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Another characteristic of concept maps is that the concepts are represented in a hierarchical fashion with the most inclusive, most general concepts at the top of the map and the more specific, less general concepts arranged hierarchically below. A final feature that may be added to concept maps is specific examples of events or objects that help to clarify the meaning of a given concept.
Concept maps were developed in 1972 in the course of Novaka€™s research program at Cornell where he sought to follow and understand changes in childrena€™s knowledge of science (Novak & Musonda, 1991). In addition to the distinction between the discovery learning process, where the attributes of concepts are identified autonomously by the learner, and the reception learning process, where attributes of concepts are described using language and transmitted to the learner, Ausubel made the very important distinction between rote learning and meaningful learning.
The material to be learned must be conceptually clear and presented with language and examples relatable to the learnera€™s prior knowledge. As noted above, it is important to recognize that because individuals vary in the quantity and quality of the relevant knowledge they possess, and in the strength of their motivation to seek ways to incorporate new knowledge into relevant knowledge they already possess, the rote-meaningful distinction is not a simple dichotomy but rather a continuum. Another important advance in our understanding of learning is that the human memory is not a single a€?vessela€? to be filled, but rather a complex set of interrelated memory systems.
While all memory systems are interdependent (and have information going in both directions), the most critical memory systems for incorporating knowledge into long-term memory are the short-term and a€?working memory.a€? All incoming information is organized and processed in the working memory by interaction with knowledge in long-term memory.
This means that relationships among two or three concepts are about the limit of working memorya€™s processing capacity. It should be noted that retention of information learned by rote still takes place in long term memory, as does information learned meaningfully; the difference is that in rote learning, there is little or no integration of new knowledge with existing knowledge resulting in two negative consequences.
Therefore, to structure large bodies of knowledge requires an orderly sequence of iterations between working memory and long-term memory as new knowledge is being received and processed (Anderson, 1992).
There are obvious differences between individuala€™s abilities, and some of these have been explored by Gardner (1983).
While it is true that some students have difficulty building concept maps and using these, at least early in their experience, this appears to result primarily from years of rote-mode learning practice in school settings rather than as a result of brain structure differences per se. To illustrate how difficult it can be for individuals to modify their ideas, especially if they learn primarily by rote, we cite the example of interviews done by the Private Universe Project (PUP) at Harvard University (Schneps, 1989). As indicated earlier, we defined concept as a perceived regularity (or pattern) in events or objects, or records of events or objects, designated by label.
As defined above, concepts and propositions are the building blocks for knowledge in any domain. While there is value in studying more extensively the process of human learning and human knowledge creation, this is beyond the scope of this document. In learning to construct a concept map, it is important to begin with a domain of knowledge that is very familiar to the person constructing the map. A good way to define the context for a concept map is to construct a Focus Question, that is, a question that clearly specifies the problem or issue the concept map should help to resolve. Given a selected domain and a defined question or problem in this domain, the next step is to identify the key concepts that apply to this domain.
It is important to help students recognize that all concepts are in some way related to one another.
Students often comment that it is hard to add linking words onto the a€?linesa€? of their concept map. Finally, the map should be revised, concepts re-positioned in ways that lend to clarity and better over-all structure, and a a€?finala€? map prepared. Thus, we see that concept maps are not only a powerful tool for capturing, representing, and archiving knowledge of individuals, but also a powerful tool to create new knowledge. The software allows the user to link resources (photos, images, graphs, videos, charts, tables, texts, WWW pages or other concept maps) located anywhere on the Internet or in personal files to concepts or linking words in a concept map through a simple drag-and-drop operation. CmapTools provides extensive support for collaborative work during concept map construction. Through the storing of concept maps in CmapServers, CmapTools encourages collaboration among users constructing the maps. The extensive support that CmapTools provides for the collaborative construction of concept maps by groups, whether they are at the same location or in distant locations, has encouraged the increasing use of collaboration during map building.
A Concept Map-Centered Learning Environment CmapTools provides a variety of features that make it possible for teachers to use concept maps for a variety of the tasks that students perform (CaA±as & Novak, 2005). A concept map-centered learning environment implies that concept maps are used throughout the development of a learning unit or module. Just as there are many possible uses of concept maps within the classroom activities, there are a variety of a€?starting pointsa€? for the construction of the initial concept maps by students. Each student can construct the initial concept map individually, giving the teacher feedback on the level of understanding of every student. The concept map can also be a class effort, using a projector, where all students give their opinion and participate in the construction of the map. Likewise, the starting point from which the map is constructed can vary depending on the expected previous understanding by the students, the difficulty and novelty of the topic, and the teachera€™s confidence in mastering the topic. We refer to a list of concept waiting to be added to a concept map as the parking lot of concepts. Figure 11 is an a€?expert skeletona€? concept map that corresponds to the same topic as the a€?parking lota€? in Figure 10. The use of a€?expert skeletona€? concept maps is a research topic we are pursuing, and for which we dona€™t have as much experience as with the focus question and parking lot starting points. It is important to note that the a€?expert skeletona€? concept maps should be built by an expert on the topic. We foresee a program of using a€?expert skeletona€? maps to scaffold learning beginning with the development of a series of concept maps in a discipline, starting with the most general, most inclusive ideas and then gradually moving to more specific concept maps that will guide the learners.
Learners can also engage in laboratory or field studies that will add important concrete experiences needed for developing fuller meanings to concepts, and sometimes the excitement that comes with discovering new ideas or relationships.
The extent of materials and ideas that can be built into knowledge structures using a€?expert skeletona€? concept maps, CmapTools, and WWW resources far surpass what any textbook or any teacher could provide. In 1966, Bobbs-Merrill published an elementary science textbook series, The World of Science, written largely by Novak with the objective of introducing basic science concepts to elementary school students and teachers. Obviously, it would be a very deficient science program that did nothing more than have students copy and do some building on the a€?expert skeletona€? concept maps provided for grade two, or for any other grade. A pilot program effort is already in progress in Italy, where Giuseppe Valittuti (2004) and his colleagues are now working to translate The World of Science books into Italian. The greatest challenge we may expect is to change the school situational factors in the direction of teacher as coach and learner from the prevailing model of teachers as disseminator of information. We might expect some oppositioin to implementation of the New Model of Education from individuals who believe that "inquiry" learningis the only way to improve education. There is an enormous job of teacher education that needs to be done before the New Model can be implemented in schools. We are now beginning to see in many science textbooks the inclusion of concept mapping as one way to summarize understandings acquired by students after they study a unit or chapter. Using concept maps in planning a curriculum or instruction on a specific topic helps to make the instruction a€?conceptually transparenta€? to students.
One of the uses of concept maps that is growing at a fast rate is the use of concept maps to capture the a€?tacita€? knowledge of experts. While we expect that interviews, case study analyses, a€?critical incidenta€? analyses and similar techniques will have value in extracting and representing expert knowledge, it is likely that the end product of these studies might still be best represented in the form of concept maps, perhaps with some of the interview data and other information presented through icons on maps. At IHMC we continue to be very active in the area of capturing and representing expert knowledge (Coffey et al., 2002).
In this paper we have tried to present the theoretical foundations and the origins of what we call concept maps.
We also wish to use this document as a foundation for further experimentation, critique, and dialogue regarding the use of this tool.
The TILA-RESPA integrated disclosure rule replaces four disclosure forms with two new ones.
Ensures compliance with Federal consumer financial laws by supervising market participants and bringing enforcement actions when appropriate.
Provides, through a variety of initiatives and methods, information to consumers that will allow them to make decisions that are best for them. The CFPB is a 21st century agency that helps consumer finance markets work by making rules more effective, by consistently and fairly enforcing those rules, and by empowering consumers to take more control over their economic lives. Inform the public, policy makers, and the CFPB’s own policy-making with data-driven analysis of consumer finance markets and consumer behavior. Strategies and investments that lay out the actions we will take to accomplish our outcomes. Prior to Congress enacting the Dodd-Frank Act, consumer financial protection had not been the primary focus of any one federal agency, and no agency could set the rules for the entire financial market. Industry structure is always changing, and therefore, so too will the number of institutions that fall under the CFPB’s supervisory authority.
Develop and maintain an efficient fact-based approach to developing, evaluating, revising, and finalizing regulations. Develop a rule-writing team with highly advanced skills in relevant and specialized legal and business areas. Work with consumers and industry stakeholders on developing regulations to implement existing Federal consumer financial laws effectively. Develop ways to provide financial product disclosure information to consumers electronically. Section 1022(d) of the Dodd-Frank Act requires the CFPB to assess each significant rule the Bureau adopts and publish a report of the assessment within five years of the effective date.
The Regulatory Flexibility Act, as amended by SBREFA and the Dodd-Frank Act, requires the Bureau to convene a Small Business Review Panel before proposing a rule that will have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. Acquire and analyze qualitative and quantitative information and data pertaining to consumer financial product and service markets and companies.
Focus resources on institutions and their product lines that, based on their size, nature of the product, and field and market intelligence, pose the greatest risk to consumers. Establish a framework for sharing information, coordinating activity, and promoting best practices with fellow financial institution supervisory and law enforcement agencies to ensure the most effective use of regulatory resources. Continue to develop a technology solution for coordinating supervisory information, capable of recording, storing, tracking, and reporting information on the CFPB’s supervisory process. Continue implementing a tool capable of reviewing loan and deposit portfolios for compliance with Federal consumer financial laws. Effective supervision of financial institutions to foster compliance with Federal consumer financial laws requires prompt notice to institutions of matters requiring their attention and action to avoid further violations or consumer harm.
