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During the early development of the web, there was a list of webservers edited by Tim Berners-Lee and hosted on the CERN webserver.
JumpStation (released in December 1993) used a web robot to find web pages and to build its index, and used a web form as the interface to its query program. In 1996, Netscape was looking to give a single search engine an exclusive deal to be the featured search engine on Netscape’s web browser.
Search engines were also known as some of the brightest stars in the Internet investing frenzy that occurred in the late 1990s. Several companies entered the market spectacularly, receiving record gains during their initial public offerings. Web search engines work by storing information about many web pages, which they retrieve from the HTML itself.
When a user enters a query into a search engine (typically by using keywords), the engine examines its index and provides a listing of best-matching web pages according to its criteria, usually with a short summary containing the document’s title and sometimes parts of the text. The usefulness of a search engine depends on the relevance of the result set it gives back. Most Web search engines are commercial ventures supported by advertising revenue and, as a result, some employ the practice of allowing advertisers to pay money to have their listings rankedhigher in search results.
Many search engines such as Google and Bing provide customized results based on the user’s activity history. The search results are generally presented in a list of results often referred to as search engine results pages (SERPs). One historical snapshot from 1992 remains. As more webservers went online the central list could not keep up. The purpose of the Wanderer was to measure the size of the World Wide Web, which it did until late 1995. It was thus the first WWW resource-discovery tool to combine the three essential features of a web search engine (crawling, indexing, and searching) as described below. Unlike its predecessors, it let users search for any word in any webpage, which has become the standard for all major search engines since. There was so much interest that instead a deal was struck with Netscape by five of the major search engines, where for $5 million per year each search engine would be in rotation on the Netscape search engine page.
Some have taken down their public search engine, and are marketing enterprise-only editions, such as Northern Light. This iterative algorithm ranks web pages based on the number and PageRank of other web sites and pages that link there, on the premise that good or desirable pages are linked to more than others.


In early 1999 the site began to display listings from Looksmart blended with results from Inktomi except for a short time in 1999 when results from AltaVista were used instead. These pages are retrieved by a Web crawler (sometimes also known as a spider) — an automated Web browser which follows every link on the site. The index is built from the information stored with the data and the method by which the information is indexed. While there may be millions of web pages that include a particular word or phrase, some pages may be more relevant, popular, or authoritative than others. Those search engines which do not accept money for their search engine results make money by running search related ads alongside the regular search engine results. Because of the limited resources available on the platform on which it ran, its indexing and hence searching were limited to the titles and headings found in the web pages the crawler encountered.
Information seekers could also browse the directory instead of doing a keyword-based search. Many search engine companies were caught up in thedot-com bubble, a speculation-driven market boom that peaked in 1999 and ended in 2001.
In 2004,Microsoft began a transition to its own search technology, powered by its own web crawler (called msnbot).
Unfortunately, there are currently no known public search engines that allow documents to be searched by date. The term describes a phenomenon in which websites use algorithms to selectively guess what information a user would like to see, based on information about the user (such as location, past click behaviour and search history). The program downloaded the directory listings of all the files located on public anonymous FTP (File Transfer Protocol) sites, creating a searchable database of file names; however, Archie did not index the contents of these sites since the amount of data was so limited it could be readily searched manually. Aliweb did not use a web robot, but instead depended on being notified by website administrators of the existence at each site of an index file in a particular format. Also in 1994, Lycos (which started at Carnegie Mellon University) was launched and became a major commercial endeavor. The contents of each page are then analyzed to determine how it should be indexed (for example, words can be extracted from the titles,page content, headings, or special fields called meta tags). Most search engines support the use of the boolean operators AND, OR and NOT to further specify the search query.
How a search engine decides which pages are the best matches, and what order the results should be shown in, varies widely from one engine to another.


As a result, websites tend to show only information which agrees with the user’s past viewpoint, effectively isolating the user in a bubble that tends to exclude contrary information. Unlikeweb directories, which are maintained only by human editors, search engines also maintain real-time information by running an algorithm on a web crawler.
Boolean operators are for literal searches that allow the user to refine and extend the terms of the search.
There are two main types of search engine that have evolved: one is a system of predefined and hierarchically ordered keywords that humans have programmed extensively.
According to Eli Pariser, who coined the term, users get less exposure to conflicting viewpoints and are isolated intellectually in their own informational bubble. Some search engines provide an advanced feature called proximity search which allows users to define the distance between keywords. There is also concept-based searching where the research involves using statistical analysis on pages containing the words or phrases you search for. This second form relies much more heavily on the computer itself to do the bulk of the work.
This cached page always holds the actual search text since it is the one that was actually indexed, so it can be very useful when the content of the current page has been updated and the search terms are no longer in it.
As well, natural language queries allow the user to type a question in the same form one would ask it to a human.
This problem might be considered to be a mild form of linkrot, and Google’s handling of it increases usability by satisfying user expectations that the search terms will be on the returned webpage. This satisfies the principle of least astonishment since the user normally expects the search terms to be on the returned pages. Increased search relevance makes these cached pages very useful, even beyond the fact that they may contain data that may no longer be available elsewhere.



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