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Keith Brown served with the Royal Marines before pursuing a career in local government administration, where he was also an active trade union representative with UNISON. Norman Baker MP has been Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Transport since May 2010 and is the Liberal Democrat Member of Parliament for Lewes, East Sussex. Prior to entering the House of Commons in 1997, he had a variety of jobs including periods as a Regional Executive Director for Our Price Records, a teacher of English as a second language and clerk at Hornsey Railway Station. Norman held a number of portfolios in the Liberal Democrat Shadow Cabinet, including Shadow Minister for the Cabinet Office, Shadow Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and Shadow Secretary of State for Transport.
As an MP, Norman made his reputation for uncovering scandal and as a dedicated and effective campaigner for the environment and animal rights. Professor Roderick A Smith, now Chief Scientific Advisor to the Department of Transport, has had an academic career at the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, Sheffield and Imperial College. He has published widely in areas of fatigue and structural integrity, and has lectured in many countries.
Jim Steer is the founder of Steer Davies Gleave, transport consultants, where he is a Board Director.
He established Greengauge 21 in 2006 to foster debate on a high speed rail network for Britain. He was seconded to the Strategic Rail Authority from 2002-5, heading strategy and planning. He is Vice President of the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport, and a columnist for the Transport Times, and was a member of HS2 Ltd’s Strategic Challenge Panel. Dr PETE WATERMAN OBE, DL is the most successful British producer-songwriter in pop history, an author, DJ, Pop Idol judge and television presenter and a lifelong entrepreneur. Colin is a Director of Arup, where he is jointly responsible for the Partnership’s international design operation for transport projects. He is currently Project Director for the route options study being carried out by Arup for HS2 Ltd., to identify a new high speed line from London to the West Midlands and also the proposed Y-route to the North-East. Arup High Speed Rail projects include High Speed 1 and High Speed 2 in UK, California High Speed Rail, Texas High Speed Rail, Express Rail Link (China to Hong Kong), Portugal HSL, High Speed Line Holland and Beijing South High Speed Rail Station. Colin has played key roles in the delivery of major infrastructure projects and has first hand experience of private finance projects through his roles as project manager, designer and technical advisor to financial institutions and strategic advisor for the implementation of private finance initiatives.
Councillor Paul Watson was elected as Chair of the Association of North East Councils in October 2009.
Born in Sunderland, he served an apprenticeship at Sunderland Shipbuilders where he worked until 1981. The Leader of the Council, as Leader of the controlling majority political group, Chairs the Cabinet and acts as the Council’s lead political spokesman. Stephen joined TfGM after a stint at Manchester City Council where he combined the roles of Head of Transport Policy for the city and Deputy Clerk to GM Integrated Transport Authority. David's policy brief at the London Chamber of Commerce and Industry focuses on 'London's Infrastructure', with a particular focus on major transport projects. Previously David has worked in the House of Commons, and in political consultancy advising a number of international businesses across the technology, manufacturing, energy and skills sectors. David Thrower has had a longstanding interest in high speed rail, going back to 1989 when he served on the former North West Channel Tunnel Group, which successfully sought the inclusion of a study of a high speed rail link into the North West's regional plans. For most of the past decade, following working for two Passenger Transport Authorities, he has on a freelance basis advised the North West Business Leadership Team on high speed rail issues, including assisting with giving evidence to the House of Commons Transport Committee and the All Party Campaign for High Speed Rail. David Simpson, Network Rail route managing director for Scotland, has been running Scotland’s Railway since 2005. Richard Lakin is a former journalist with experience of working in communications in the rail industry in London, the West Midlands and the North West. He leads communications activity for the Go-HS2 consortium of groups and organisations which supports bringing high-speed rail to the West Midlands. James uses twenty years’ communications experience working across government, media and industry to build businesses for other people.
Iain Docherty BSc PhD CMILT is Professor of Public Policy and Governance and Head of Management at the University of Glasgow Adam Smith Business School. Iain has worked with and advised a range of private sector, governmental and other organisations including governments and public agencies in the UK, US, Australia, Canada and Sweden, and the OECD. As collectors, dealers, and curators across the world make plans to attend the Spring 1999 a€?Asia Weeka€? in New York, they will notice that for the first time in recent memory neither Sothebya€™s nor Christiea€™s has scheduled a specialized auction of Chinese paintings.
In my former position as Director of the Chinese Painting Department at Sothebya€™s I devoted much time and energy and more than a decade of my life to establish and maintain New York as a major center of the international Chinese painting market. I remember clearly the first time I set foot in the old Sotheby Parke Bernet on Madison Avenue.
The sale was held on November 2, 1979 and was a watershed event for the market for Chinese paintings in America, as well as the beginning of my career as a Chinese art dealer. With the support of James Lally, then head of the Chinese Works of Art Department, we introduced a full range of Chinese paintings and calligraphy, including purely decorative works, modern and contemporary paintings, as well as pre-modern Chinese paintings, to a small but enthusiastic American audience, and in doing so helped to establish a legitimate price structure for individual artists and for the various types of anonymous Chinese paintings. In May 1980, Sothebya€™s Hong Kong held its first sale of modern Chinese paintings, with Paula taking responsibility for the offerings. The decade of the 1980s saw the market for Chinese paintings increase exponentially due to a confluence of a number of factors. In order to accommodate regional tastes, both Sothebya€™s and Christiea€™s adopted, for the most part, the strategy of offering the best 19th and 20th century Chinese paintings in Hong Kong while holding sales of Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasty paintings in New York.
The most rewarding aspect of working at one of the major auction houses, at least from the standpoint of an expert department, is the ability to discover and make available to the public previously unknown or little-known works of art. Readera€™s Digest has recently been the subject of many art columns because of the highly successful auction held at Sothebya€™s featuring a significant portion of their corporate holdings of Modern and Contemporary paintings. The international character of the Chinese paintings market encouraged a global approach to marketing, in which Hong Kong and New York auctions complemented rather than competed with one another. Another important work of Yuan dynasty calligraphy appeared in Sothebya€™s New York June 1985 auction of Fine Chinese Paintings.
The great majority of works bought and sold at auction are done so anonymously, particularly in a relatively new market such as Chinese paintings.
The most exciting collection I ever worked on, however, was perhaps more interesting because of its owner than for its contents, although the collection did contain several masterpieces.
At this time Zhang Xueliang was technically still under house arrest but, as he had already outlived most of his detractors and he posed no threat to the government of the Republic of China, he led a fairly unfettered existence and was even permitted to visit friends and go out to dinner. By the time Zhang Xueliang was finally released from house arrest in 1988, many of his best paintings had already been sold through New York auctions, but he still retained in Taiwan a large number of paintings and calligraphy, including hundreds of fan paintings.
The success of the Dingyuanzhai auction was the culmination of a trend which had begun in the mid-eighties--the dominance of Taiwanese buyers in the Chinese art market.
Taiwanese buyers were not a factor in the sale of a 17th century masterpiece six months later at Sothebya€™s. The sale of the Wu Bin handscroll in December 1989, was clearly the highlight of my career at Sothebya€™s.
There were many reasons why I resigned from my position at Sothebya€™s in October 1992, after turning down a significant promotion. In 1995 Christiea€™s began producing semi-annual sales of a€?Fine Classical Chinese Paintingsa€? in Hong Kong, based on the presumption that the majority of buyers were in Asia and that holding sales closer to home would allow Christiea€™s to take advantage of the a€?Pacific rima€? economic boom. Yet, in the six years that have passed since my resignation, both Sothebya€™s and Christiea€™s have held auctions in New York and they have continued to offer a number of excellent works. Nevertheless, there is no lack of interest for Chinese paintings in America, nor is there a lack of understanding and expertise.
As we enter a new year that finds parts of Asia, including Hong Kong, in the midst of the regiona€™s biggest economic decline in decades, we may question the wisdom and timing of Sothebya€™s choice to put all its Chinese painting eggs in one Asian basket. If you would like a printable version of this article in pdf format, please request one by email.