This measure ensures that the CFPB successfully resolves as many actions as possible while, at the same time, pursuing complex and challenging actions when appropriate, even when success is not assured.
The CFPB works to arm consumers with the knowledge, tools, and capabilities they need in order to make better-informed financial decisions by engaging them in the right moments of their financial lives, in moments when they are most receptive to seeking out and acting on assistance.
The wide scope of online identity fraud has goaded the FBI, FTC, and independent businesses to issue warnings on how to avoid online scams and keep yourself protected. Always question e-mails and opportunities that seem too good to be true, because they almost always are. Variations of this scam have been around in snail mail form since the 1920s, but they have only become more advanced as technology has grown.
Resumes are typically short one (sometimes two) page summaries of a job seekers experiences, skills and qualifications. This page can help you in your efforts by cutting to the chase and giving you FREE access to many professionally written, incredibly designed and industry targeted resumes.
To stand out and be successful a resume must make an immediate good impression with the employer, and link your competencies with the employers needs. If you really want your dream job then you must do everything within your power to get it. Your resume is a vital part of your job-search toolbox, it has two aims, firstly to capture the reader’s attention and secondly to reflect everything positive about you. Give examples of how you benefited previous employers (companies want to employ someone who can aid and advance their organisation).
Do not use very small type, a person having to read dozens of resumes in a afternoon is very likely to give up on one that is in very fine print or is crammed and crowded.
Also bear in mind that if you do get to the interview stage your interviewer may speak the language you claim to know. However your hobbies are usually of no interest to most employers and subsequently it is a section of your resume that will not always be read. Volunteer work can imply initiative, strong social involvement, and significant social experience.
When applying to a leadership or management position you might want to note your involvement in competitive team sports.
For an engineering or mechanical position, you might omit your interest in sports and instead mention that you enjoy working on your dirt bike or restoring old cars. Your love of skydiving could make you seem like too much of a risk taker for some companies. If you are applying for a desk or office job then you might not seem compatible if all of your hobbies are outdoor, physical activities.
Reading and writing is typically done in isolation and perceived as not very compatible with teamwork or customer service positions. Unless you are applying for a job as a comedian do not attempt to be funny or include any jokes, it can make you seem unprofessional and immature. If you have worked for a prestigious company or someone who is well known in your industry, then be sure to mention this. With the exception of governmental positions, which may require this information, your nationality should be omitted.
Any information you give should not reveal the actual names of your current or previous employers’ clients. Do not use coloured paper, as it can overshadow the content of your resume, instead always use clean white paper with a minimum density and weight of 90gsm. There are some employers out there who will check this to see whether you have written the resume yourself. Keep it fresh and current by updating it with the latest training programs and other academic qualifications that you have gained.
Do not jam your resume with text, use white space between the words, lines and paragraphs to improve the legibility of your resume. Nothing is more convincing and appealing to a prospective employer than a clear, specific and concise explanation of how you contributed to a previous employers’ success.
In this section recruiters will basically be looking for clues about the type of worker you are.
If you have worked for a prestigious company or market leader in your industry (if you have then certainly mention this). Demand for businesses to provide their readers with the best content available is on the rise, with 51% of B2B marketers indicating they will increase their content marketing spending in the next 12 months [source]. I have attempted to put together a map of content marketing tools available to online marketers. This Ultimate Content Marketing Tools List has been updated as of March 10, 2016 to include about 20 new tools. Yet many of these tools are quite different from each other and serve vastly different purposes within content marketing. A few dedicated folks have attempted to put together comprehensive collections of content marketing tools. I have been piecing together this graphic for several months now, but it’s hard to keep up with the rapidly evolving space of content marketing tools. Webtrends – This digital marketing company offers tools for measuring and optimizing digital campaigns.
Mixpanel – Instead of measuring pageviews, this analytics tool measures actions such as searches or shares to gain greater insights into user behavior. Woopra – Using real-time stats that can be broken down to an individual-level view, Woopra helps brands tracks visitors across multiple devices and build comprehensive timelines for every user. Kissmetrics – This ecommerce customer intelligence tool person-centric data in real time and ties anonymous activity to known activity once a visitor becomes a customer. Google Analytics – Google’s web analytics tool allows companies to customize reports, measure the impact of social media and mobile on website traffic, and measure conversion rates. Docalytics – Cloud-based platform that allows departments across a company to view documents, review analytics and track leads. Simplereach – By collecting real-time data, this tool helps track the impact of digital content and allows users to gain insight into what direction they should take their created content strategy. Trialfire – This visual editor for analytics helps marketers circumvent coding their website in order to put tracking on different pages. Curalate – This tool uses data to allow users to discover which images in Pinterest and Instagram are most engaging for their audiences. Socialbakers – View metrics and statistics for Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus, YouTube and LinkedIn. Visible – This social intelligence solution lets users monitor, analyze and engage with topics across social media platforms. CrowdBooster – Track your company’s social media engagement with information about interactions, follower growth and more. Nuvi- Nuvi provides real-time data visualizations that portray social chatter in a way that is easy to understand and show to others. Trendspottr – This tool uses real-time data to identify trending information across social media platforms before these topics become popular.
TrackMaven – This tool gathers together information on your competitors from across all social media channels into one platform. Simply Measured – This tool helps users analyze social media posts across nine different platforms by creating comprehensive reports, such as a competitor comparison analysis. Crimson Hexagon – Use Crimson Hexagon to measure the impact of past social media campaigns and improve future campaigns by backing up changes with data. Rival IQ – This analysis tool helps optimize content promotion by reporting on past and competitor performance.
Zuum – Get insights into competitor content on social media with this tool that identifies viral content and popular influencers. SumAll – This tool measures your social channels, websites and eCommerce to provide you with a complete look at the success of all online initiatives.
IBM Social Analytics – Analyze and predict customer behavior with this tool from IBM, which also allows you to create custom social media campaigns. Quantcast – Users will receive audience insight through geographic and demographic data, in addition to information about interests and related website activity. Alexa – This web traffic tool provides traffic data and global rankings for commercial websites. Compete – Gain insight into the competition by examining what websites and keywords others are using to drive traffic online, compiling lists of the top websites based on a variety of metrics, and tracking online market share by industry. Full Circle Insights– A marketing performance management tool that gives Salesforce users insight into their overall marketing impact. Squeeze CMM – Measure the ROI of content with this tool that generates reports and tracks audience activity and interests. Insight Squared – An all in one analytics software for sales, finance, marketing and support data.
Raven Tools– Report on all marketing campaigns using metrics that pertain to SEO, PPC and social media. SEM Rush – This tool gives users the ability to track keywords across both paid and organic search campaigns. BrightEdge – Measure and improve the SEO of your site with this content performance tool. MarketMuse – Allow MarketMuse to crawl your site and identify gaps in content, find prominent keywords and determine how your site stacks up against competitors. SerpStat – This software conducts in-depth competitive analysis based on SEO performance through domain lookup. Pardot – This lead management tool lets marketers and salespeople move prospects through the sales funnel by creating automated targeted messaging that based on prospects’ activity. Genius – Sales and marketing people can collaborate using this online-sales lead tracking software system to send personalized campaigns, see who’s visiting the website or opening emails, and assess prospect interest for follow up.
Marketo – This marketing automation tool integrates email, social media, offline events, content, and more, helping sales and marketing teams prioritize prospects based on demographic and behavioral criteria, measure performance of marketing campaigns, and more. Eloqua – The flexible campaign editor offers a whiteboard-like canvas where users can drag and drop elements such as email, segments, actions, and more to create smart marketing campaigns. Act-on – This cloud-based platform helps marketers organize campaigns, integrate marketing into sales and support systems, and measure results.
Silverpop – Using this digital marketing platform that unifies marketing automation, email, social media, and mobile, marketers can carry conversations across multiple devices and measure return on relationships. HubSpot – Marketers use this integrated inbound marketing system to create personalizable landing pages, emails, web pages, and more, plus tap into HupSpot’s vast knowledge base around content marketing best practices.
Bislr – With this marketing automation tool, users can draw collaborative automated campaigns on a whiteboard, listen to prospect behavior and create database prospects through social media hashtags and keywords. AutoPilot – Multi-channel marketing automation software for email, SMS and direct mail.
Route – This tool serves as a marketing and sales automation system to convert leads into customers. SalesPanda – Inbound marketing automation software that helps you create a strong online presence, enhance your website traffic and increase lead conversions for your business. Monetate – Turn real-time into relevant digital experiences by taking a snapshot of every visitor, creating multivariate tests and rules-based product recommendations, and more. Demandbase – Create targeted, relevant conversations with buyers at every stage, personalize the web experience, segment and analyze companies and more using this B2B marketing tool. 40 Nuggets – Harness marketing automation strategies, audience-analytics, and predictive intelligence to personally engage with and tailor content to each customer. Resonance – This tool retargets content for your audience, and keeps your messaging in front of them, by tracking what your site visitors are viewing and making them aware of more relevant content.
Idio – Improve content marketing strategy by examining specific customer interests and increasing the engagement of content. Evergage – Real-time web personalization solution that empowers marketers to better engage and convert web site visitors without using developers. Triblio – With Triblio, marketers can create a personalized, multichannel email and web campaign in 60 seconds. Constant Contact – Design professional-looking emails, grow and manage your email list, and track results.
