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The first step to creating a communication plan is identifying who needs to know something about the project. Management stakeholders aren’t dedicated to the project, but they make key decisions about it. Note: The customer is part of the management stakeholder group, but often wants different information delivered in different ways. The project sponsor is also part of the management stakeholder group, but is usually involved more intimately with the project.
Supporting groups might be involved in your project from time to time and need to know specific information. Tip: As you develop your communication plan, the golden rule is to give the audience what it wants.
Usually, you want to distribute some information that audiences don’t think to ask for. Tip: Keep track of each type of information that you provide to each audience because the distribution method and timetable you choose may vary based on the information. The information that you communicate varies depending on whether you’re planning, executing, or closing the project. Project planning: The components of the project plan help people involved with the project understand the purpose of the project and their roles in completing it successfully. Project execution and control: Once the plan is approved and you begin to execute that plan, people need to know the rules. Project closure: You wrap up projects with reports that summarize the performance of the project. Project publicity: Regardless of the phase a project is in, you want to build enthusiasm and commitment for it. Management stakeholders, including the customer, project sponsor, and other high-level stakeholders, typically care about the overall business goals of a project. Note: As internal customers, company executives often require more detailed project information than external customers.
The project plan:During planning, management stakeholders must ensure that the proposed plan satisfies their needs.
Project status: Executive summaries of project status focus on high-level performance and accomplishments. Financial information: These stakeholders understand and care about the financial measures for projects, so they want to know the current financial results, including performance compared to the budget and other metrics, such as ROI.
Tip: Executives plan for the long term, so they also want to know what is in store for the project in the future. Functional managers usually provide the people who perform the project work, so they need to see project plans to understand the skills required, to know when their people are needed, and to be aware of any constraints, such as cost or availability.
Project plan: During planning, functional managers must understand the big picture of the project, but they focus on work packages, the skills needed, and when assignments are scheduled to occur. Project status: Functional managers need to know when their people will be done with their assignments, so they can line up more work for them in the future. Initially, team members must understand the work they are supposed to perform as well as how that work fits into the big picture of the project. Issues: Team members need to know about issues that might affect them, proposed solutions, and how closed issues were resolved. Lessons learned: Team members can work more effectively if they can take advantage of tips, shortcuts, or practices to avoid. Decisions: Team members must know about any decisions that affect the direction or objectives of the project, so they can conform to the new guidelines. The last step to developing a communication plan is to determine the best methods for getting each type of information to your audiences. Communication methods come in many guises and each one has its advantages and disadvantages. Status reports: These can contain different types of information depending on the audience.
Note: When you distribute documents electronically, you have to consider the software formats that your audiences can read.
Meetings: These can vary from one-time kickoff meetings to daily meetings of small groups of team members, weekly or monthly executive updates, or occasional all-hands meetings. Storing documents: This is a reasonable solution for information that only some people need only some of the time. Newsletters and email distribution lists: These work well for announcements and other information you want to disseminate to broad audiences.
If you want someone to do something, sending an email or leaving a voice message is not the same as getting something done. When you choose communication options, opt forthe ones that get information to audiences with the least amount of effort. Tip: Although the ideal approach is to provide every audience with exactly what they want, some communication methods can be extraordinarily time-consuming.
The communication plan begins with sections that list the audiences for the project, the information you plan to communicate, how you will compile the information, and the communication methods you plan to use. After you complete your communication plan and begin executing the project, days and weeks can pass before you realize it. Use a standard format: The people in your audience can find the information they need more quickly if you deliver project status in the same format each time, as demonstrated by the project status report template in Figure 11-4. Begin with a project status summary: Key stakeholders appreciate a summary of status, so they can decide whether they must review the entire report in detail.
Review the budget and project schedule: Summarize the budgeted and actual costs and the planned and actual dates for the status period, and explain significant variances (more than 10 percent).
Note: As project manager, be sure to define the meaning of significant variance during project planning. Focus on accomplishments: Achieving goals and handing over deliverables is more important than the detailed tasks that led up to them.
Document lessons learned: By publicizing effective techniques or ill-advised approaches, other team members can be more productive. Report the status of significant issues and risks: Describe the progress made toward resolving issues and managing risks during the last status period.