Shadow Skeletons and New Realitiesa€“Guohua and Cultural Identity (Reprinted from Kaikodo Journal VI, October 1997, pp.
As the dawn of a new millenium rapidly approaches, modern and contemporary Chinese art is receiving an unprecedented amount of attention throughout Asia and the West.
There is now a thriving art market for contemporary Chinese paintings, done in both traditional and Western styles.
As we try to absorb this impressive flood of images and information about 20th century Chinese art we are suddenly encountering, and before we begin to assess the artistic and art-historical merits of these works of art, it is useful to present a brief outline of some of the major issues that have concerned Chinese artists during the last century and identify some of the stylistic trends that have shaped the context in which the art of this period was and is being created. During the past one hundred years the political, social, and economic systems of China have been transformed on an unprecedented scale. Kanga€™s views represented the prevailing attitude among progressive Chinese intellectuals who associated modernization with Westernization and Westernization with the development of science and technology. Many artists chose not to abandon completely traditional Chinese painting but tried instead to make adjustments in subject matter or style in order to broaden its appeal and update its appearance, making it more responsive to the perceived needs of contemporary society.
Most critics, including Kang Youwei, advocated a synthesis of Western and Chinese art: a€?if we adhere to the old way without change, Chinese painting will become extinct. Kanga€™s approach was based on a formulation that he and the other a€?self-strengthenersa€? of the unsuccessful 1898 reform movement had advocated as a solution to most of Chinaa€™s ills. During the first decades of this century, numbers of young painters took up Kanga€™s challenge in earnest.
Although agreeing on the general premise that Chinese painting needed an infusion of Western artistic know-how in order to advance into the modern age, the three leaders of this Westernizing movement, Xu, Liu, and Lin, did not see eye-to-eye on much else. The arguments among these three and their followers as to which foreign models to follow were as vehement as those waged by traditional painters about whether to imitate the Four Wangs (as did Wu Hufan and his students) or Shitao and Bada Shanren (as did Zhang Daqian and his followers).
The decades of the 1920s and 1930s were a period of great creativity and artistic experimentation.
By the end of the 1930s the future of Chinese art looked promising, albeit somewhat confused.
The politicization of all aspects of the processes of creating, exhibiting, publishing or otherwise disseminating art in the Peoplea€™s Republic of China is discussed in several recent studies and doubtless will continue to be a subject of inquiry for many years to come. Mao Zedong, in his 1942 a€?Talks at the Yana€™an Conference on Literature and Art,a€? had clearly stated his belief that art must serve the people, and that there could not be art for arta€™s sake. Each individual is born into a culture, and its orientations and basic beliefs shape him and remain deeply rooted in his personality all of his life.
LeShan and Margenau are concerned with the inherent limitations of the physical sciences to adequately describe and explain all manner of phenomena, particularly as new scientific discoveries have revealed microcosms and macrocosms for which standard Newtonian assumptions about time and space do not hold true. In Maoist China the art bureaucracy attempted to condition societya€™s perception of reality by strictly limiting the artistsa€™ range of acceptable themes and styles, and by short-circuiting the natural feedback process through the stringent control of all means of criticism.
Many early attempts to synthesize guohua techniques and approaches with new a€?revolutionarya€? subject matter failed for precisely this reason.
Among all artists, traditional painters had the most difficulty modifying or updating their artistic techniques in order to satisfy the needs of the new society as envisioned by the leaders of the Peoplea€™s Republic.
Although the intent of the theoreticians, such as Kang Youwei and Cai Yuanpei, was to modernize Chinaa€™s art following Western models, Xu Beihonga€™s style of academic realism was conservative, perhaps already outdated, by the time it reached China.
Western art was of course undergoing its own revolution, reflecting new concepts of reality engendered by Einsteina€™s Theory of Relativity, quantum mechanics, particle physics and other scientific discoveries and philosophical intuitions. It was the Chinese artists working in Taiwan and abroad, including Zhang Daqian (1899-1983), Wang Jiqian (C.C. Working outside the constraints of the Maoist regime in relatively free artistic environments, these artists have made great strides in creating a true synthesis of traditional Chinese and modern Western painting styles. The current exhibition presents the work of a new generation of traditional, guohua painters, active in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and overseas. This generation of younger artists grew up at a time in which, when political realities renders questions of cultural identity unavoidable. Even for those who have practiced continuously the discipline of traditional Chinese painting, the period of the 1980s and 1990s seems like a new beginning. One may question the extent to which guohua has progressed in the five decades since the founding of the Peoplea€™s Republic, or for that matter, in the nearly nine decades since the fall of the Qing dynasty, but, given the extent and intensity of the criticism aimed at traditional Chinese painting and everything that it stood for, and with the recent availability of so many other artistic options, it is perhaps surprising that the art form has persisted at all. In an age of rapid information exchange and an increasingly global popular culture, it is very possible that a truly international style of art, in oils, acrylics or, more likely, some yet-to-be-invented digital medium, will be developed in the 21st century.
A multicultural environment will recognize shared cultural values but it will also embrace cultural differences and encourage the preservation and development of traditional art forms. I discovered a remarkable collection in Germany which yielded a significant number of important works of Chinese painting, calligraphy, and ink rubbings, which were sold off gradually throughout the decade.
Sothebya€™s December 1984 auction of Fine Chinese Paintings included several important works dating from the 13th century to the present. France was also the source of an intriguing album of ten leaves ascribed to the great Southern Song dynasty painter Ma Yuan sold in December 1986. He asked another Pfizer chemist, Willard Welch, to synthesize some previously unexplored tametraline derivatives. Welch then prepared stereoisomers of this compound, which were tested in vivo by animal behavioral scientist Albert Weissman.
The excellent bilateral relations between China and Morocco have led to increased trade and cooperation in a range of fields, and given both countries the opportunity to share their respective cultures and experiences.
The foundation for the strong economic ties that bind the two countries is the Commercial and Economic Agreement signed in Rabat in 1995. Although the Agreement has provided a good platform for bilateral cooperation, Morocco and China have decided to deepen their relationship through the establishment of a "strategic partnership", with the aim of enhancing trade and promoting investment. A strong will has been displayed at the highest political level to ensure that this partnership is fully supported, particularly in relation to economic and trade-related activities. The state visit of Morocco's King Mohammed VI to China on May 11 and 12, heralds the deepening of relations between the two countries and gives new impetus to existing ties, which are founded on mutual trust and solidarity. This new partnership will embrace sectors that are of vital interest to both countries, most notably the economy, investment and trade, industrial development, finance, infrastructure and tourism. Economic cooperation between Morocco and China has, in general, been on an upward trend, with a trade volume that topped $3.5 billion in 2015.
Despite this, Morocco has a huge trade deficit because of its record imports from, and low exports to, China. Morocco hopes for more investment from China, as well as a greater transfer of technology, and greater cooperation over infrastructure construction. Major Chinese companies, including Huawei Technologies, ZTE Corp, China Overseas Engineering Group, China North Industries Corp, Sinhoydro, China International Water and Electric Corp and Shanghai Dier Deep Fisheries, are developing their business in Morocco. This new economic partnership between Morocco and China, which was fostered by the forum, is the realization of a new ambition to diversify and balance trade between Morocco and China. Further to this, it is hoped that the partnership will improve cooperation between Moroccan and Chinese banks, attracting more Chinese investment to Morocco. Morocco's markets are more open than ever before to Chinese companies, and they offer a modern business environment, integrated industrial platforms and necessary infrastructure and services.
Morocco is also willing to enhance productivity in existing fields of cooperation between the two countries while working with China to develop new sectors for business cooperation and investment. It has diversified and achieved a remarkable performance in the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors.
Morocco's Emergence Plan offers Chinese investors a range of excellent opportunities in sectors such as aerospace, automobile, electronics, textile and leather, offshoring and agro-business.