Vertical Response – This free tools enables companies to send emails and newsletters that are responsive on all platforms. RapidMail – RapidMail is an email newsletter software that also delivers statistics and insights needed to grow a subscriber base.
Sales Panda – This tool help to create better marketing collateral, improve SEO and share relevant content on social media to build your sales pipeline. GetResponse – GetResponse is an email marketing software that assists in the design and distribution of content for better consumer engagement.
Emma – This email marketing software offers several different editions, customized for businesses, agencies, non-profits and universities. MailChimp – Use this email marketing software to create a subscriber base, automate and personalize emails. Seismic – This tool helps users make sure all of their content is up to date and relevant to create polished presentations and forecasts.
Savo – Savo benchmarks users’ sales enablement process against the industry they’re in and has a set of integrated sales enablement tools to accompany an organization’s existing process. Docurated – This tool helps to create presentations with repurposed content and surfaces users’ most relevant content to be included.
Postwire – This solution helps marketers post, edit and share various types of content on their page and manage relevant content for their sales teams in one spot. Qvidian – These sales enablement solutions help businesses reduce the sales team onboarding time and allow these teams to collaborate more efficiently. Jive Software – This software allows teams across a company to collaborate in one workspace to get collateral out the door quickly, stay organized and better enable sales. SalesFusion – Use SalesFusion to align marketing and sales with lead scoring, marketing automation and much more.
Sprinklr – Large global companies use this social media management system to engage with customers, connect with CRM systems, build custom widgets, publish and manage content, and more. Tweetdeck – Track brand mentions and hashtags, manage multiple Twitter accounts, schedule Tweets, and more all in a single Twitter platform. Hootsuite – Manage multiple social media accounts, analyze social media traffic, track brand mentions, collaborate with other team members, and schedule messages and tweets through this social media management tool. Buffer – Add articles, photos, and video, and this social media tool will automatically post the content on your social media accounts throughout the day.
Keyhole -Keyhole’s real-time dashboard shows how many people posted with your hashtag, along with the number of Retweets, Likes and Impressions your campaign is generating. Sprout Social– This management tool lets multiple users schedule, publish and analyze social media posts across several platforms. Social Bro – Follow trends on Twitter and capitalize upon them with this fully functioning twitter listening and publishing tool. Salesforce Marketing Cloud – Find and analyze what’s being said about your brand, along with your competitors, with this monitoring tool to find out what customers want, what content is working and how to keep up with the conversation.
Social Mention – Social search engine that searches for and analyzes real-time aggregated content across 100+ social media platforms.
Bottlenose – Users are able to track what’s trending in their industry and get warnings about breaking news stories using advanced topic discovery and NLP (Natural Language Processing). Marketwired Resonate – With this platform, users are connected to their industry marketplace in real time through social media and traditional distribution. CisionPoint – PR software that helps users reach their audiences and manage campaigns across traditional, digital and social media.
Mentia – This tool helps you find relevant content and schedule social media updates to earn a better ROI.
Twitter – With over half a billion registered users, Twitter lets users post messages of up to 140 characters, share photos and videos, create custom lists, send direct messages, and more.
Facebook – This social media platform has over a billion users and lets users connect with friends, share links, photos, videos, and events, join groups, and more. Pinterest – Pinterest users share and tag images and videos on customizable boards, follow brands and individuals, “repin” images, and more. LinkedIn – A business-focused online network that includes features such as sharing links, adding connections, joining groups, writing recommendations, searching for connections by company, industry, skills, and more.
Google+ – Google’s social network that allows users to set up hangouts using video chat, create “circles” of people for organizing contacts and targeting messaging, and more. Offerpop – Offerpop is a social media platform for businesses to recruit, engage and convert customers. Percussion – This streamlined CMS offers editable templates, shared assets, versioning, automatic link management, drag and drop editing, and more, enabling content producers to simplify their content editing and publishing process.
Tumblr – Known for its community of content creators and curators and its capabilities for sharing multimedia content, this microblogging platform hosts over 100 million blogs.
WordPress – This popular CMS and blogging software lets users create custom themes, add plugins, publish content, moderate comments, and more. Livejournal – With over 63 million journals and communities, Livejournal offers a free, open-source platform for blogging and sharing content. ScribbleLive – This tool combines content planning and publishing tools to allow marketers to create robust content hubs and websites.
Contentful – Content Management platform helping editors and developers oversee and serve content into mobile and web applications. Brightcove –  This provider of cloud content services offers an online video platform for adding custom video players to websites, social media profiles, and mobile destinations. PR Newswire – Distribute news releases to a global media database of more than 700,000 journalists and blogger contacts, monitor traditional and social media, and engage in real time with journalists, bloggers, and other influencers. SlideShare – Upload and share slide presentations, gain insight into who’s viewing your presentations, collect business leads, and more. Cadence9 – This unified solution for managing content marketing lets marketers plan content using an editorial calendar, assign tasks to team members, manage content creation and publishing workflow, and more. Papershare – Cloud-based promotional tool for content marketers that distributes to multiple channels and alerts marketing and sales teams when content is published. PixxFly – Automate the distribution and syndication of all your content with this outbound marketing automation solution. Traackr – Manage influencer relationships with this tool, which lets users discover influencers, nurture relationships and then demonstrate the impact of these relationships. Little Bird – With this social monitoring tool, users can create lists of peer-validation ranked influencers across social platforms on various topics to stay on top of the conversation in their industry. Onalytica – Onalytica provides influencer marketing software and supporting services to help users identify industry influencers and improve relationships with these influencers. BuzzSumo – This content performance analysis tool can be used to identify the influencers who are creating popular, newsworthy content.
Klout – Klout scores social media users’ influence on a 100-point scale and takes into account platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, WordPress and LinkedIn.
Appinions – This software analyzes and reports on industry topics, influencers, and social channels so users can best decide what topic to write about, which influencers to target, and where to distribute content.
Exposely – Exposely pairs brands with influencers who are willing to sell advertising space on their social channels and other owned platforms. Tap Influence – This marketplace makes it easy for brands to identify and communicate with social media influencers and collaborate on content creation. Kred – Users can identify social media influencers with Kred, which measures influence based on Twitter and Facebook output. GaggleAMP – Amplify social media efforts with this tool that allows you to create “gaggles” of people who can share company social media updates to their followers. SocialChorus – Create brand ambassadors out of employees, customers and partners with this tool that allows for the amplification of social media posts. Amplifinity – This tool creates advocacy programs across several mediums such as email, direct mail and social media.
EveryoneSocial – Allow employees and customers to build their own social profiles while simultaneously sharing your company’s created and curated content.
SoAmpli – Encourage employees to become brand advocates with this tool that helps you feed content to employees and reward them accordingly.
Influitive – Create an army of advocates with this tool that fosters a community of customers to share your content across various platforms.
SociaLook – Increase content traffic and conversion rates by sending messages through employees’ social media presence.


Dynamic Signal – Dynamic Signal lets employees receive and post company-approved content to their social networks, transforming them into experts, advocates and contributors. Sociabble – The Sociabble employee advocacy platform enables companies to reach and share more effectively by creating a one-stop information hub for employees. Social Chorus – SocialChorus is the handheld app that connects every employee to a daily digest of work news and content. ContentGain – This widget places links to third-party content on other websites to boost distribution. Disqus – This discussion platform helps bloggers and website publisher engage readers through the comment section. OneSpot – This tool automatically turns owned or earned content into optimized ads, distributes the content across OneSpot’s ad inventory, retargets users, and monitors results. Gravity – Using algorithms based on users’ reading and sharing history, Gravity enables websites to deliver personalized recommendations. Limk – Content distribution and discovery platform that helps websites grow traffic while reaching highly engaged audiences. Vocus – This tools scans for prospects looking for companies like yours, suggests relevant social conversations and distributes your press for traffic and search.
Taboola – This promotional tool takes your content and places it on publishing websites, targeting it towards your selected audience.
Content Blvd – Connect with brands and publishers to create relevant and rewarding product placements. Vibrant Media – This native advertising tool places content directly within other editorial content and all triggers are user-initiated. Shareaholic – Implement sharing buttons and advertise content with this all-in-one content amplification platform.
Cooperatize – Promote sponsored content with this tool that connects brands with the most popular bloggers and publishers across the internet. Zemanta – This plug-in creates connections between bloggers, content creators, and publishers that publish content on similar topics. ReadyTalk – This online conferencing tool offers a single interface for web, audio, and video conferencing, as well as the ability to record and share webinars and integrate with mobile conferencing. Webex – Using Cisco’s webinar products, users can host or attend meetings using HD video, share files, and more.
BrightTalk – Run interactive live webinars with features including real-time polls, downloads, question and answer, and more. CVENT – Offers software solutions to event planners for online event registration, venue selection, event management, mobile apps for events, email marketing and web surveys. Double Dutch –  Mobile event applications, with a unique focus on capturing and surfacing data from live events.
Certain – This tool was designed specifically for marketers and other professionals to easily organize, manage and produce live events.
EventPro – This tool can be used for all of your event scheduling needs, from booking rooms to catering and beverages. Eventbrite – Use this tool to set up events, control ticket prices and communicate with attendees. Guidebook – Build and launch branded mobile app guides for corporate meetings, sales kickoffs, trainings, conferences and events.
Widen – Create, manage, distribute and preserve content with this digital asset management system. WebDAM – This tool gives enterprise customers the ability to store, organize, find, retrieve and share digital files.
