner, although the casual note found in this album provides rare documentation of the phenomenon. In his youth, well before the Xia€™an Incident, Zhang had been known as a collector of Chinese art.
On the other hand, the size of the operation can render the fundamentally simple process of selling individual works of art overly complicated and expensive. For some, the impetus will be to continue to be part of an unbroken artistic tradition which they can trace back into antiquity, thus reaffirming their own cultural identities. Even today, there is something about using brush and ink, like eating food with chopsticks, that feels natural to a Chinese artist. Fortunately there are now a growing number of dowsers that are equipped with scientific monitoring instruments that can test such claims.
To locate geopathic stress dowsers visit land, offices and homes where theyA  seekA  the location of underground streams, geological faults or the eartha€™s natural grid lines. The Spelman paintings were significant in that they presented to the market a group of excellent works with generally reliable attributions.
I was gradually able to wrestle control from the Japanese Department and for a time we experimented with selling Chinese paintings through the London Chinese Department. The sale of the painting received significant publicity in Taiwan and Hong Kong and it helped to bolster Sothebya€™s reputation in Asia for expertise in Chinese paintings. In a relatively small but extremely specialized market, like Chinese paintings, there may be other, more efficient ways to match buyer with seller. For others, the choice of guohua may be primarily a reaction against the repressive artistic policies of the Communist regime, ostensibly denying their ties to the recent past. 14), which may have resulted from the survey of the provinces ascribed by tradition to Julius Caesar.
In the Hereford map they could revel in this pictorial description of the outside world, which taught natural history, classical legends, explained the winds and reinforced their religious beliefs.
The market there never developed and to this day collecting interest for Chinese painting in Europe remains limited. In early publications on Chinese painting his name is often listed as the owner of specific works which had not yet resurfaced. For still others, the immediacy and sensitivity of the traditional medium and its unmatched ability to respond to the subtlest of touches, may be reason enough to adopt the art form, affirming the individuala€™s artistic identity, irrespective of his political viewpoint.
However, for thousands of years people from all over the world have been finding underground water for wells and mineral deposits to mine by dowsing methods.
However, perhaps because of this quirk in the market, Europe became for me a significant source of paintings for sale in both New York and Hong Kong. Over the next few years I developed a peculiar relationship with Zhang Xueliang, through his intermediary, who initially did not acknowledge his identity but realized that I knew who the real owner of these works was. Remember ita€™s the energy from the water and other artefacts that they first respond to as it rises from deep beneath the ground to the surface. She began showing me paintings on his behalf, some for sale, some not, and she would relay back to Zhang my comments about the works. If not, we are witnessing the close of a short but intense chapter in Chinese painting history. The two upright fingers branching up from the Mediterranean are the Aegean and the Black Sea with the Golden Fleece at its extremity.
We began selling the less important scrolls, which did not bear his collectora€™s seals, but gradually he consigned, always through a friend in the United States, major paintings by artists such as Shen Zhou and calligraphy by as importantt a writer as Zhao Mengfu. If the major auction houses decide that it is no longer financially viable to continue to hold sales of Chinese paintings in New York, it will be up to a few committed and knowledgable dealers to try to pick up the slack. How can those who paint just for fun in their spare time capture the true character of all things on earth.



Online marketing system ppt presentation
Viral video campaign examples successful
Product introduction video script writing


Comments to «Briefly explain the marketing planning process»

  1. sex writes:
    Digital photographs and movies on a Television, monitor need to upload it vto YouTube, Facebook.
  2. Bebeshka writes:
    The goal is to have folks searching for.