In addition, the Green Morocco Plan aims to facilitate the development of a modern and competitive agriculture industry, and the Moroccan Solar Energy Plan, which has already had investment of $9 billion in industrial, R&D and training components, will place the kingdom at the forefront of global renewable energy production.
There are seven reasons why Chinese companies looking to expand and invest overseas should choose Morocco: cost competitiveness, strong and stable macroeconomic performance, free trade access to 1 billion consumers, world-class infrastructure, a qualified labor force, tailored plans for individual industry sectors and an improving business climate. Morocco's economic stability stems from its strong and stable macroeconomic performance and the gradual introduction of a range of reforms to develop its business environment, infrastructure and social environment.
It has a clear route map in terms of global development, and tailored strategies covering all productive sectors, from the aerospace and automobile industries to offshoring and agro-business. It is developing a strong processing industry, especially in fertilizers and textiles, and is penetrating new export markets.
In the medium- and long-terms, Morocco can play a more central role in shaping economic relations between China and the rest of Africa. Trade between Morocco and China is set to increase exponentially and this will improve the standard of living in both countries. Last but not least, the opening of a direct air link between the two countries will significantly contribute to both increased tourism and stronger economic ties. During the last decade, China and Morocco have shared a common conviction in their approach towards Africa.
Trade between Morocco and China has grown rapidly; but, more importantly, that trade has evolved in nature. While still imbalanced, the structure of imports and exports tells us a lot about the vigorous economic relationship at work and is a great indication of the potential that lies ahead. One might think that Morocco's exports to China consist mainly of raw materials, but a closer examination shows a different picture: 28 percent of the $530 million of goods we exported in 2014 were integrated circuits, and around 10 percent were garments.
At continental level, Morocco and China are on the path of building a trilateral relationship aiming at giving more market depth to both partners.
Last November, the Moroccan city of Marrakech hosted the first Sino-African Business Summit, at which more than 500 participants discussed how this partnership could be strengthened and how we should together tackle the challenges that lie ahead. For the first time, business communities from China, Morocco - and the rest of Africa - engaged in an open dialogue that helped create opportunities and lift some of the possible misconceptions about China's economic agenda in the region. Experts who participated in this important event agreed that Morocco and China would create more value by working together than by pursuing their own individual paths, especially in the greater northwestern part of Africa. In addition, analysts are increasingly convinced that Morocco gives China the best platform when it comes to setting up industrial investments to reach the 400 million French-speaking consumers of West Africa.
Morocco's institutional and macroeconomic stability make it an ideal location for long-term investments, and its strong regulatory framework contributes to the country's business-friendly environment. Most of all, Morocco shares a common ambition with China, which is to become a strategic partner in Africa's development by helping create a strong, resilient consumer-based market. Furthermore, Morocco established Casablanca Finance City in 2010, a pan-African financial center that has rapidly become the leading financial center in Africa, ranking first in the latest Global Financial Centers Index (GFCI). Casablanca Finance City provides both status and a comprehensive fiscal package to financial institutions and the regional headquarters of multinational corporations aiming at developing their businesses and investments in Africa. To date, more than 100 multinational corporations have acquired the CFC status, including information and communication technology solution provider Huawei, insurer AIG, carmaker Ford, the Boston Consulting Group, investment fund Abraaj and BNP Paribas.
Leading mall investor and operator Taubman Centers from the United States is looking for more opportunities in the Chinese market by expanding its presence in second- and third-tier cities.
Located at the heart of Xi'an's new central business district and administrative center, CityOn. Taubman said the company started to adjust its development strategy five years ago and shifted its focus to the Chinese market. The second CityOn mall is expected to open in Zhengzhou, the capital of Central China's Henan province, later this year, Taubman said. Liu said the pressure of developing city or regional shopping malls in first-tier cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen, is great due to fierce competition and high construction costs. Taubman said the populations in China's second- and third-tier cities have already reached the standard of first-tier cities in the US, and they have the capacity to support development. Considering the wide use of the internet and the changing behavior of consumers, CityOn mall will also speed up efforts to improve customers' shopping experiences by combining online and offline services and marketing activities. China's economic growth has slowed in recent years, and some industry insiders believe the bearish macro environment will bring a slowdown to shopping across the country. Despite the threat of an online retailing boom, the report pointed out that some traditional retailers and brick-and-mortar mall developers are already adjusting their marketing strategies and adopting new technologies to drive more business. Taubman said the company has maintained an optimistic attitude toward the potential growth of the Chinese market as the industry undergoes its first stage of evolution. Taubman Asia and Wangfujing said they are discussing further business expansion in China, such as opening outlet centers and entering China's western cities. The scenic city of Guiyang is implementing major measures to boost its big data industry in an effort to provide a blueprint for other cities across the nation. Guiyang has taken a number of measures to develop its big data industry in recent years, local officials said. The city's new efforts aim to grasp growth opportunities in the industry that has developed rapidly both at home and abroad and is showing great future potential. The big data industry has been designated as one of the three strategic sectors in the 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-20) in Southwest China's Guizhou province. The provincial capital of Guiyang hopes to pilot the development by releasing preferential policies and enhancing the construction of infrastructure facilities. Guiyang has also boosted infrastructure construction and spent 3.14 billion yuan ($484 million) on information infrastructure in 2015.
Total investment in the park is about 1 billion yuan and the second-phase construction is slated for completion this year. The city jointly held the 2015 China E-commerce Innovation and Development Summit with China Network Television.
Guiyang has organized big data-related promotional activities in regions including Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen and signed agreements for 162 projects with investment worth more than 170 billion yuan. In July, the Ministry of Science and Technology approved Guiyang's plan to build an experimental area for big data technological innovation. The area will help create a good environment for innovation and explore sustainable development strategies for underdeveloped cities in western China, local officials said. They said Guiyang hopes to promote mass entrepreneurship and innovation related to big data in the city. The city government said Guiyang will attract more than 100 big data projects this year and foster one or two leading big data companies which are nationally influential. With the rapid growth of big data industry in Guiyang, capital of Southwest China's Guizhou province, companies in the city are finding success with the emerging business of outsourcing call centers.
One company in Guiyang that has seen success as a call center outsourcing operator is Xutong Big Data Co Ltd.
It said call centers are an effective way for its clients to cut costs, generate sales and better maintain customer relations. In two years, the company has a staff of 1,050 call center agents and a client list that includes Sinopec, Petro-China, China Mobile, China Unicom and Haier.
Zhao Quanqiang, executive vice-president of Xutong, said the government's strong support for call center outsourcing businesses as well as the city's hardworking spirit and growing big data industry are key advantages for the city. Zhao said a company could have applied for a 1 million yuan ($154,000) subsidy from the government for offering jobs and training locals as call center agents.
The city's other main advantage is the lower costs of hiring employees compared to other large cities in the country.
Yan Xiaobin, chairman of the China Call Center and BPO Association, said he is optimistic about Guiyang's development in call center outsourcing business. He said the call center business can play an important role in upgrading Guiyang's economy because it is a labor-, knowledge- and technology-intensive sector. According to Chen Gang, the city's Party chief, Guiyang will use its big data and call center businesses to drive its overall development and to make the city a call center outsourcing hub with global influence. With the rapid development of big data technology and its wider application in the commercial field, Guiyang is seeking to lead the nation in big data transactions. China's first big data exchange - the Guiyang Big Data Exchange - became operational on April 14, 2015. The exchange, also known as the GBDEX, offers a range of services for data assets transactions, big data cleansing, modeling and analysis, transactions of data futures, as well as financing for the industry. According to Wang Sanshou, executive president of the exchange, the GDGEX had 360 members by the end of 2015. He said many enterprises hope to save their data collected from business operations in the GBDEX, expecting the exchange to offer them added value through processing, modeling and analyzing.
Wang said the long-term goal of the exchange is to have annual transaction volume surpassing 10 billion yuan.