Canto – Canto simplifies the management of all digital assets within a company, creating smarter workflow processes and organization opportunities. Razuna– This tool stores, shares, secures and indexes digital files and then makes them available in a search tool. Adobe Experience Manager – Companies can create, manage, and optimize digital customer experiences across a number of channels including web, mobile apps and sites, as well as social communities. IntelligenceBank – IntelligenceBank offers four different asset management apps based on your business size and specific needs, providing features such as file storage and risk and compliance.
Media Valet – Access and manage your assets from virtually anywhere with this cloud computing software. Content Insight – Develop a content inventory with this auditing tool that provides you with a summary all existing content. Scripted – Subcontract writing projects to an online writing team through this online platform, which also offers copyediting and the ability to request pitches from writers. Textbroker – Assign writing projects including SEO and website localization through this online platform. Skyword – This content production system allows companies to optimize manage and pay writers, use an SEO scorecard to optimize content, and more. Brafton – Using its in-house search engine optimization and social media marketing expertise, this online news and content agency creates news content, videos, infographics, and other items for businesses.
Zerys – This project management tool and content marketplace allows businesses to locate professional freelance writers, assign and review content, export or auto-publish content, and more.
Pulse Point – Technology platform that combines programmatic targeting, distribution and optimization with content marketing. Contently – Find and collaborate with high-quality freelance writers, manage payments and assignments, and more using this online platform for content marketing. Wordsmith – This software enables you to create an unlimited number of articles or reports using data. Scribit – Search and browse for articles and videos, share content, and track conversions using this content curation platform. Magnify – This fully customizable platform allows publishers and brands curate and share online videos. InboundWriter – Monitor topics, gain insights into what makes readers tick, boost content popularity, and more using this tool designed for writers and content marketers. Scribe – Created by the people behind Copyblogger Media, Scribe helps content creators identify topics that are relevant to the intended audience, measure social media engagement around content, and more. Wordy – This tool pairs professional content editors with users to edit, proof and optimize various forms of written content. CloudWords – This translation management tool allows you to localize content by uploading it to a system and then selecting a vendor to translate it.
SmartLing– Speak to customers in their native language with this tool that automates the translation process by connecting content producers with translation professionals. Phrase App – Translate content that is stored on websites, mobile and desktop applications with this translation management software.
Crowd in – Manage the localization workflow process with this software that helps control the process, but also provides tools for translators to work more efficiently.
OneSky – Translate apps or websites into 47 different languages with this translation service platform. PoEditor – Allows for a hassle free software localization process through a collaborative translation platform. Storify – Collect social media mentions on a chosen topic, trend, or event and curate the best social media elements in one place.
Silk – Use your company’s data to create structured web pages that automatically draw connections between facts, data, and more. Graphicly – Authors and publishers use this online tool to convert content for digital distribution and collect insights on reader behavior. AcroLinx– Make all content consistent with this tool that analyzes each writer’s content for tone of voice, style, SEO and more to ensure it aligns with a predetermined company standard.
Byword – This text editor, which works across desktops, iPads and iPhones, allows users to compose text with keyboard shortcuts, word counters and more. Hemingway – Hemingway brings clarity to your writing by identifying common mistakes in sentences such as illogical structure, grammatical errors and overuse of adverbs. Evernote – Manage notes, ideas and sketches to create better, more organized writing with this workspace app that syncs across all your devices.
Ulysses – This text editing app lets users focus on writing by providing the regular features of a word processor without cluttering up the screen.
Quabel – Use Quabel to write distraction-free in full-screen mode and also keep track of word count and estimated time it would take someone to read the piece.
Google Docs – Use Google’s online word processor to write, track changes and collaborate with other users. Compendium – Plan your content using Compendium’s calendar-based tool, create efficiently placed content across multiple channels, and track the effectiveness of each piece of content. Divvy – This platform combines web-based calendars, content management and online collaboration to help global content teams plan, schedule and produce any type of content across an organization. ProofHub – Project management tool for organization and collaboration with clients, vendors and stakeholders.
Comindware – This tool delivers Business Operations Management solutions to enable performance and efficiency optimization. GatherContent – Organize and streamline your website content using drag and drop features, create content guidelines, collaborate with a content team, and export content using this online collaboration tool.
Google Drive – Create, store, and share including spreadsheets, text documents, drawings, forms, and presentations. Kapost – This content marketing platform allows marketers to collaborate, distribute, and analyze all content types within a single platform.
SocialCast – This collaboration tool organizes workflow into a single location accessible from anywhere on any device.
Beegit – Use Beegit to organize your content marketing workflow across teams and departments. Brightpod – This project management tool is made specifically for digital marketing activities, monitoring project status, task assignment and more. Contentful – This cloud-based software allows for live collaboration, image uploading and a publishing tool that optimizes content for any device.
Content Launch – Content Launch was designed specifically for small and medium sized businesses and helps manage workflow and distributes content with one click. Contentivo – This management system is great for collaborating across teams by allowing team members to give feedback, track versions and eventually publish and analyze content.
Trello – Trello is an easy and visual way to manage your projects and organize anything. SumoMe – Add a variety of pop-up and opt-in forms to your website to generate leads and grow your subscriber base.
BrightInfo – Assess the conversion rate of your existing website and create more opportunities for conversion with a variety of opt-in form placements. Optimizely – Use this tool to track and analyze all conversion opportunities on your site and make appropriate improvements and changes. Captora – Captora helps marketers scale and optimize digital marketing campaigns to accelerate pipeline and capture new buyers.
Easelly – Using a theme-based approach to creating infographics and visualizations this online tool, lets users drag and drop art into a theme to create shareable graphics. Adobe Creative Cloud – Sync and organize your creative assets across multiple devices, track comments, build and publish websites, apps, and more. Youzign – Create nine different types of graphics, from infographics to flyers, with this free, online graphic design tool. Pixlr – Edit and create photos for your website and ensure they are optimized for various devices. Canva – Create graphics for your blog, social channels, website and much more with this online image creation tool that also comes with a stock photo library.
Stipso – This software enables content marketers to create infographics, mashing up social polling and data visualisation to create interactive visual content. Piktochart – This tool provides infographic templates for users and helps them create and share compelling content.
Snappa – Easy to use graphics design tool with hundreds of ready made templates to choose from. KnowledgeVision – Turn presentations and web content into an integrated, interactive online video experience that doesn’t require special software or app downloads.
Brainshark – Sync up marketing and sales people using a systematic, coordinated approach in this content-centric sales platform.
Wyzowl – This software helps create engaging visual content such as videos to market a brand.
Prezi – This presentation tool helps users organize and share ideas by creating visualizations.
Lookbook HQ – Using your most relevant, compelling content, this tool compiles all the information you want to display to customers into a visually appealing lookbook that can be embedded or shared.
Zmags – This platform helps e-commerce users create and share online catalogs, lookbooks, magazines, etc.
Podbean – Share and create podcasts with this tool that also lets you sell podcasts with no transaction fee. Wheeldo – Use Wheeldo to create lead-generating quizzes for your website, email list or social channels. SnapApp – This content marketing platform helps users create interactive content that runs across all platforms and is customized for each device.
Qzzr – With Qzzr, users can create quizzes to embed on websites, share on social media and eventually generate leads.
Contest Factory – Create surveys, questionnaires, sweepstakes and more with this software and service provider. StatSilk – Statsilk is a visualization software that enables users to make interactive maps and other types of visualizations.
Votigo – Build content, sweepstakes and other interactive elements across social platforms with this social marketing management tool.
Kuia – This tool allows you to create calculators to better understand your visitors. Curata CMP – The Curata CMP Content Marketing Platform is designed specifically for B2B marketers to help them drive leads and revenue from content. Newscred –  NewsCred helps brands manage the entire content marketing process on one platform. Percolate – Percolate is a leading social relationship management platform that also offers unique content management capabilities for large B2C companies.
They include concepts, usually enclosed in circles or boxes of some type, and relationships between concepts indicated by a connecting line linking two concepts. The hierarchical structure for a particular domain of knowledge also depends on the context in which that knowledge is being applied or considered. These are relationships or links between concepts in different segments or domains of the concept map.
Normally these are not included in ovals or boxes, since they are specific events or objects and do not represent concepts. During the course of this study the researchers interviewed many children, and they found it difficult to identify specific changes in the childrena€™s understanding of science concepts by examination of interview transcripts. These are acquired by children during the ages of birth to three years, when they recognize regularities in the world around them and begin to identify language labels or symbols for these regularities (Macnamara, 1982).
Concept maps can be helpful to meet this condition, both by identifying large general concepts held by the learner prior to instruction on more specific concepts, and by assisting in the sequencing of learning tasks though progressively more explicit knowledge that can be anchored into developing conceptual frameworks. This condition can be met after age 3 for virtually any domain of subject matter, but it is necessary to be careful and explicit in building concept frameworks if one hopes to present detailed specific knowledge in any field in subsequent lessons.
The one condition over which the teacher or mentor has only indirect control is the motivation of students to choose to learn by attempting to incorporate new meanings into their prior knowledge, rather than simply memorizing concept definitions or propositional statements or computational procedures.
Creativity can be seen as a very high level of meaningful learning, and we will discuss this further. Both direct presentation and discovery teaching methods can lead to highly rote or highly meaningful learning by the learner, depending on the disposition of the learner and the organization of the instructional materials.