Include links to a project repository, so readers who want more information can locate it without calling you. To download the companion content referenced in the text, visit The Microsoft Press Store and click on Downloads in the middle of the page. Purchase Successful Project Management: Applying Best Practices and Real-World Techniques with Microsoft Project by Bonnie Biafore here. Thank you for this publication I was looking for exactly this Information for my part in an IT group assignment in project management. Thanks for this paper.I found it useful for my research work on communication variables, its measurement (quantitatively} and links between them. Cannot find the companion link described here, “To download the companion content referenced in the text, go to the O’Reilly book site and click on Companion Content in the left column. Get your group together and join MPUG at our lowest prices – the bigger the group, the bigger the discount (continuous training for pennies a day). GET OUR FREE WEEKLY NEWSLETTERSign-up for free how-to articles on Microsoft Project and upcoming web training events! Early on in 2013, I mapped out a plan to work from on communicating Easter services at West Ridge. Power of Prayer – Yes, we worked harder than ever to get the word out about Easter to our church and community.
Kids Ministry Experience – Our kids ministry pulled off a great 3D Easter experience. Building Buzz Through Social Media – At West Ridge, we had 13 services across two locations from Friday-Sunday. Project Decelerators – Lack of Stakeholder SupportBy Jose Solera on March 4th, 2009 Table of contents for Project DeceleratorsProject Decelerators – what are they? Second, you need to determine what power they have and what their intentions towards your project are. Finally, a key piece of your stakeholder management efforts is the constant communication to your stakeholders.
JOSE SOLERA, B.S, MBA, PMP(R), CSM has been a project and program manager for more than twenty years in high technology with focus on IT efforts.
Right on, I use a diagramming technique like you have above to help visualize the relationships between various parties on the project. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 United States License. Without a doubt, promotion and marketing communications are the most ubiquitous elements of any firm’s marketing strategy. Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) is defined as customer centric, data driven method of communicating with the customer. Integrated marketing communications is the strategic, coordinated use of promotion to create one consistent message across multiple channels to ensure maximum persuasive impact on the firm’s current and potential customers.
Integrated marketing communications is also process for managing customer relationships that drive brand value primarily through communication efforts. Due to the many advantages associated with IMC, most marketers have adopted integrated marketing as the basis for their communication and promotion strategies.
Many firms are also embracing technology in order to target customers directly through product placement and online promotion. When selecting elements to include in the IMC program, it is important to take a holistic perspective that coordinates not only all promotional elements but also the IMC program with the rest of the marketing program (product, price, and supply chain strategy).
All too frequently, firms rush to launch an intensive IMC campaign that has no clear promotional objectives. Ultimately, the goals and objectives of any promotional campaign culminate in the purchase of goods or services by the target market. The role and importance of specific promotional elements vary across the steps in the AIDA model.
Alongside the issue of promotional goals and objectives, the firm must also consider its promotional goals with respect to the supply chain.
The role and importance of specific promotional elements also vary depending on the nature of the product. Coordinating promotional elements within the context of the entire marketing program requires a complete understanding of the role, function, and benefits of each element. The starting point of the IMC process is the marketing mix that includes different types of marketing, advertising, and sales efforts. Integrated marketing communications aims to ensure consistency of message and the complementary use of media. Using outside-in thinking, Integrated Marketing Communications is a data-driven approach that focuses on identifying consumer insights and developing a strategy with the right (online and offline combination) channels to forge a stronger brand-consumer relationship. Communicate, many mediums working together to present a unified message with a feedback mechanism to make the communication two-way.
The goal of selecting the elements of proposed integrated marketing communications is to create a campaign that is effective and consistent across media platforms. Although integrated marketing communications is more than just an advertising campaign, the bulk of marketing dollars is spent on the creation and distribution of advertisements. A major task that guides the way in creating an effective Integrated Marketing Communications plan is the promotions opportunity analysis.
The fourth step of a promotions opportunity analysis program is to prepare a general communication strategy for the company and its products. It is critical that the company’s communication strategy mesh with the overall message and be carefully linked to the opportunities identified by a communication market analysis. Throughout these steps, marketers should consistently review and analyze the actions and tools that major competitors are utilizing.