He said the goal is practical because big data will be among the most valuable assets in the future with further development of the internet and other information technologies. He said the exchange would encourage more entrepreneurs to use the GDBEX's big data platform for starting businesses and expanding markets. The executive president said the biggest problems they face are the legislation needed for data transactions and the protection of the property rights of big data. Wang said there should be an authoritative party to confirm the ownership rights of the data before they are traded at the exchange.
He said Guiyang is making some tentative experiments in this field by developing a big data special zone.
When he arrived on April 11, he says he discovered his fellow guests at the hotel were almost entirely Chinese.
The next day, he rose at 6 am and took a shuttle bus to the 60,000-seat Kim Il-sung Stadium to join more than 500 international runners at the starting line.
This year, the marathon started in Rungrado May Day Stadium, the largest arena in the world with a capacity of 150,000, and reportedly attracted at least 1,000 runners from outside the DPRK.
The route through downtown Pyongyang passes some major landmarks, including Kim Il-sung University and the city's Arch of Triumph. He says there were no security checks at the starting line or portable toilets, and that the rules for runners' attire were unusual. In the end, Hu finished outside 3 hours 52 minutes, almost 16 minutes slower than his personal best but eight ahead of the event's closing mark, a relatively tough task for many amateur runners. Hu, who works for a media company in Beijing, says his lasting impression is of the local spectators. Hu Jinnan travels around the world to take part in various competitions, such as the marathon in Pyongyang in April. The Chengdu plant of Dongfeng Peugeot Citroen Automobile - DPCA, a joint venture with French carmaker PSA Peugeot Citroen and Chinese automaker Dongfeng Motor Corporation, is scheduled to go into trial production in May. Located in the State-level Chengdu Economic and Technological Development Zone, also known as the CEDZ in the eastern part of Chengdu, it is DPCA's fourth manufacturing plant in China.
The Chengdu plant will mainly produce vehicles for both the Peugeot and Citroen brands as well as Dongfeng's Fengshen brand, with a focus on high-end sport utility vehicles and multi-purpose vehicles. In December 2015, the plant's first all-new SUV ran off the assembly line, just 14 months after its foundation was laid in October, 2014. The new model, whose internal code name is the P84, was developed in partnership with European plants and will launch simultaneously in the Chinese and European markets. Louis Gallois, chairman of the supervisory board of PSA Peugeot Citroen, called the construction speed of the Chengdu plant a "miracle", as it generally takes about two and a half years to build such a plant. Wu Zheng, a senior manager of the Chengdu plant, said the plant uses world-leading technology, making it both highly efficient and environmentally friendly. The Chengdu plant has attracted some 30 companies engaged in related industries, such as France-based Faurecia, Dongfeng Motor Die and Mould, Fengshen Logistics and Wuhan Dongfeng Hongtai Holdings Group. According to Wu, the number of companies engaged in related industries at the plant is expected to reach 80, supplying more than 70 percent of the auto parts needed by DPCA's Chengdu plant. The plant is expected to go into commercial operation in October, and the production target for this year is 10,000 cars. The construction of DPCA's Chengdu plant got strong, targeted support from the local government. Lu Congguo, director of the plant, said that although he had initial concerns about dealing with government departments, his fears were unfounded. The plant was listed as one of 56 major industrial projects by the Sichuan provincial government.
The local government also focused on the construction of the infrastructural facilities in the Sino-French Ecological Park. Longquanyi district, home to the CEDZ, has invested more than 1 billion yuan in the construction of the infrastructure. Zhou Ling, director of the Sino-French Ecological Park's coordination office, said park officials are negotiating with leading French companies, including PSA Peugeot Citroen, Renault and Bollore, to establish cooperation in the fields of new-energy vehicles and smart cars.
The park is also seeking in-depth cooperation with French and European Union companies in the fields of ecological construction, energy saving and environmental protection. Chengdu's auto industry has seen rapid development in recent years, growing into a pillar of the city's economy. Longquanyi is one of China's leading auto bases, with investors including Dongfeng Peugeot Citroen, FAW-Volkswagen, FAW-Toyota, Zhejiang Geely Holding Group and Volvo, as well as many car component suppliers.
Last year, Longquanyi district produced 920,000 units of vehicles and its auto industry generated output value of 141.2 billion yuan.
Since last year, Volvo's new luxury sedan, the S60 Inscription, has been produced at the company's Chengdu plant and exported to the United States.
With DPCA's Chengdu plant set to go into commercial operation, auto production in Longquanyi is expected to exceed 1 million cars this year, local officials said. According to the city's industrial development strategy, Chengdu will have the capacity to produce 2 million cars annually by 2017. The latest planning shows that the city is expected to have an annual output capacity of 3 million cars by 2025.
The city will also take advantage of its location with regard to the Belt and Road Initiative and the Chengdu-Europe express rail route to create an improved logistics service for carmakers and car component suppliers, the official said. An important social movement in China took place early in the 20th century when scholar Liang Shuming called on intellectuals to boost the reform of rural areas stricken by extreme poverty after years of war. As part of efforts to improve the quality of life in these areas, scholars set up schools and came up with measures to upgrade agricultural technology. Zhu Shengxuan leased an abandoned farm from the Deqing local government in Zhejiang province and is going all out to find new ways to repurpose China's villages and entice more people to come back and live in the countryside.
A century has since passed, and some young intellectuals still hold onto a similar dream, although the movement has now taken on a new meaning - to preserve culture and heritage.
Although he has lived in Shanghai for more than 10 years, Zhu says he still has a strong emotional connection to his village in Baoshan, Yunnan province. Many people in the affected areas who had relied primarily on farming to make a living now had no means to earn an income. Nearby, he grew corn, sweet potatoes and a variety of other vegetables without the use of pesticide.
Before creating the blueprint for his new village reform project in Kunshan city in Jiangsu province, Zhu talked to most of the 142 families in the area to find out what were the things they hoped to retain. Together with the local authorities in Kunshan, Zhu will also be setting up a gallery comprising items from many of the old farmers, such as a 100-year-old millstone and brick sculptures of tigers. Phoenix Peninsula is 21 square kilometers in size and stretches out over 54 km of coastline that includes the 3.5-km Golden Beach, a national-level 4A scenic spot. The Qingdao government has been cautious about the exploration of Phoenix Peninsula in a bid to preserve its resources and land. In recent years, tourism products in the zone have diversified, including a selection of high-end hotels, such as Wyndam, The Lalu and the Hilton, entertainment parks, yacht and cruise ship ports, sports centers and museums. From last summer, Phoenix Peninsula has been the venue for the Qingdao International Beer Festival, and has China's largest coastal beer plaza. Wang said the new development strategy for China's tourism industry recommended from the central government is comprehensive planning for an entire area instead of building a few tourist attractions, which is in line with Phoenix Peninsula's strategy to build a "tourism and resorts zone".


It also hosts a plum festival in March and April that includes numerous activities such as a photography competition, a calligraphy and Chinese painting exhibition, a bonsai exhibition, interactive games and a traditional drama and dance.
There is also a separate park with 15 varieties of bamboo spread across 10,000 square meters.
Bijiashangliu, a village in Licang, has been recognized as one of the "Most Beautiful Villages in China" in 2013 and 2014.
The district has also six so-called mountain parks, including Hushan, Loushan, Yandunshan, Niumaoshan, that are covered in forests. The venue for the 2014 Qingdao International Horticultural Expo is consistently preserved and maintained and is recognized as a national 4-A level tourist attraction.
In March, the district hosted the Kite Festival at the Horticulture Exhibition Park in partnership with Weifang, another city in Shandong province and where the original kite festival in China was held.
The projects, spread over a combined area of 3.5 million square meters, cover finance, information services, industrial design, the culture and creative industry, research and development, smart hardware, new energy, new materials and marine biomedicine.