The Rote-Meaningful learning continuum is not the same as the Reception-Discovery instructional continuum. Concept maps are also effective in identifying both valid and invalid ideas held by students, and this will be discussed further in another section. Figure 4 illustrates the memory systems of the human mind, and interactions with inputs from our affective and psychomotor inputs. The limiting feature here is that working memory can process only a relatively small number of psychological units (five to nine) at any one moment (Miller, 1956). For example, if a person is presented with a list of 10-12 letters or numbers to memorize in a few seconds, most will recall only 5 to 9 of these. We believe one of the reasons concept mapping is so powerful for the facilitation of meaningful learning is that it serves as a kind of template or scaffold to help to organize knowledge and to structure it, even though the structure must be built up piece by piece with small units of interacting concept and propositional frameworks. While the latter are the principal elements that make up our knowledge structures and form our cognitive structure in the brain, we pause briefly to discuss other forms of learning. So-called a€?learning stylea€? differences are, to a large extent, derivative from differences in the patterns of learning that students have employed varying from high commitment to continuous rote-mode learning to almost exclusive commitment to meaningful mode learning.
The staff of PUP interviewed 23 Harvard graduates, alumni and faculty, asking each a€?Why do we have seasons?a€? Only eleven concepts, properly organized are needed to understand why we have seasons, and one arrangement of these concepts is shown in Figure 5.
One representation of the knowledge structure required required for understanding why we have seasons. It is coming to be generally recognized now that the meaningful learning processes described above are the same processes used by scientists and mathematicians, or experts in any discipline, to construct new knowledge. We can use the analogy that concepts are like the atoms of matter and propositions are like the molecules of matter.
Since concept map structures are dependent on the context in which they will be used, it is best to identify a segment of a text, a laboratory or field activity, or a particular problem or question that one is trying to understand.
Every concept map responds to a focus question, and a good focus question can lead to a much richer concept map. These are links between concepts in different segments or domains of knowledge on the map that help to illustrate how these domains are related to one another. A a€?stringa€? map created by a fourth grade student following a class field trip to a paper mill.
Therefore, it is necessary to be selective in identifying cross-links, and to be as precise as possible in identifying linking words that connect concepts. This is because they poorly understand the relationship between the concepts, or the meanings of the concepts, and it is the linking words that specify this relationship. When computer software is used, one can go back, change the size and font style, and add colors to a€?dress upa€? the concept map.
The software not only makes it easy for users of all ages to construct and modify concept maps in a similar way that a word processor makes it easy to write text, it allows users to collaborate at a distance in the construction in their maps, publish their concept maps so anybody on the Internet can access them, link resources to their maps to further explain their contents, and search the WWW for information related to the map.
Links to these resources are displayed as icons underneath the concepts, as shown in Figure 7. Vygotsky (1978) introduced the idea that language and social dialogue can support learning, especially when members of the social group are at about the same Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). When maps are stored in a server on the Internet, users with appropriate permissions (CaA±as et al., 2003c) can edit shared concept maps at the same time (synchronously) or at their convenience (asynchronously). Concept maps within this environment are likely to be used as the mechanism to determine the level of understanding students have about the topic being studied before the topic is introduced.
The whole spectrum of learning activities can be integrated using CmapTools, incorporating various learning activities recorded via the software creating a digital portfolio as a product of the learning. For example, a€?How do we measure time?a€? can be given to the students as the question to answer through the construction of the concept map. The staring point for the construction of the concept map can be a list of concepts that the teacher wants to make sure all students include in their map. The beginning of a concept map with a focus question and a parking lot with concepts to be included in the map. An a€?expert skeletona€? concept map has been previously prepared by an expert on the topic, and permits both students and teachers to build their knowledge on a solid foundation.
Observe that in this example, some of the concepts were left in the a€?parking lota€? for the student to add to the concept map. Oa€™Donnell, Dansereau, & Hall (2002) have shown that a€?knowledge mapsa€? can act as scaffolds to facilitate learning.
The intention is that the expert will be better at selecting the small number of concepts that are key to understanding the topic, and express accurately the relationships between these concepts.
But the expected final number of concepts in the map is a function of the number of concepts in the a€?skeletona€?.
For example, Figure 11 shows a a€?expert skeletona€? concept map for the sciences that encompasses key major concepts needed to understand science. An Energy transformation Cmap that could be accessed by linking it to the a€?Energya€? concept in the concept map in Figure 11, and a Photosynthesis Cmap that may be linked to it. Thus if one clicks on a concept such as a€?electrical energya€? in Figure 12 and selects one of the a€?searcha€? menu options, CmapTools will retrieve WWW resources that not only deal with electricity, but also relate to other concepts in the map. In fact, teachers supervising this kind of study are likely to learn as many new things as their students. Unlike most elementary science textbooks, this series presents in-depth instruction in basic concepts at all grade levels, including instruction in concepts dealing with the nature of science, nature of matter, energy and energy transformations. Schema showing the New Model for Education with an a€?expert skeletona€? concept map that can serve as the a€?backbonea€? for an emerging portfolio in science. It would be important for the teacher to help students perform these activities, and similar related activities, some of which might by suggested in WWW resources.
Schema showing the New Model for Education with concepts and resources added to the a€?expert skeletona€? concept map, plus a page from a World of Science book providing relevant reading and activities. Students need concrete, hands on experiences with real things and to observe real phenomena to put meaning into the concept labels provided in the concept maps and other resources.
Valittuti and his colleagues have obtained funding from the Italian Ministry of Education for teacher training and a number of elementary school teams began working with the World of Science concept maps and other resources during the 2005-2006 year. We know that we need to engage teachers and administrators in training programs that can model the new educational approaches, and we need to seek their counsel on ways to improve on the New Model for Education. Teachers need to become familiar with the use of CmapTools software and the various tools it contains.
Change in school practices is always slow, but it is likely that the use of concept maps in school instruction will increase substantially in the next decade or two. Many students have difficulty identifying the important concepts in a text, lecture or other form of presentation. A concept map prepared cooperatively by the faculty of the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University to show the over-all structure for a revised curriculum.
In fact, these methods continue to be highly popular with many cognitive scientists, most of whom are unfamiliar with Ausubela€™s work and the kind of epistemological ideas on which concept mapping is based. As the CmapTools software has evolved, it has become an increasingly useful tool for this work, as illustrated by the remarkable resources on Mars prepared at NASA Amesa€™ Center for Mars Exploration (Briggs et al., 2004). An example of a concept map that can be accessed via clicking on one of the resources attached to a concept on Figure 16. While at first glance concept maps may appear to be just another graphic representation of information, understanding the foundations for this tool and its proper use will lead the user to see that this is truly a profound and powerful tool. The CmapTools web site provides opportunities for lively exchanges among users and researchers. We take in data, manage it, store it, share it appropriately, and protect it from unauthorized access.
This means developing and leveraging technology to enhance the CFPB’s reach, impact, and effectiveness.
Therefore, we invest in world-class training and support in order to create an environment that encourages employees at all levels to tackle complex challenges.
We serve our colleagues by listening to one another and by sharing our collective knowledge and experience. We believe in investing in the growth of our colleagues and in creating an organization that is accountable to the American people. The result was a system without sufficiently effective rules or consistent enforcement of the law.
The CFPB is designed to be agile and adjust its approach to supervising the financial industry in order to respond rapidly to changing consumer needs.
Working with industry groups, develop data standards so that private enterprise can create new tools that help consumers understand the financial products they buy.
The assessment addresses, among other factors, the rule’s effectiveness in meeting the purposes and objectives of the Dodd-Frank Act, Title X and the specific goals the Bureau states for the rule. Other public outreach efforts, such as meetings with consumers and industry stakeholders in the development of a proposal, inform and otherwise assist the Bureau in crafting more effective rules.
A thorough report development and review process ensures high quality reports that appropriately explain what the examination team found and why corrective actions, if any, are required. Timely pursuit of resolutions increases deterrence and provides consumers with greater protections of law. The CFPB seeks to successfully resolve as many fair lending actions as possible while, at the same time, pursuing complex and challenging actions when appropriate, even when success is not assured. To that end, the CFPB will develop and maintain a variety of tools, programs, and initiatives that provide targeted, meaningful, and accessible assistance and information to consumers at the moment they need it.
These people will go to great lengths to con a poor, unsuspecting samaritan into giving up their pertinent information, identity, details, or bank account numbers. The first step on this list is always this: Do not respond to unsolicited e-mail, and do not click on any embedded links within those e-mails. You would think everyone would know about this scam in 2014, and that nobody would fall for it, but you’d be wrong. A wealthy Nigerian family or a widowed African woman is trying to get money out of the country. They are often the first contact an employer has with a prospective employee, and are used to screen job applicants and learn more about them. Job seekers usually end up creating many drafts before they feel comfortable with the end result. This is a resource page aimed at helping you to write a resume that will give a well-organized and concise presentation of the most relevant information about you. This is because they need resumes to find suitable candidates to fill their vacancy’s, however they very often have to read through piles of poorly written resumes to find the right one.
Use it to show where you worked, what you learnt, and how your skills and experience are relevant to the job you’re applying for. These are basically verbs that can make you stand out by putting more emphasis on your experience and achievements. However you should note that a keen eyed recruiter may be able to roughly work out your age from your career history and academic qualifications.
Hiring Managers are likely to quickly discard candidates whose resumes are difficult to read or have the key information buried under a morass of less important text.
Do not include your work number unless you have a private office where you can take phone calls without being overheard. It’s also not wise to use unusual fonts, as apart from making it hard to read it can also be difficult to scan electronically. Hiring managers can be very picky and after a quick glance will discard those that have spelling mistake’s or appear disorganized.