Accountability in marketing is increasing a result of tight economic restraints and an ever evolving society. In addition to the usual resistance to change and the special problems of communicating with a wide variety of target audiences, there are many other obstacles which restrict IMC.
Sadly, some organizational structures isolate communications, data, and even managers from each other. And all of this can be aggravated by turf wars or internal power battles where specific managers resist having some of their decisions (and budgets) determined or even influenced by someone from another department.
Here are two difficult questions – What should a truly integrated marketing department look like?
Add different time scales into a creative brief and you’ll see Time Horizons provide one more barrier to IMC. If you are a visual-stimulated person, you can watch this video to have a better understanding. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. A communication plan can be as simple or as sophisticated as your project requires for delivering information to the people who need it. Stakeholders are obvious audiences for project communications, but other groups often needor wantproject information. Management stakeholders share similar needs for project communication and can include customers, the project sponsor, a steering committee or leadership team, members of the change management board, functional managers, and so on.


For example, you might send the project sponsor the same information that you provide to other management stakeholder groups, but also meet face to face for in-depth discussions. For example, sales and marketing might want to know what the product features are and when it’ll be ready to sell. For example, vendors, suppliers, partners, and the project managers who work for them can belong to your core team.
Just as a Gantt chart might make perfect sense to you and not one whit to the customer, the methods of communication you choose must actually get the message through to your audience. For example, you communicate the benefits of your project, the problem statement, and the project objectives to everyone involved, even though team members might want to know only what their task assignments are.
For example, you might categorize information based on what different groups need to know: planning, day-to-day detailed status, high-level status, and general information. For example, you might distribute project status every week while the stakeholders want a thorough financial update once a month.
From the problem statement to the schedule and the communication plan, each component describes how you plan to run the project. You have to provide people with procedures, such as reporting time and expenses, requesting time off, escalating issues, and so on. For example, the elegant programming shortcut that is helpful and fascinating to the development team would put management stakeholders to sleep.
Publicizing a project early on might include announcements in the company newsletter, contests to name the project, or road shows that describe the purpose and benefits of the project. They must evaluate project performance compared to the entire portfolio of the company’s projects and business objectives.
Later, if requirements or criteria change, these stakeholders revisit the project plan while negotiating change orders, contract revisions, or modifications to the project goals. Management stakeholders want to know about major milestones that have been completed, summaries of costs and schedule performance (the project is one month behind schedule and $20,000 over budget), and major issues and risks that could prevent the project from achieving its goals.
For example, the customer, project sponsor, and members of the change management board must evaluate change requests to see whether they should be approved or rejected.
Is the project going to deliver on time and under budget Will it deliver the financial results they want Will it achieve its objectives Or are changes necessary?
Once people are working on assignments, functional managers want to know how much longer those people are needed or might ask if they can substitute someone else. With status updates, team members can collaborate with their colleagues and help devise solutions to problems. You must decide how often audiences need information, the best method for delivering information, and the best format in which to deliver it. For example, face-to-face communication is best for delicate discussions or to brainstorm solutions.
Moreover, whether you produce paper or electronic status reports depends on the audience as well. For example, if some team members have older versions of Word, you might choose to distribute reports in Adobe Acrobat or Microsoft XPS Document Writer format.
Although you can’t guarantee that people will pay attention in a meeting, getting people in the same room is ideal for discussions, brainstorming, and decision making.
For example, an executive update meeting might start with a presentation of project status followed by an energetic discussion. For example, if you want stakeholders to review and approve your project plan, you should send the plan to them for review. For example, you can store any document-based deliverables, such as the current project plan, requirements, specifications, change requests, and other project information in a shared folder, on a web page, or in a shared workspace. You can distribute information to many people without much effort, but the readers can skip the message if it doesn’t apply to them.
One way to coax responses from people who do that is to tell them what you plan to do if you don’t hear from them by a specific time or day. For example, don’t send hard copies of status reports if everyone on the project checks email every day. If communication demands threaten to consume every workday, try suggesting to stakeholders alternatives that require less time. But the heart of the communication plan is a matrix that shows how you plan to communicate information to each project audience, as illustrated in Figure 11-2. A matrix like the one included on page 2 of the sample communication plan is helpful for showing the information you communicate to audiences and the methods you plan to use. As project manager, you can set up your communication tasks as milestones in Project so you see reminders about communication along with the rest of the tasks you review regularly.