The projects will be located in the area around Zhuzhou road, an industrial base with 168 high-tech companies. Last year, companies in this area applied for 5,075 patents, up 27.5 percent from 2014, and 1,241 patents were approved, a 70 percent increase from 2014. The area is home to Haier Industrial Park, the eastern part of which will soon expand with a 40-hectare urban complex complete with financial services, e-commerce service providers, startup incubators, shopping centers and entertainment facilities. The Aucma Smart Industrial Park project, behind a 4 billion yuan investment, will serve as a R&D center and startup incubator for more than 200 small and medium-sized companies. Jiang Duntao, head of the Laoshan district government, said the district has set up a 1 billion yuan industrial investment fund for emerging industries and has built up various startup incubators to help entrepreneurs realize their dreams by partnering with China's top venture fund managers and tech investors. Farmers harvest grapes in Pingdu, Qingao, where the Qingdao Dazeshan Mountain Hiking Festival kicks off from Saturday. The Qingdao Dazeshan Mountain Hiking Festival kicked of from Saturday in Pingdu, the largest county-level city in the province.
The town of Dazeshan has hosted the China Qingdao Dazeshan Grape Festival for 29 years and its grapes are reputed to be on a par with those from Xinjiang, which is believed to produce the best grapes in China. Since 1987, the price of local grapes has increased 50 times to more than 10 yuan ($1.54) per kilogram. Dazeshan boasts more than 200 varieties of grapes, including Muscat Hamburg, Zeshan No 1 and Golden Finger, and the town's local vineyards cover more than 2,300 hectares.
Dazeshan's vineyards are also benefiting from the growth of the wine and tourist industries. The regional government has, in recent years, taken steps to preserve the natural environment, including closing a number of quarries and stone processing plants, despite their significant tax contributions. Under current plans, the park will be located in the Qingdao Bonded Port Jiaozhou Function Area, which boasts capabilities to support multimodal transport logistics, facilitating smooth transportation, e-commerce and high-end manufacturing, as well as research and development facilities. It is hoped that the park will increase bilateral investment and trade cooperation among countries in Asia and Europe by mobilizing resources domestically and overseas, said Wang Shoupeng, head of Jiaozhou commerce department.
Today it boasts a well-developed freight transport system with seamless sea and rail links.
Shipping company CRIntermodal has set up one of its 18 logistics terminals in Jiaozhou, which connects with nearly 600 container transaction stations across the country. Jiaozhou's rail links connect Qingdao with China's western frontier city of Khorgos in Xinjiang, and also reach as far as Amsterdam through the Eurasia Continental Bridge. To make things easier for logistics operators, the Qingdao Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau opened a sub-office in Jiaozhou in October 2013.
Ratanina Masha (right) from Russia, who studies Chinese at the Ocean University of China, proudly displays her calligraphy skills on Neighbor Day on April 20 in Shinan District, Qingdao. Dozens of foreigners gathered in a small neighborhood in Qingdao's Shinan district on the afternoon of April 20.
They came to make friends among the locals in honor of Neighbor Day, an 18-day event celebrated across Qingdao, including the county-level cities on its outskirts, such as Jiaozhou.
The festival started 12 years ago after a 10-year-old girl called Sun Ruihan was rebufed after paying a New Year's visit to her neighbor.
The concept was embraced by the municipal government and promoted as a city-level event in a bid to boost friendliness and civility in the city. As the birthplace of the festival, Shibei district hosted the opening ceremony of this year's Neighbor Day on April 19. In Jiaozhou, a county-level city of Qingdao, organizers hosted a number of activities to bring neighbors together, including the sharing of family stories and a mobile neighbors' library to share books. As the central area of downtown Qingdao, Shinan district attracts many foreigners into its communities, thus there is also international representation at their Neighbor Day activities. Sarah Sobas from the United States said she had a great time with her neighbors as she experienced the art of Chinese paper cutting for the first time. Ratanina Masha from Russia, who is studying Chinese at the Ocean University of China, described the event as a great opportunity to make friends with her Chinese neighbors and learn about the local culture with them. As China prepares to host its first G20 Summit, the importance of this grouping of major world economies is becoming more apparent, according to experts. The event, slated for September 4-5 in East China's Hangzhou city, comes at a time when increasing deflationary risks loom over the global economy's recovery.
Boosting growth among developing countries is highlighted on the summit's agenda, as has making more progress in areas such as addressing global climate change.
Since December, around 30 preparatory meetings have been held at the ministerial or working-group level, including a gathering of personal representatives of heads of state, known as sherpas, as well as finance, trade and foreign ministers. More than 30 additional meetings are scheduled later this year to ensure the summit's success, according to the latest calendar of events published on the G20's official website. On April 8, a presidency statement was released following the Second G20 Sherpa Meeting in Guangzhou, stating that the assembled representatives would work toward promoting the implementation of the Paris Agreement, which was adopted at the 21st Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in December.
Huang Wei, a researcher on global economic governance at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, noted that "the G20 now represents the best efficiency in the aspect of global economic governance", while other mechanisms - such as the UN and G7 - are faced with higher cost or lack of influence. Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs and China's G20 Sherpa Li Baodong has described the Hangzhou summit as "the first time that the G20 will formulate an action plan on the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development". This ambitious agenda, adopted in September, is designed to serve as the launchpad for action to promote shared prosperity and well-being for the next 15 years.
Upon China's initiative, the G20 is examining ways to support industrialization in Africa and what are known as least development countries, Li added. Zhu Jiejin, an associate professor on global governance studies at Fudan University in Shanghai, said if the G20 takes the 2030 Agenda as one of its policy goals, the gathering itself will win more recognition for its role as a "leading international economic cooperation platform".
This will "offer political impetus" for implementing the agenda, make the work of international organs such as the UN easier and encourage more countries to join in, Zhu said. Gao Hucheng, minister of commerce, has said China will work alongside various parties to push for establishing the G20 trade and investment cooperation mechanism to "regularize" the G20 trade ministers' meeting. Huang Wei noted that although the G20 has built mechanisms for regularized meetings of finance, labor ministers and governors of central banks, many other ministerial-level meetings are not regularized yet. Since registration opened in December, more than 100,000 volunteers have signed up to help with the high-level international forum for governments and central bank governors. Around 26,000 of these volunteers are university professors and their students, who will be whittled down to a short list of 3,000 through a strict selection and training process. These will be the on-site volunteers, who are required to have a relatively high-level of language ability and work at the summit itself, whereas city volunteers will help out with public security patrols, environment management and culture publicity in Hangzhou.
Wang Lingwei, a graduate student from Zhejiang Gongshang University, said it would be an honor to be selected as an on-site volunteer. Wang Yuejun, director of Hangzhou Volunteering Work Guide Center, said there was more than two decades' worth of community service experience in the city, which has more than a million registered volunteers and 13,750 volunteer organizations, with volunteering service stations in 97 percent of communities. In addition to the local recruitment drive, an international volunteer team has also been set up in the city featuring more than 20 students and teachers from the United States, Russia, Italy, South Korea, Ukraine, Indonesia and Congo, among other countries. According to the local authorities, all volunteers will be managed in real-time through an online platform, with their contributions to the summit recorded in the form of points and rankings to add incentives for good service. More than 5,500 volunteer service activities have already been carried out in Hangzhou in preparation for the summit, with a total of 360,000 volunteer man-hours recorded.
Members of an international volunteer team attend a public event in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province. The governor reiterated that the central bank will maintain a "prudent" monetary policy, but be "flexible" and "appropriate" in its implementation. The upward track has lessened the need for further monetary easing, which is why Zhou didn't mention the "bias toward easing" this time, analysts said. While optimistic about China's short-term growth outlook, global banks see medium to long-term risk rising, as the first-quarter's rebound remained credit-fuelled. Even Zhou acknowledged there is a serious problem with China's debt, and has raised the issue several times in recent months. China's corporate debt is the highest among major economies, amounting to 166.3 percent of GDP by the end of the third quarter, according to the Bank for International Settlement.