It also takes up premium space which can be used for more relevant information which the recruiter will be interested in.
First of all as you are likely have more hobbies and interests than you can include in your resume, only include those that are related to the job you are applying for, or that you think will interest the employer the most.
Humour is a subjective thing and since you have no idea who will be reading your CV and whether they have a similar sense of humour to you it’s best not to take any chances. Remember that Hiring Managers will have a stack of CVs to go through, their time is limited and so is their patience. The golden rule is that it should be as concise as possible, but long enough to entice a hiring manager to call you for a job interview. As long as you are either a native to the country in which you are applying or can provide a suitable working visa, there is no need to explain where you are from.
Also be careful about disclosing confidential information about a previous employer’s sales figures or business turnover etc. After you have finished writing it and before you send it out have your resume reviewed by a competent person. They believe that employers already know that virtually all serious applicants have referees and if required they can be supplied separately.
The purpose of this section is to impress the employer with your abilities and to cause them to want to ask further questions about your work performance. It’s a place for you to show off your desirable traits and to prove your future value to prospective employers. Mention points which were particularly noteworthy or interesting and which will show that you brought a different perspective to things. My hope is that it will help guide you through the many content marketing technologies and tools to the one that best fits your needs. While many of these tools existed for years prior to the advent of content marketing, and would normally be deemed as simply internet marketing tools, many of them are rechristening themselves as content marketing tools.
Some technologies may help create content, some may help distribute your content, yet others may help you simply measure the effectiveness of your content marketing. In April of 2013, Rebecca Lieb of Altimeter started a list of 15 content marketing vendors.
Also in April of 2013, Content Amp, a UK based content marketing agency created an impressive and visually appealing infographic with a wide variety of content marketing tools with an attempt at groupings as well. For every tool you see in the map, there is a long tail many other tools that are similar or performs parts of functions of the tool included in the graphic.
There are many tools that fall into multiple categories, but I have placed them in the category that represents them the best.
Webtrends offers analytic intelligence including customer intelligence and behavioral segmentation, targeting and  scoring, and more. Personalize content and messages for your audience by using information such as what they’re searching for, clicking, buying and more. Marketers can personalize messaging, content, and calls-to-action for their multichannel campaigns by persona, account and buying stage. In addition to email, Constant Contact offers tools for social campaigns, online surveys, and more. Social – Schedule and manage social media updates across several platforms with this tool that also suggests posts for your target audience. This is a good way for searching influencers, getting news from your niche, checking opinions, etc.


By extending their social media strategies, Dynamic Signal’s clients ignite brand awareness, employee engagement and revenue.
By managing content creation, distribution and measurement, you’ll be able to scale and streamline the entire customer experience. Words on the line, referred to as linking words or linking phrases, specify the relationship between the two concepts.
Therefore, it is best to construct concept maps with reference to some particular question we seek to answer, which we have called a focus question. Cross-links help us see how a concept in one domain of knowledge represented on the map is related to a concept in another domain shown on the map. This early learning of concepts is primarily a discovery learning process, where the individual discerns patterns or regularities in events or objects and recognizes these as the same regularities labeled by older persons with words or symbols. The indirect control over this choice is primarily in instructional strategies used and the evaluation strategies used.
They can be as effective as more time-consuming clinical interviews for identifying the relevant knowledge a learner possesses before or after instruction (Edwards & Fraser, 1983). However, if the letters can be grouped to form a know word, or word-like unit, or the numbers can be related to a phone number or something known, then 10 or more letters or numbers can be recalled. Second, the knowledge structure or cognitive structure of the learner is not enhanced or modified to clear up faulty ideas. Iconic learning involves the storage of images of scenes we encounter, people we meet, photos, and a host of other images. His work has received much attention in education and has served to draw attention to the broad range of differences in human abilities for various kinds of learning and performance.
It is not easy to help students in the former condition move to patterns of learning of the latter type.
The PUP interviewers found that 21 of the 23 interviewed could not explain why we have seasons, a topic that is taught repeatedly in school.
In fact, Novak has argued that new knowledge creation is nothing more than a relatively high level of meaningful learning accomplished by individuals who have a well organized knowledge structure in the particular area of knowledge, and also a strong emotional commitment to persist in finding new meanings (Novak, 1977, 1993, 1998). There are only around 100 different kinds of atoms, and these make up an infinite number of different kinds of molecules. Some important considerations for construction of better concept maps and facilitation of learning will be discussed further below. This creates a context that will help to determine the hierarchical structure of the concept map. When learning to construct concept maps, learners tend to deviate from the focus question and build a concept map that may be related to the domain, but which does not answer the question. These concepts could be listed, and then from this list a rank ordered list should be established from the most general, most inclusive concept, for this particular problem or situation at the top of the list, to the most specific, least general concept at the bottom of the list. Post-its allow a group to work on a whiteboard or butcher paper and to move concepts around easily.
Cross-links are important in order to show that the learner understands the relationships between the sub-domains in the map. The class identified concepts in the parking lot on the left, but this student was not successful in using many of these and her map makes little sense.
Cross-links are key to show that the learner understands the relationships between the sub-domains in the map.
In addition, one should avoid a€?sentences in the boxesa€?, that is, full sentences used as concepts, since this usually indicates that a whole subsection of the map could be constructed from the statement in the box.
Once students begin to focus-in on good linking words, and on the identification of good cross-links, they can see that every concept could be related to every other concept.
Clicking on one of these icons will display a list of links from which the user can select to open the linked resource.
Many of the CmapServers are a€?publica€?, allowing anybody (no authorization needed) to publish their collections of concept maps and resources (CaA±as et al., 2004a). Concept maps are now beginning to be used in corporations to help teams clarify and articulate the knowledge needed to solve problems ranging from the design of new products to marketing to administrative problem resolution. The concept map can thus become an artifact around which the various activities of the learning process can be centered, as shown in Figure 8. The maps are then developed, extended and refined as the students develop other activities on the topic and increase their understanding, possibly concluding with complex knowledge models that link resources, results, experiments, etc., and that can be used if desired as a final presentation by the students. The concept map can be constructed by students working in couples or small groups, where the teacher must pay attention to the level of participation of every student.
The list of propositions on the top right window are automatically derived from the Cmap, and those with a a€?pina€? have been a€?publisheda€?.
The type of focus question makes a difference in the type of concept maps that the student builds. For example, a a€?skeleton mapa€? that consists of five concepts should be expanded by the student to a map with 15 to 20 concepts. Learners can begin with such a map, add concepts from the parking lot, link digital resources and also construct more specific submaps.
The program tries to figure out what the Cmap is about and prepare a query for Web search engines that will generate results that are relevant to the ideas being developed in the concept map. Moreover, beginning with the a€?expert skeletona€? maps as starting points reduces the chance that misconceptions or faulty ideas held by learners or teachers will be reinforced and maximize the chance that they will build knowledge structures that in time remove or diminish misconceptions (Novak, 2002). Learners would also add their own concepts to the a€?expert skeletona€? concept map, as well as resources identified in readings and from the Internet.
The plan is to have four sets of schools focus on different aspects of The World of Science series and produce photos and videos of students doing projects that illustrate and utilize the various science concepts. There is also the challenge of changing assessment practices that now rely primarily on multiple-choice tests that measure mainly rote recall of information, to performance-based tests that require students to demonstrate that they understand basic concepts and can use these concepts in novel problems solving, and that they can use Internet resources to grow and modify their concepts and learn new concepts. They also need to learn about the theory underlying concept mapping, including the ideas in this paper. Other innovative practices for assessing student understanding of subject matter are also available (Mintzes et al., 2000).
The hierarchical organization of concept maps suggests more optimal sequencing of instructional material. Part of the problem stems from a pattern of learning that simply requires memorization of information, and no evaluation of the information is required.
This tacit knowledge is acquired over years of experience and derives in part from activities of the expert that involve thinking, feeling and acting. We also used a€?clinical interviewsa€? in our early work, as noted above, but we found it necessary to invent a better way to represent what our learners knew and how their knowledge was changing over time. Figure 16 shows a a€?Homea€? concept map for the knowledge portfolio that Briggs created and Figure 17 shows one of the many submaps he created. It may at first look like a simple arrangement of words into a hierarchy, but when care is used in organizing the concepts represented by the words, and the propositions or ideas are formed with well-chosen linking words, one begins to see that a good concept map is at once simple, but also elegantly complex with profound meanings. This document itself should be a a€?livinga€? document, with revisions occurring periodically as we gain new knowledge and experiences with the use of this tool. The effects of cooperative, competitive and individualistic goal structure on achievement: A meta-analysis. The information available in brief visual presentations, Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 74(11), 1-30.
The Bureau is developing targeted outreach to groups that face particular challenges, as required by the Dodd-Frank Act.
Our aim is to use data purposefully, to analyze and distill data to enable informed decision-making in all internal and external functions.
We strive to be recognized as an innovative, 21st century agency whose approach to technology serves as a model within government. The Bureau is also interested in exploring ways to increase general consumer involvement in the rulemaking process.
These supervisory activities will foster compliance with Federal consumer financial laws, promote a fair consumer financial marketplace, and prevent unlawful discrimination. As long as people are falling for these too-good-to-be-true opportunities, the prevalence of these scams will only increase.