In the Untitled Task dialog box, in the Subject text box, type the name of the communication task, such as Prepare stakeholders status report. In the Recur Every… Week(s) On text box, type the number of periods between each occurrence. In the Range Of Recurrence section, you can keep the No End Date option selected, as shown in Figure 11-3, to receive reminders until you decide to delete the task. Develop a template for your project status report and include notes about how to fill it in. By using a template for your project status report, you wont forget to include important information, and readers can find the information they need more easily.
As a consultant, she manages projects for clients and wins accolades for her ability to herd cats. During my internships working in the Project Department of an Engineering + Construction company, I was asked to develop a communication plan, and you have given me a good start. If you are part of a church staff or creative team, you know how crazy the weeks and months are leading up to a huge day like this.
As we got closer to Easter and had a better idea of the theme and elements of our Easter service, this was tweaked accordingly.
Instead of focusing on trying to cover a whole city with advertising, we focused on making our content easy to share and encouraging our church to personally invite and bring their friends. It’s crucial to keep that in mind when mapping out promotional plans for key events like Easter.
This was something we were very intentional about so that our kids had something they were really excited for and would invite their friends and families to.
Our communications team was viewing Friday like a movie premiere in the idea that we wanted to build buzz through social media about the Easter services and upcoming opportunities to attend. As we discussed yesterday, there are many project decelerators, among them lack of stakeholder support. Just because they are important in the organization does not necessarily mean they are important to your project. Can you improve your project’s chances by working with those who support you to improve the views of those who oppose you? Using the information developed above, you should develop a communications plan that secures your stakeholders support. At Intel Corporation for over 20 years, Jose led multiple projects and efforts, from the first client-server software development in the early 1990s using what now is called "Agile Project Management" to the extremely large Y2K effort.
This is not surprising because promotional activities are necessary to communicate the features and benefits of a product to the firm’s intended target markets.
IMC is the coordination and integration of all marketing communication tools, avenues, functions and sources within a company into a seamless program that maximizes the impact on consumers and other end users at a minimal cost.
IMC takes a 360-degree view of the customer that considers each and every contact that a customer or potential customer may have in his or her relationship with the firm. Such efforts often include cross-functional processes that create and nourish profitable relationships with customers and other stakeholders by strategically controlling or influencing all messages sent to these groups and encouraging data-driven, purposeful dialog with them. By coordinating all communication ‘‘touch points,’’ firms using IMC convey an image of truly knowing and caring about their customers that can translate into long-term customer relationships. This increased focus on individual customers requires that the overall promotional program be integrated and focused as well. Taking this approach allows a firm to communicate a consistent message to target customers from every possible angle, thereby maximizing the total impact on those customers. The vast majority of promotion activities do not create results in the short term, so firms must focus on long-term promotional objectives and have the patience to continue the program long enough to gauge true success. As a result, the first major goal of any promotional campaign is to attract the attention of potential customers. Therefore, the firm must spark interest in the product by demonstrating its features, uses, and benefits.
Good promotion will stimulate desire by convincing potential customers of the product’s superiority and its ability to satisfy specific needs. Mass-communication elements, such as advertising and public relations, tend to be used more heavily to stimulate awareness and interest due to their efficiency in reaching large numbers of potential customers. In essence, the firm must decide whether it will use a pull strategy, a push strategy, or some combination of the two. Industrial products, such as heavy equipment, rely more heavily on personal selling; consumer products require greater use of advertising, sales promotion, and public relations. The advantages and disadvantages of each element must be carefully balanced against the promotional budget and the firm’s IMC goals and objectives.
Without a complete IMC plan there is no integration or harmony between client and customers. This involves knowing the right touch points to use to reach consumers and understanding how and where they consume different types of media. From mass media to more specialized (niche) media, which are centered on specific target audiences. From low agency accountability to greater agency accountability, particularly in advertising. From traditional compensation to performance-based compensation (increased sales or benefits to the company).