English learning activities have been organized across the city as part of efforts to better serve the summit, which is scheduled to open in early September.
In March, the team behind local mobile app Xiangfu Community, based in the city's Gongshu district, started a campaign to get residents speaking more English by providing free language learning content and encouraging users to learn a new sentence each day.
Once a week, a lesson with a senior English language teacher is organized through the app, and English-themed discussion activities are held once a month. Elsewhere, residents are being encouraged to share their learning experiences via a discussion group on the social media WeChat, and traffic police in the city's West Lake area have also been learning English to better communicate with international visitors during the summit. West Lake attracts a large number of foreign tourists each year due to its renowned natural beauty, yet visitors often commit traffic violations.
Improving conversational English has been a key component of the West Lake police team's training over the past year.
All officers are given a book titled Summit English to facilitate police self-learning and practice, while common phrases are sent through a WeChat group called "Everyday English". An English Service Team has also been established and is providing English service to visitors.
ZF's Advanced Urban Vehicle concept car is fully electronically driven and its functions and features offer a completely autonomous driving experience. ZF Friedrichshafen AG, the German automotive chassis and driveline technology company, is strengthening its capabilities to serve e-mobility. ZF recently added an e-mobility division to its corporate structure to ensure it is better able to meet the needs of its customers. The new division is a complement to five existing divisions that produce car powertrain technology, car chassis technology, commercial vehicle technology, industrial technology, and active and passive safety technology. He said that ZF's immediate goal is not pure e-mobility but promoting electrification to reduce the combustion engine's workload and optimize fuel consumption. The core of the new e-mobility division is ZF's existing electronic systems and electric traction drive technology business units.
Grotendorst said that the new division will focus primarily on three areas of activity: low-voltage technology, plug-in hybrid drivelines and electric axle drives. While many industrial giants are exploring opportunities in the e-mobility sector, what makes ZF different, Grotendorst said, is that its customers will benefit from the group's overall expertise and in-depth knowledge of electric drivelines, chassis and related components enabling customers to get solutions from a single source. According to ZF, its e-mobility product portfolio ranges from integrated 48-volts solutions outputting 15 kilowatts which can be used in mild hybrid systems to powerful electric motors producing up to 120 kilowatts for plug-in hybrid transmissions.
ZF considers China one of the most important markets for e-mobility because of the government's focus on the environment and support for new-energy vehicles. China's central government plans to have five million NEVs on the nation's roads by 2020, and it has implemented a series of policies to support the realization of that target. At the end of 2015, the central government issued a draft plan that will reward provinces and cities that meet the minimum requirement of selling more than 30,000 NEVS this year with 90 million yuan ($13.88 million). There will be a special bonus of 7.5 million yuan for every 2,500 units of increased sales. The government also requires all new residential complexes to have charging posts or to assign space for them, while at least 10 percent of the spaces in public parking lots should have charging facilities. ZF has established both a research and development team and a sales team which focus on e-mobility in Shanghai to meet demand from the Chinese market. He said it is necessary to form such research and development teams in local markets because they will have better knowledge about local market, which will be beneficial to customers.
ZF Friedrichshafen AG expects overall revenue growth of 7 percent over the medium term, which would be above-average for the market as a whole.
According to the company, its sales revenue will be between 35 billion euros ($39.45 billion) and 36 billion euros in 2016. The adjusted earnings before interest and taxes margin for 2016 is expected to be between 5 and 6 percent.
ZF said that the markets for passenger cars as well as for light and heavy commercial vehicles will show solid overall development this year. At the same time, ZF expects its Industrial Technology Division to see substantial sales growth in 2016.
The acquisition of TRW, one of the leading auto safety parts suppliers, was completed on May 15 last year. Sommer said ZF TRW already presented initial successes from the comprehensive, multiyear integration process.
He is a graduate of Dundee University and studied at the University of Prince Edward Island.He has been a Member of the Scottish Parliament since 2007 and is currently the constituency MSP for Clackmannanshire and Dunblane. He was educated at the Royal Liberty School, Gidea Park, before taking a degree in German at Royal Holloway College, University of London. Perhaps best known as one-third of the phenomenally successful Stock Aitken Waterman team and for his world-famous PWL label and production company, Pete has sold in excess of 500 million records around the world over five decades, launching artists such as Kylie Minogue, John Travolta, Rick Astley and Steps. David has spoken at a number of events on the vital importance of projects like High Speed 2 to the economy on behalf of the business community. Prior to entering politics, David studied History and Politics at the University of Leicester before completing a Masters at Brunel University. Having originally joined the rail industry as a BR graduate trainee in 1986, David has worked in a wide variety of roles for BR, Railtrack, Network Rail and within freight operating companies. Go-HS2 members include Birmingham City Council, West Midlands transport authority Centro, Birmingham Airport, NEC Group and Birmingham Chamber of Commerce.
James has worked to develop and promote SCDI’s Blueprint for Scotland, focusing on growing Scotland's economy by creating an enterprising nation, maximising our assets and realising the potential of our people. During this time, James sat as an observer on the Scottish Funding Council and Chaired the Funding Council’s review into the quality of further and higher education in Scotland. As a former senior BBC correspondent he understands the importance of balance and neutrality. Iain’s research and teaching addresses the interconnecting issues of public administration, institutional change and city and regional competitiveness, with particular emphasis on the structures and processes of local and regional governance, policies for delivering improved economic performance and environmental sustainability, and the development and implementation of strategic planning and transport policies.
It was well organised and informative with exceptional speakers, especially John (Curtis) and Gilly (MacMorran). Sothebya€™s has effectively closed the department in New York, referring prospective sellers to their Hong Kong office.
The recent decision by the two leading auction houses to eliminate or significantly reduce sales in New York has prompted me to review briefly the history of Chinese paintings at auction and to reflect upon the current state of the market. It was Autumn of 1979 and I had been approached by Paula Gasparello of the Chinese Works of Art Department to assist in the cataloging of a number of important Ming and Qing dynasty paintings from the estate of Ruth Spelman.
In October our fledgling New York department produced an unprecedented sale of 145 works by living Chinese artists, which featured paintings by Zhang Daqian, Cheng Shifa, Huang Junbi, Li Keran, Wang Jiqian, Li Kuchan, Yu Chengyao, Qian Songyan, Xie Zhiliu, Xu Bangda, and others. In the West, particularly in America, academic interest in pre-modern Chinese painting was at a peak and a number of important museum exhibitions--such as a€?Eight Dynasties of Chinese Painting,a€? organized jointly by the Cleveland Museum of Art and the Nelson Gallery-Atkins Museum, Kansas City--provided increased access to an ever-more appreciative public.
This allowed for two major sales per year in each location and enabled both buyers and sellers to consolidate their efforts and focus their energies on those works that most interested them. While at Sothebya€™s I had the good fortune to bring to the market quite a few important works of Chinese painting and calligraphy, many with obscure or unexpected provenances. Because the Readera€™s Digest collection of European paintings was so well known, its appearance on the auction block was accompanied by much fanfare and anticipation, but the art world at large is unaware of the quiet role that the collection played in the development of the Chinese painting market in New York.
In addition, collectors and dealers in Hong Kong, taking note of the positive results of the auctions of pre-modern Chinese paintings, began to consign works for sale in New York.
One of the early successes from this consignment was the sale, on June 13, 1984, of an album of twenty-five letters by Song and Yuan dynasty calligraphers). Expertise and administrative support were shared between the two auction sites, as were salaries and expenses. Zhao Mengfua€™s 1303 a€?Record of the Repair of the Three Purities Palace at the Temple of the Mysterious and Marvelousa€? (Xuanmiaoguan chongxiu sanqingdian zhiji), a handscroll written in regular script, was consigned by a young Chinese gentleman who had acquired it in France from a French family who knew nothing of its origin or its potential historical or monetary value. The consignor of this set of landscapes was a wealthy Parisian who was a major collector of modern European paintings and was thus well known to the Sothebya€™s Paris office. Part of the attraction of the process is the element of surprise; one never knows what may turn up in the next sale. I refer to the collection of Zhang Xueliang, known to students of modern Chinese history as the a€?Young Marshall.a€? Zhang is the son of the powerful Manchurian warlord Zhang Zuolin, who was assassinated in 1928.