These unique examples, which you will not find on any other sites, are all fictionalised, with most (but not all) being in PDF format. Right here you will learn the basic rules of writing one, and also have access to free resume templates that you can customise and use to create your very own personalised interview winning document. Be sure to check your emails and voicemails regularly to make sure you do not miss any messages left by prospective employers. Currently most CV experts agree that it should ideally be one page long, however its final length really depends on your experience and the type of job you are applying for, which in turn means it can be two pages long if need be. Once it has been saved to your prospective employer's hard disk your resume should be easy to identify.
Ask them to critique your resume for its appropriateness, errors, typos, or misspelled words. Therefore if you plan to send in your resume as a MS Word document or a PDF, check its properties first. Having attended dozens of content marketing conferences over the years, I have seen most marketers and even analysts not know where to start or how to make sense of the universe of content marketing tools. Some have been limited in the amount of tools they covered, while others have been comprehensive but have not grouped the tools together in an intuitive manner.
We define concept as a perceived regularity in events or objects, or records of events or objects, designated by a label. The concept map may pertain to some situation or event that we are trying to understand through the organization of knowledge in the form of a concept map, thus providing the context for the concept map. In the creation of new knowledge, cross-links often represent creative leaps on the part of the knowledge producer.
The fundamental idea in Ausubela€™s cognitive psychology is that learning takes place by the assimilation of new concepts and propositions into existing concept and propositional frameworks held by the learner. This is a phenomenal ability that is part of the evolutionary heritage of all normal human beings. Instructional strategies that emphasize relating new knowledge to the learnera€™s existing knowledge foster meaningful learning. In a related test, if we give learners 10-12 familiar but unrelated words to memorize in a few seconds, most will recall only 5-9 words. It is good that schools are recognizing that there are important human capabilities other than the recall of specific cognitive information so often the only form of learning represented in multiple-choice tests used commonly in schools and corporations. While concept maps can help, students also need to be taught something about brain mechanisms and knowledge organization, and this instruction should accompany the use of concept maps. Included in this group was a graduate who had recently taken a course in the Physics of Planetary Motion, who also believed erroneously that seasons were caused by the earth moving closer to the sun in summer and further away in the winter. Epistemology is that branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of knowledge and new knowledge creation. There are now about 460,000 words in the English language (most of which are concept labels), and these can be combined to form an infinite number of propositions. It is often stated that the first step to learning about something is to ask the right questions.
Although this rank order may be only approximate, it helps to begin the process of map construction. This is necessary as one begins to struggle with the process of building a good hierarchical organization.
This student was a good oral reader, but she had very poor reading comprehension and was a committed rote learner (see Novak & Gowin, 1984, page 108). This also produces some frustration, and they must choose to identify the most prominent and most useful cross-links. Using CmapTools, it is possible to use concept maps to access any material that can be presented digitally, including materials prepared by the mapmaker.
When students work cooperatively in groups and use concept maps to guide their learning, significantly greater learning occurs (Preszler, 2004). Through CmapServers, users of all ages and working in many disciplines have published thousands of maps on all topics and domains. The high degree of explicitness of concept maps makes them an ideal vehicle for exchange of ideas or for the collaborative construction of new knowledge. CmapTools has a recorder feature tht allows recording and playback of steps in map construction, including identification of each contributor.
The lower right window shows propositions from other participants in Soup, some of which have discussion threads attached questioning or commenting on the proposition. A question like a€?What are plants?a€? will lead to a declarative, more classificatory concept map than the question a€?Why do we need plants?a€? Experiments show that not only the focus question, but also the root concept of a concept map have a strong influence on the quality of the resulting concept map (Derbentseva et al., 2004, 2006). Figure 10 presents the focus question and parking lot for the focus question a€?What is the structure of the Universe?a€? The student, group of students, or class is expected to build a concept map that answers the question and includes at least the concepts in the list. If the a€?skeletona€? map contains 20 concepts, which makes it more of a complete map, the final map could be expected to contain about 50 to 60 concepts.
Of course, the learner still needs to select new concepts from the material and construct new propositions on the concept map that add meanings and clarity to the map. Our plan is to use The World of Science books as a starting point for a demonstration project for A New Model for Education.
There will be much feedback from classrooms helping the teams to refine their work, sharing a€?electronic portfoliosa€? using CmapTools. There remains in the New Model plenty of room for acquisition of specific facts and procedures, but now these should be learned within the context of powerful conceptual frameworks.
Since the fundamental characteristic of meaningful learning is integration of new knowledge with the learnersa€™ previous concept and propositional frameworks, proceeding from the more general, more inclusive concepts to the more specific information usually serves to encourage and enhance meaningful learning.
Such students fail to construct powerful concept and propositional frameworks, leading them to see learning as a blur of myriad facts, dates, names, equations, or procedural rules to be memorized. Concept mapping has been shown to help learners learn, researchers create new knowledge, administrators to better structure and manage organizations, writers to write, and evaluators assess learning. Some interrelationships between constructivist models of learning and current neurobiological theory, with implications for science education. Alternative instructional systems and the development of problem solving skills in physics. Experiments on the effect of map structure and concept quantification during concept map construction.
The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Concept maps and vee diagrams: Two metacognitive tools for science and mathematics education. Human constructivism: A unification of psychological and epistemological phenomena in meaning making. Learning, creating, and using knowledge: Concept maps as facilitative tools in schools and corporations. Meaningful learning: The essential factor for conceptual change in limited or appropriate propositional hierarchies (liphs) leading to empowerment of learners. We seek input from and collaborate with consumers, industry, government entities, and other external stakeholders. The Dodd-Frank Act increased accountability in government by consolidating consumer financial protection authorities that had existed across seven different federal agencies into one, the newly formed Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.
While the Internet and online security become more and more advanced as the years pass, so to do the tactics of these e-scams. For all of these reasons they should be well written, concise and only include information that the employer will be interested in and finds relevant. They will give you an excellent idea of how to organize information, create emphasis, and describe your accomplishments. Our templates have been professionally designed, are of the highest quality and contain powerful industry specific keywords intended to grab the attention of recruiters and get you noticed. Don’t risk throwing away all of your hard work with one small spelling mistake which could blow your chances. Do this by going to the File menu of a MS Word document and clicking on Properties then look at the Summary and ensure your name appears in the Author box (if it doesn't then simply enter your name there and save it). Many of the entries are resource sites and blogs such as the Content Rules Blog or events such as Content Marketing World 2013.
More recently, Altimeter has published a content marketing vendor landscape that includes over 100 tools.
The label for most concepts is a word, although sometimes we use symbols such as + or %, and sometimes more than one word is used. There are two features of concept maps that are important in the facilitation of creative thinking: the hierarchical structure that is represented in a good map and the ability to search for and characterize new cross-links. This knowledge structure as held by a learner is also referred to as the individuala€™s cognitive structure. After age 3, new concept and propositional learning is mediated heavily by language, and takes place primarily by a reception learning process where new meanings are obtained by asking questions and getting clarification of relationships between old concepts and propositions and new concepts and propositions. Evaluation strategies that encourage learners to relate ideas they possess with new ideas also encourage meaningful learning. The reality is that unless students possess at least a rudimentary conceptual understanding of the phenomenon they are investigating, the activity may lead to little or no gain in their relevant knowledge and may be little more than busy work. If the words are unfamiliar, such as technical terms introduced for the first time, the learner may do well to recall correctly two or three of these.
While the alphanumeric images Sperling used in his studies were quickly forgotten, other kinds of images are retained much longer.
Studies by Penfield and Perot (1963), among others, indicate that regions of our brain that are activated when we hear sounds are the same regions that are active when we recall sounds. One reason we encourage the integration of the broad range of activities represented in our New Model for Education is to provide opportunities for these other abilities to be represented and expressed.
The information in the above paragraphs should become part on the instructional program for skillful use of concept maps. In fact, the earth is slightly closer to the sun when it is winter in Massachusetts, rather than in summer. There is an important relationship between the psychology of learning, as we understand it today, and the growing consensus among philosophers and epistemologists that new knowledge creation is a constructive process involving both our knowledge and our emotions or the drive to create new meanings and new ways to represent these meanings. Although most combinations of words might be nonsense, there is still the possibility of creating an infinite number of valid and meaningful propositions. We refer to the list of concepts as a parking lot, since we will move these concepts into the concept map as we determine where they fit in. Computer software programs are even better in that they allow moving of concepts together with linking statements and the moving of groups of concepts and links to restructure the map. This process involves what Bloom (1956) identified as high levels of cognitive performance, namely evaluation and synthesis of knowledge. In this way, concept maps can serve as the indexing and navigational tools for complex domains of knowledge, as will be illustrated later with NASA materials on Mars (Briggs et al., 2004). In our work with both teachers and students, small groups working cooperatively to construct concept maps have proven to be useful in many contexts.
While concept maps on these public servers are only a sample of concept maps submitted by persons using CmapTools, and some do not meet our criteria of good concept maps, they nevertheless serve to illustrate diverse applications. We have also found that the obstacles deriving from personal insecurities and fear of embarrassment are largely circumvented, since critical comments are directed at the concept map, not at the person(s) building the map.
Experienced concept mappers agree with researchers that the most challenging and difficult aspect of constructing a concept map is constructing the propositions; that is, determining what linking phrases will clearly depict the relationship between concepts. In this case, we are probably referring to using a relatively complete (not skeleton) map as a scaffold, expecting students to go deeper into the topic by creating several submaps that are linked to the starting point map. Here we also see a submap that might be created by a group of learners, and a sample of two resources that could be accessed via icons on the submap. Thus, the learner or team of learners is very actively engaged in the meaning building process, an essential requirement for meaningful learning to occur. To begin, a€?expert skeletona€? concept maps have been prepared for some sections of the grade two book and the whole of the grade four book of the World of Science entitled The Expanding World of Science.