It can create competitive advantage, boost sales and profits, while saving money, time and stress. IMC wraps communications around customers and helps them move through the various stages of the buying process. This ‘Relationship Marketing’ cements a bond of loyalty with customers which can protect them from the inevitable onslaught of competition.
Finally, IMC saves money as it eliminates duplication in areas such as graphics and photography since they can be shared and used in say, advertising, exhibitions and sales literature. And be sure to include an understanding of non-traditional mediums, such as word of mouth and how it can influence your position in the consumer’s mind.
Some marketers may want only ads with greatest breadth of appeal: the executions that, when combined, provide the greatest number of attention-getting, branded, and motivational moments. It is called the “last 3 feet” because this is usually the distance between a salesperson and his customer on the retail sales floor.
Strategies are sweeping guidelines concerning the essence of the company’s marketing efforts.
Companies realize that they cannot spend large amounts of money on unproductive marketing campaigns. Rigid organizational structures are infested with managers who protect both their budgets and their power base. An advertising agency may not be so enthusiastic about developing a creative idea generated by, say, a PR or a direct marketing consultant. No more wild and wacky sales promotions unless they fit into the overall marketing communications strategy. For example, image advertising, designed to nurture the brand over the longer term, may conflict with shorter term advertising or sales promotions designed to boost quarterly sales. For example, a conference call that includes people in Europe, Asia, and North America is going to keep someone up late and get someone else up early, and you don’t want to make those decisions at the last minute. They need to know what’s going on with the project, but they also contribute a lot of the information that you communicate to others.
The legal department gets involved only to work on contracts or to review documents for legal issues.
However, you typically don’t tell external audiences as much as you do internal team members.
And if that means you have to prepare a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation for the steering committee, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet for the accounting department, a Microsoft Word document for project teams, and a Microsoft SharePoint site for the developers, so be it. Taylor’s approach is to give people the opportunity to opt out of receiving specific types of information. For all audiences that you’ve identified, the next step is to determine what they need to know, what they want to know, and what information you want to tell them.
For another example, if a project is going to change how processes in your organization are going to work, you can begin to tout the benefits of the changes. You might also categorize information by whether it’s required, desired, or merely for reference. Some audiences review planning documents in detail and approve them, whereas other groups use them simply as direction for the work they perform.
For most of the project duration, people need to know the status of the project and what’s planned for the near future. On the other hand, the financial measures that the management stakeholders can’t live without would be equally boring to most technical folks. During project execution, you might use a project newsletter to publicize accomplishments, host celebrations upon completion of significant milestones, or distribute pens or coffee cups emblazoned with the project logo.


During project execution, they frequently review performance, such as how much progress has been made, how much money has been spent, and the quality of the results that have been achieved. If you are measuring other aspects of project performance, such as lines of code written or statistics about defects found and fixed, they want to know whether the metrics are good or bad and about the trends in performance. As work progresses on the project, team members need to know detailed status about completed work and the work that’s scheduled for them in the near future. For example, everyone involved in the project needs a project status report, which you might distribute via email to the entire team but review in a meeting with stakeholders.
Sending status reports to people makes it easy for them to read the information, and they can choose to scan the reports for pertinent topicsor ignore them if time is at a premium. Other meetings, such as lessons learned sessions, can be completely dedicated to group discussion.
The most effective way to obtain a response to a request is to tell people up front what you want them to do and when. An email distribution list is much easier than printing and distributing dozens of hard-copy memos. If you prefer more obvious reminders, you can create tasks with reminders in Microsoft Outlook so you don’t forget to send important information to project audiences or schedule meetings. If you’re certain that the project will end when you expect, you can choose either the End After . The key to reporting project status is to be concise while still delivering information that people need or want to hear. Also, document the risks that were avoided by implementing plans to circumvent those risks or because the work packages that were at risk have been delivered without issue. At West Ridge Church, we had an incredible weekend across 2 locations with our highest attended weekend ever.
For big events like Easter, I typically create a one-page promo plan outlining how we are promoting the event in all of our major channels. Our senior pastor Brian Bloye shared a strong vision for reaching 10,000 people this Easter, not just because we wanted to break an attendance record, but because we were praying for life-change and spiritual renewal in our church and community. Whether the stakeholders support your project or not, if they are important to your project, you must secure their support.