An intermediary had brought two fine 18th century paintings into the Sothebya€™s Taipei office. I met him in person for the first time, along with Rita Wong, and for the next ten years we had many opportunities to visit with him and his wife Edith and we shared several meals with them.
In consultation with Rita Wong he made the bold decision to offer the remainder of his collection at public auction in Taipei, using his studio name Dingyuanzhai. Collectors and dealers from Taiwan were already extremely active in most facets of the market, especially porcelain, jadeite jewelry, and modern paintings. Both of these paintings, as well as most of the top lots in the sale, were purchased by Taiwanese collectors. Wu Bina€™s a€?Ten Views of a Fantastic Rocka€? is one of the most extraordinary Chinese paintings ever to appear on the auction market. The Chinese paintings market was strong but just as the demand for paintings and calligraphy was reaching a peak, the availability of good quality paintings had greatly diminished.
To some extent, I was not happy with the way the company was being run and I was dissatisfied with the direction in which both auction houses were heading.
The sales were successful but they had the negative effect of competing with New York for both consignments and resources. Christiea€™s, in particular, has been successful because of major consignments, such as the group of important Song dynasty fan paintings from the collection of Stephen Juncunc. In fact, the level of sophistication among Western buyers (including overseas Chinese) is such that they recognize and demand high quality examples of works by both major and minor artists of all periods. Exhibitions of works in all media by Chinese artists from mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong (once again a part of China after a century of British rule), and overseas have been mounted or are being planned throughout Asia, Europe, and the United States. Auctions of this material are now held on a regular basis in many cities throughout China as well as in New York, Hong Kong, Taipei, and Singapore. Even before the Imperial monarchy that had ruled China for several thousand years was completely overthrown in 1911, the Chinese had begun to assess their inherited traditions and values and to question their very cultural identity. Traditional Chinese painting (guohua)2 especially as practiced after the Song dynasty, was specifically criticized for its lack of realism or naturalism, and the conscious disregard by its practitioners of the harsh realities of contemporary society in favor of a rarefied vision of an ideal Confucian society which had never existed in fact. This colloquialization (to borrow a phrase describing a similar but more far-reaching movement in literature) of Chinese painting is epitomized by the work of the great Qi Baishi (1864-1955), whose colorful depictions of common objects from everyday life enlivened the tradition through the introduction of a colloquial vocabulary of familiar images. Some, like Fu Baoshi (1904-1965) and the Gao brothers (founders of the Lingnan School), traveled to Japan to investigate the process by which Japanese artists were modernizing their native traditions by a selective incorporation of Western techniques and styles. History would note that, at least for the short term, Xu Beihonga€™s academic realism ultimately won out, although more for political and ideological than artistic reasons.
Artists were free to work in all media, which they did in an incredible range of styles and with tremendous passion and dedication. 8 Although many questions remain and many individual stories have yet to be recounted, it is clear that one of the casualties of mainland art policy from the 1950s to the 1980s was Chinese traditional painting. During the 1950s Mao began to make good on his promise by revamping the entire system of art education and production. If he moves into a new culture with other orientations and basic beliefs, the two versions of reality are dissonant within him. The sources from which a field grew remain within it as a shadow skeleton, and they partly define what is real and what is true, what is sense and what is nonsensea€“in short, what is the basic shape or essence of reality.
Alternate realities and multiple truths cannot be understood through their physical means alone.
In periods when control over the arts was most absolute (during the many anti-rightist campaigns, for example) artists were not only told what subjects to paint but were also given stylistic directives.
Obviously, Western and Chinese painting had very different roots and very different evolutions; they are the products of completely dissimilar world views and emerge from disparate cultural contexts.
The repressive policies of the PRC ensured that this type of painting, with some ideological a€?improvements,a€? became the official means of artistic expression. Just when Chinaa€™s artists were mastering a style of painting which they thought was modern, Western artists and critics were rejecting both the style and the cultural construct it represented, and at a time when Western artists such as Picasso, Paul Klee, Mark Toby, and Jackson Pollock were recognizing and embracing non-Western artistic traditions, including Chinese painting and calligraphy, the Chinese themselves were declaring some of these same traditions invalid. It is thus upon the foundation of their work that the future of guohua is likely to be built. It is true of course that guohua represents only one aspect of Chinese painting, which, in turn, is only one aspect of Chinese art as a whole. Their relationship to the the historical past of China and its traditional values depends to a great extent on where they were raised.
This new generation of artists approaches the tradition with fresh eyes and renewed energy. It has been nearly one hundred years since Kang Youwei issued his challenge to a€?begin a new era by combining Chinese and Western art,a€? and now, a century later, it can be argued that not only have these lofty ideals not been fully attained, but the fundamental questions of artistic and cultural identity remain largely unanswered. It is worth noting, however, that as we enter the 21st century, the global context in which we live is vastly different than the one in which Kang Youwei, Cai Yuanpei or Xu Beihong existed. As popular culture becomes more global it also becomes more homogenized and the unique characteristics of a particular culture or ethnic group become all the more distinctive and significant.
I use the terms guohua and a€?traditional Chinese paintinga€? interchangeably, to refer to work painted with traditional Chinese pigments on traditional paper or silk. Kang Youwei, Travels in Eleven European Countries, quoted in Lawrence Wu, a€?Kang Youwei and the Westernisation of Modern Chinese Art,a€? Orientations (March 1990), pp. Quoted in Michael Sullivan, Art and Artists of Twentieth-Century China, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1966, p.
Lawrence Leshan and Henry Margenau, Einsteina€™s Space and Van Gogha€™s Sky: Physical Reality and Beyond, New York, 1982, p. During the visit, the strategic partnership agreement will be signed by the king and President Xi Jinping.
To address this imbalance, major Chinese companies have chosen Morocco for their direct investment in recent years. China can also engage in greater industrial cooperation with Africa and Europe by using Morocco's geographical advantages and its free trade agreements that allow access to markets in 55 countries, representing 60 percent of global GDP. It was attended by seven Moroccan ministers, other high-level government officials and 400 investors. This policy clearly reflects the king's desire that the Moroccan and Chinese private sectors make a greater contribution to the promotion of the strategic partnership.
Many factors made this performance possible, including strong and stable economic growth at 5 percent annually over the past 10 years, and inflation controlled at less than 2 percent. Morocco has designed strategies and policies for each of these sectors to ensure that they offer competitive, profitable and fast-growing projects.
All of these plans have given Morocco new impetus, and Chinese companies can make a significant contribution to the country's continuing growth. In addition, the Moroccan embassy in China will gladly offer every assistance to Chinese investors looking to develop and market their products in Morocco. It is among the top destinations for foreign direct investment in Africa and offers investors the advantage of free trade access to 1 billion consumers.
Chinese investors are taking a growing interest in Morocco and this will drive the increase in trade. Both countries have placed the continent at the core of their economic development strategies and both have heavily invested on the economic and social levels. The reasons for this are simple: our economic strategies in the region complement one another, and there are more areas in which it is in our best interest to cooperate rather than compete. To that end, Morocco included a specific initiative within its 2014 plan for industrial acceleration, which will provide Chinese companies with dedicated industrial zones where they can establish complete ecosystems in order to boost their productivity and increase their export capabilities in the area.
For us, this was a clear signal that the strategic and economic partnership between China and Morocco is reaching a new dimension, which we hope to intensify over the coming years. Xi'an Shopping Center in Xi'an, the capital of Northwest China's Shaanxi province, on April 28.