This feedback should help us to rapidly refine concept maps, techniques and approaches for improving practice of the New Model for Education. Research (Bransford et al., 1999) has shown that factual information acquired in a context of meaningful learning is not only retained longer, but this information can be used much more successfully to solve new problems. Teachers should work collaboratively to build on some of the simpler concept maps dealing with education ideas and perhaps add resources to some of the more complex concept maps. There is nothing written in stone that says multiple choice tests must be used from grade school through university, and perhaps in time even national achievement exams will utilize concept mapping as a powerful evaluation tool. Thus, in curriculum planning, we need to construct a global a€?macro mapa€? showing the major ideas we plan to present in the whole course, or in a whole curriculum, and also more specific a€?micro mapsa€? to show the knowledge structure for a very specific segment of the instructional program.
For these students, the subject matter of most disciplines, and especially science, mathematics, and history, is a cacophony of information to memorize, and they usually find this boring. In fact, the biography of one Nobel Lauriat in biology (Barbara McClintock) was entitled, A Feeling for the Organism (Keller, 1983). However, when we began to concept map the expert knowledge of a cardiologist who literally a€?wrote the booka€? on this technology, it was evident that there were concepts missing in the map and that the a€?tacit knowledgea€? of our expert was not fully expressed in his book or in our interviews. In addition to submaps, a wide variety of digital resources can be accessed via the concept maps. Knowledge modeling and the creation of el-tech: A performance support system for electronic technicians. These authorities include the ability to issue regulations under more than a dozen Federal consumer financial laws. Make sure to research a link: A legit, secure URL will redirect to an ‘HTTPS’ address, not just ‘HTTP.’ If you feel that you must open a link, open it manually into your browser, just don’t click any links! Each template is aimed at a specific industry sector and has been formatted using margins and bullet points, making it easier for key elements of an individual’s strength to be quickly identified.
Propositions are statements about some object or event in the universe, either naturally occurring or constructed. Out of the necessity to find a better way to represent childrena€™s conceptual understanding emerged the idea of representing childrena€™s knowledge in the form of a concept map. This acquisition is mediated in a very important way when concrete experiences or props are available; hence the importance of a€?hands-ona€? activity for science learning with young children, but this is also true with learners of any age and in any subject matter domain. Typical objective tests seldom require more than rote learning (Bloom, 1956; Holden, 1992). Our brains have a remarkable capacity for acquiring and retaining visual images of people or photos.
While we can locate regions of the brain that are active in learning or recall of information using positron emission tomography (PET) scans, the specific mechanisms by which neurons store this information is not known. Nevertheless, we seen the organizing opportunities afforded by associating the various activities with an explicit knowledge structure as very beneficial. The primary reason we have seasons in latitudes away from the equator is due to the tilt of the earth on its axis toward the sun in summer resulting in longer days and more direct radiation, thus greater heating. Learners struggling to create good concept maps are themselves engaged in a creative process, and this can be challenging, especially to learners who have spent most of their life learning by rote. Some concepts may remain in the parking lot as the map is completed if the mapmaker sees no good connection for these with other concepts in the map. When CmapTools is used in conjunction with a computer projector, two or more individuals can easily collaborate in building a concept map and see changes as they progress in their work.
Concept mapping is an easy way to encourage very high levels of cognitive performance, when the process is done well.
In the early 1990s, Latin America, students using the IBM Net (before the Internet) were very successful in creating concept maps both with students in their classroom and with students in other countries (CaA±as et al., 2001).
When a concept map is saved to a CmapServer, a a€?web pagea€? version of the map is also stored, so a WWW browser is sufficient to browse through all the published concept maps. Having learners comment on each othera€™s concept maps, whether they are in the same classroom or in different schools, is an effective form of peer-review and collaboration. So giving the student some of the concepts does not take away from the difficulty in the map construction, although it may somewhat limit the creativity of the student in selecting the concepts to include.
The CmapTools Network may serve as a clearinghouse for some of these efforts through its Public servers in Italy and other countries. Even with the current state of technology and pedagogical understandings, it is possible for schools, states or countries to mount a New Model for Education.
This is a chicken-and-egg problem because concept maps cannot be required on national achievement tests if most students have not been given opportunities to learn to use this knowledge representation tool. Faculty working independently or collaboratively can redesign course syllabi or an entire curriculum. Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) stress the importance of capturing and using the knowledge of corporate experta€™s tacit knowledge if a company wants to become a€?the knowledge creating companya€?.
Thus, the concept map not only allowed us to represent the experta€™s knowledge, but also to find gaps in the knowledge structure we were procuring through interviews.
Paper presented at the Seventh World Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Washington DC. Online concept maps: Enhancing collaborative learning by using technology with concept maps. Paper presented at the Symposium at the 11th Biennial Conference of the European Association for Research in Learning and Instruction (EARLI), Cyprus. A case study in the research paradigm of human-centered computing: Local expertise in weather forecasting.
Why minimal guidance during iInstruction does not work: an analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and iInquiry-based teaching. Just ask yourself this: How many wealthy Nigerians do you know that need your specific help, and why do they need you? Propositions contain two or more concepts connected using linking words or phrases to form a meaningful statement.
In fact, the worst forms of objective tests, or short-answers tests, require verbatim recall of statements and this may be impeded by meaningful learning where new knowledge is assimilated into existing frameworks, making it difficult to recall specific, verbatim definitions or descriptions.
For example, in one study (Shepard, 1967) presented 612 pictures of common scenes to subjects, and later asked which of two similar pictures shown was one of the 612 seen earlier?
Other ideas for improving instruction to achieve understanding of the subject is available elsewhere (Mintzes et al., 1998). In winter, the axis of the earth points away from the sun, thus resulting in shorter days and less intense radiation.
Rote learning contributes very little at best to our knowledge structures, and therefore cannot underlie creative thinking or novel problem solving. CmapTools also allows for collaboration between individuals in the same room or anywhere in the world, and the maps can be built synchronously or asynchronously, depending on the mapmakersa€™ schedules.
This is one reason concept mapping can also be a very powerful evaluation tool (Edmondson, 2000). In our own classes and workshops, and in classes taught by our students and colleagues, small groups of students working collectively to construct concept maps can produce some remarkably good maps. Whenever a concept map is made with CmapTools and then saved, the maker is asked to provide a focus question, as well as key concepts for this concept map. It does provide the teacher with insight into which concepts the student(s) had trouble integrating into the concept map, indicating little or no understanding of these concepts.
The a€?expert skeletona€? concept maps would serve as a starting point for students and teachers for each section illustrated in the book, and then students would use these Cmaps together with CmapTools to search the WWW for pertinent resources and ideas.
We anticipate that an abundance of both anecdotal and empirical data will flow from these efforts in a few years. On the other hand, if state, regional, and national exams would begin to include concept maps as a segment of the exam, there would be a great incentive for teachers to teach students how to use this tool. For example, faculty working together to plan instruction in veterinary medicine at Cornell University constructed the concept map shown in Figure 15. With the consolidation of existing and new authorities under one roof, the CFPB is now focused and equipped to prevent financial harm to consumers while promoting practices that benefit consumers across financial institutions. This kind of problem was recognized years ago in Hoffmana€™s (1962) The Tyranny of Testing. What is interfering with these 21 Harvard people is confusion with the common experience that when we are closer to a fire or lamp, the heat is more intense than when we are further away. As people create and observe new or existing objects or events, the creative people will continue to create new concents and new knowledge.
Figure 13 illustrates one of the a€?expert skeletona€? concept maps that could be used as the starting point for building a knowledge model, preferably students working in teams and sharing ideas. Based on the solid theoretical and related research findings now available, there is every reason to be optimistic that these innovative efforts will be successful. Figure 1 shows an example of a concept map that describes the structure of concept maps and illustrates the above characteristics.
Three days later, they were still 92% correct, and three months later they were correct 58% of the time. Thus, these people have failed to recognize that this same phenomenon is not operating to give seasons on Earth.
Creating new methods of observing or recording events usually opens up new opportunities for new knowledge creation.
Currently there are a number of projects in the USA and elsewhere that are doing research to see if better evaluation tools can be developed, including the use of concept maps. Boumedine (Ed.), Proceedings of IKS 2002 - the IASTED international conference on information and knowledge sharing (pp. This and many other studies have shown that humans have a remarkable ability to recall images, although they soon forget many of the details in the images. For example, the creation of the concept mapping method for recording subjecta€™s understandings has led new opportunities to study the process of learning and new knowledge creation. Considering how often we look at pennies, it is interesting that the subjects asked to draw a penny in a study by Nickerson and Adams (1979) omitted more than half of the features or located them in the wrong place. This is commonly observed in many, many examples of a€?misconceptionsa€? in every field of study.
Some features of the latest versions of CmapTools also facilitate the use of concept maps for assessment.
We believe that integrating various kind of images into a conceptual framework using concept mapping software like CmapTools (described below) could enhance iconic memory, and we hope research on this will be done. The only solution to the problem of overcoming misconceptions is to help learners learn meaningfully, and using concept maps can be very helpful.
For example, the a€?Compare concept mapsa€? tool allows the comparison of an a€?experta€? concept map for a topic with maps constructed by students, and all similar or different concepts and propositions are shown in color.



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