The diagram below shows an example of such an approach to map your stakeholders and relationships. The Y2K effort was not only focused on internal IT systems but also involved the company's products, suppliers, and customers. Marketing communications includes conveying and sharing meaning between buyers and sellers, either as individuals and firms, or between individuals and firms.
This management concept is designed to make all aspects of marketing communication such as advertising, sales promotion, public relations, and direct marketing work together as a unified force, rather than permitting each to work in isolation. IMC includes the coordination and integration of all marketing communication tools, avenues, and sources within a company into a seamless program in order to maximize the impact on end users at a minimal cost.
Likewise, Integrated marketing communications reduces costs and increases efficiency because it can reduce or eliminate redundancies and waste in the overall promotional program. For example, if the advertising campaign stresses quality, the sales force talks about low price, the supply chain pushes intensive distribution, and the website stresses product innovation, then what is the customer to believe? For example, a mix of Super Bowl ads, social and digital media, and event marketing were utilized to launch Gatorade’s G2, a low-calorie version of the popular Gatorade sports drink. When firms use a pull strategy, they focus their promotional efforts toward stimulating demand among final customers, who then exert pressure on the supply chain to carry the product. To ensure a constant and synergistic message to targeted customers, the firm must ultimately decide how to weigh each promotional element in the overall IMC strategy. The way new products and services are marketed have changed even though the aim of business in bringing economic and social values remain unchanged. The goal of an organization is to create and maintain communication throughout its own employees and throughout its customers. Online marketing channels include any e-marketing campaigns or programs, from search engine optimization (SEO), pay-per-click, affiliate, email, banner to latest web related channels for webinar, blog, micro-blogging, RSS, podcast, Internet Radio, and Internet TV.
The organization simultaneously consolidates its image, develops a dialogue and nurtures its relationship with customers.
This reduces risk in the mind of the buyer which, in turn, shortens the search process and helps to dictate the outcome of brand comparisons. Often it is the cost of time to drive somewhere, the cost of conscience of what you buy, the cost of guilt for not treating the kids, the investment a consumer is willing to make to avoid risk, etc. Consider all possible definitions of “convenience” as it relates to satisfying the consumer’s wants and needs.
How many ways can a customer hear (or see) the same message through the course of the day, each message reinforcing the earlier images?
Others may only want ads with the greatest depth of appeal: the ads with the greatest number of attention-getting, branded, and motivational points within each. Once the key marketing pieces have been tested, the researched elements can then be applied to other contact points: letterhead, packaging, logistics, customer service training, and more, to complete the IMC cycle.
The “last 3 feet” also applies to the distance across the desk from a sales representative to his prospective business customer.
Strategies must be achievable using the allocations available in the marketing and communications budgets. Companies look for programs that will have a measurable impact on business at minimal cost. The joy of rampant creativity may be stifled, but the creative challenge may be greater and ultimately more satisfying when operating within a tighter, integrated, creative brief. By planning your approach for communication in advance, you can provide the right information to the right people, at the right time, in the right format, and with the right emphasis. After all, your job as project manager is to make the project a success, and communicating information successfully is a big part of that. For example, the customer, project sponsor, and management stakeholders need status reports, but they also want information about the project strategy and issues and risks that might affect the business objectives for the project.
This section describes information you typically communicate in projects and then categorizes it by the groups that use it.
Most of the time, they don’t want to know the details, although they will for significant issues, such as someone absconding with project funds. Your organization’s executive team meets once a month and wants an executive summary of project status with emphasis on the budget and financial measures.
Documents in paper or electronic format are ideal for communicating large amounts of information that require study. For example, an email that scrolls for pages before you get to the point will be deleted long before the recipient knows what you’re asking for. However, for some information, such as reports that government agencies require, you have to use their format and transmission methods. In Outlook, you can set up recurring tasks for email, reports, and regularly scheduled meetings. Our prayers were answered as we saw 10,336 attend, 55 people get baptized, 100+ salvations and 75+ identified first time guests.
Just help fuel that with easy to share content like video links, service time graphics on social media and invite cards.
Just because they don’t think they need to be involved does not mean they do not have to. With this information you can then plot an ideal map and define strategies to help you get there. After Intel, Jose joined Symantec as an IT Program Director driving a large, complex program in support of a new business capability and defining a program management methodology for the IT organization.
This integration affects all firms’ business-to-business, marketing channel, customer-focused, and internally directed communications. Many firms have embraced IMC because mass-media advertising has become more expensive and less predictable than in the past. Not readily seeing that a product can deliver all these benefits, the customer is likely to become confused and go to a competitor with a more consistent message. Promotion based on creativity alone, unlinked to the rest of the marketing strategy, can waste limited and valuable marketing resources. Pulling in sales of approximately $160 million in its first year, G2 succeeded, whereas 75 percent of new products fail to earn even $7.5 million in their first year. The coordinated use of heavy advertising, public relations, and consumer sales promotion has the effect of pulling products through the supply chain, hence its name. Early in a product’s life cycle, even before its introduction, the heavy expenditures on promotional activities are often a significant drain on the firm’s resources.
In the remainder of this chapter, we discuss the important issues associated with advertising, public relations, personal selling, and sales promotion.
Offline marketing channels are traditional print (newspaper, magazine), mail order, public relations, industry relations, billboard, traditional radio, and television.
Convenience may include aspects of the physical or virtual location, access ease, transaction service time, and hours of availability. Your road map is the project communication plan, illustrated by the first page of a sample communication plan in Figure 11-1.
Investors and regulatory agencies (such as the IRS or a public utility commission) might represent additional external audiences. To make sure responsibility lies where it belongs, anyone who opts out of receiving communications must abide by decisions that are made without their input. In fact, you can send meeting requests to attendees to schedule meetings and keep track of who has accepted and who can’t attend. The chart below summarizes the options based on an assessment of your stakeholders’ potential for cooperation and potential for threat. As the 2006 President of the Project Management Institute's (PMI) Silicon Valley Chapter, Jose led the activities of the over 1,400 member chapter. Marketers are being forced to adopt new marketing strategies as advancing technology and customer preferences are threatening to make traditional forms of promotion obsolete. Along with advertising, sales promotion activities, such as product samples or demonstrations, are vital to stimulating interest in the product. In a push strategy, promotional efforts focus on members of the supply chain, such as wholesalers and retailers, to motivate them to spend extra time and effort on selling the product.
At this stage, it is important to consider these expenditures as investments for the long term because the true impact of the promotional program may not be felt for some time.
Marketing has evolved to more of connectedness, due to the new characteristics brought in by the Internet. A company develops its integrated marketing communication program using all the elements of the marketing mix (product, price, place, and promotion).
Only changes in the marketplace, new competitive forces, or new promotional opportunities should cause companies to alter strategies. There appear to be very few people who have real experience of all the marketing communications disciplines. This section describes the components of a communication plan, how you choose the communication methods appropriate for your project, and how to create a communication plan. For these audiences, the format and schedule of communication is often already specified, such as the financial statements that the SEC requires. And team members have asked you to distribute the detailed status reports of team accomplishments every week. Occurrences option when you know the number of occurrences or the End By option when you know the last date for the task to occur. The enhanced communication effectiveness of personal selling makes it ideally suited to moving potential customers through internal desire and into action.
This strategy relies heavily on personal selling and trade sales promotion to push products through the supply chain toward final customers. By the time a product has moved into the maturity phase of its life cycle, the firm can reduce promotional expenditures somewhat, thereby enjoying lower costs and higher profits. Marketing was once seen as a one way, with firms broadcasting their offerings and value proposition.
Other sales promotion activities, such as product displays, coupons, and trial-size packaging, are well suited to pushing customers toward the final act of making a purchase.
For now, understanding the barriers is the first step in successfully implementing integrated marketing communication. If you do ask for help, it’s a good idea to tell the managers you ask what you would like them to do. Of course, you must be willing to go with the picture of the meerkat if you still don’t get a response. Promotional activities include advertising (by using different media), sales promotion (sales and trades promotion), and personal selling activities. It also includes Internet marketing, sponsorship marketing, direct marketing, database marketing and public relations.
Integration of all these promotional tools, along with other components of marketing mix, is a way to gain an edge over a competitor.



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