Xi'an Shopping Center is a modern, 90,000-square-meter, seven-level shopping center with plenty of amenities for shoppers, including easy parking with 2,200 spaces, as well as convenient traffic conditions.
Xi'an Shopping Center will create a shopping experience that is sure to satisfy the diverse tastes of people across the region," said Robert S.
Zhengzhou Shopping Center will host more than 200 international and local top retailers and have food and beverage offerings. She said more opportunities will be seen in China's second- and even third-tier cities in the future.
We saw a very good opportunity here, because of the strong support from such a large population.
However, China Mall 2020, a white paper report on the future of China's retail sector jointly released last year by Taubman Asia and Mingtiandi, a Chinese market research firm, forecast sustainable growth in Chinese consumption.
It has also conducted research and issued a report on big data development that examines and forecasts trends in the industry, its influence on the economy and new services. The project's first phase was completed in May 2015 to allow free Wi-Fi on the city's major roads and main public areas, covering an area of 12.8 square kilometers. Renowned international companies like Hewlett-Packard have launched their data centers in the city.
It boosted rural and cross-border e-commerce and has developed new business, such as e-commerce big data analysis. More than 1,300 big data and related companies set up shop in the city last year, taking the current total in the city to more than 5,000.
The International Big Data Expo 2015 and Global Big Data Era Guiyang Summit attracted many foreign and domestic companies and helped Guiyang become more influential in the nation's big data sector, local officials said.
It has worked to attract more investors and businesses from the big data industrial chain and to build itself into an experimental area for innovation and startups.
The company became a telecom operator in 2003 and began to offer call center outsourcing services in 2014. But Zhao warned that cost-effective labor is not enough to ensure the success of such a business.
The members include such domestic big names as Taikang Life, Tianhong Asset Management, China Unicom, Alibaba, JD, China Life, Huawei and iSoftStone. What we transact here are the analysis results based on big data, not the big data itself," Wang said. The package cost about 5,000 yuan ($770) and included a round-trip to Pyongyang on Air Koryo, hotel accommodation and entry to the marathon. Photography was allowed during the race, according to Hu, but people were told to show "respect" to portraits and statues of state leaders.
For example, entrants were told beforehand not to use compression wear under their suits because "it is adverse to the tastes of the Korean people", although he says that the dress code was not strictly enforced. He says they were much more active and enthusiastic than he expected, in particular the women and children inside the stadium and along the marathon route.
It is the first project in the northern part of the CEDZ, and the major part of the national-level Sino-French Ecological Park. The two teams held regular weekly meetings to discuss any difficulties and devise solutions.
The movement continued for seven years until the start of the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression (1937-45).
Formerly a landscape design consultant for the Shanghai Expo, he decided to leave the industry after receiving cancer treatment in 2010, which spurred him to rethink his life and career.
After recovering from an operation to treat his cancer, he returned to the countryside to lead a healthier lifestyle. There, he discovered that because the area's water source was designated as a protected zone by the authorities, all conventional livestock and farming practices in the vicinity were outlawed to minimize pollution. In 2012, he decided to use his money to lease an abandoned farm from the local government for 20 years. He knew almost all the traditional industries in Moganshan, including harvesting bamboo as a raw construction material, were not going to develop anymore. This is because he believes it is imperative that, regardless of how beautiful new architecture is, traditions have to be kept alive. After all, the Chinese government has in recent times emphasized the need to fully utilize empty houses and vacant land to develop traditional handicrafts, agriculture and tourism. One of the goals is to draw more visitors from the cities to learn about the local culture and way of life. The peninsula also incorporates Zhuchadao, a small island known for its fertile fishing ground that is 8.5 km off the coast, and Tangdao Bay, which is often compared to the "West Lake of the Sea" for its tranquility. The event is expected to integrate kite culture, tourism, investment promotion and international communications. It is hoping to attract more than 800 technology companies and 20,000 high-end workers to generate 40 billion yuan in revenue. The R&D center will focus on smart home appliances, ultralow temperature cooling technologies, cold chain logistics and vending machines.
It has thus far attracted 26 academicians from the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering. The month-long event will help further enhance the region's reputation for grapes, which are a local specialty.
Once the owner of a stone-processing plant, he was forced to consider a new direction when the plant was shut down. The town's more than 70 hotels and restaurants welcome more than 600,000 visitors annually and they come to taste the grapes and wine on offer. The bridge has cut transportation time from 45 days to 15 days compared with the sea route. They also learnt the arts of Chinese calligraphy, dumpling making, paper cutting, and discovered the culture of Chinese family trees. Upset by the incident, she wrote to the Shibei district government of Qingdao, suggesting that they introduce a "Neighbor Day" to encourage greater community spirit. With the theme of "neighbors as family", selected role models and citizen representatives from across the city gathered to share their homemade food and discuss the family stories behind those delicacies. For example, I was provided with a detailed introduction to the G20 and its background," said Wang.


Cascading fears about a hard economic landing for China had receded, replaced with improved growth momentum. This is a nuanced shift from 50 days ago, when he pledged a "prudent" monetary policy with "a bias toward easing". In fact, the International Monetary Fund and several global banks have raised their outlook for China's GDP growth rate this year, after the first quarter. Nomura noticed that the incremental credit-output ratio -or how much new credit is needed to generate one unit of real GDP growth - jumped to a record-high of five in the first quarter because of the diminishing effect of credit. In particular, the acceleration in credit growth in recent quarters suggested that the debt in the economy, especially corporate debt, will continue to move up," said Zhu Haibin, J.P. He warned corporate lending as a ratio to GDP had become too high and the country must develop more robust capital markets to mitigate that risk. However, Zhou noted that compared with countries without high saving rates, the ratio is not that high. Having traffic police who can speak fluent English helps maintain order and ensure the safety of tourists, according to officials. They have made a specialized implementation plan, which assigns forms of English language training based on the officer's age and learning stage.
The new division, which was established earlier this year, has brought all e-mobility related ZF technologies, which were distributed across multiple organizational units in previous years, into one division with over 5,000 employees. One of these mega trends is, of course, efficiency," said Joerg Grotendorst, who is the head of the e-mobility division of ZF. Additionally, there will be an E-Mobility System House, which will incorporate various e-mobility projects from the entire company. However, the perception of ZF is that most of their projects have historically been linked to transmissions. But if you want to put these together, we are the only company in the world who have everything under one roof," he said. The policy requiring public parking lots to have charging facilities in at least 10 percent of the parking spaces by 2020 is something where the development of e-mobility in China is in a much better position than in Germany," Grotendorst said. The anticipated adjusted earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization margin will be over 10 percent. TRW was integrated into ZF as the newly established Active and Passive Safety Technology Division. Before being appointed Deputy First Minister and Cabinet Secretary for Health and Wellbeing after the May 2007 election she had been Shadow Minister for Education, Health & Community Care and Justice. Amongst countless international industry awards, in 1990 Pete was recognised as the Music Industry’s Man of the Year. David, who was educated at Aston University in Birmingham, was also heavily involved in the introduction of Pendolino trains on the WCML and has led the devolution of Network Rail’s business in Scotland. James played a central role in the development of Scotland’s cities strategy that created the Scottish Cities Alliance and now chairs its Delivery Group.
Following this, he worked for Scotland’s Colleges, representing the college sector as Senior to politicians and the media. John Morrison is the owner of Morrison Media Strategies a leading PR, Public Affairs and Media Training company. His total research and consultancy awards in the last six years exceed £2 million, and he is currently Co-Director of the Scottish Cities Knowledge Centre and Co-Investigator on two major Research Council projects on sustainable transport and low carbon transitions. Christiea€™s plans to include a small selection of paintings within their auction of Chinese Works of Art in New York, followed by a larger specialized sale of Chinese Paintings in April in Hong Kong. The results of this auction provided compelling evidence that high quality Chinese paintings, rigorously catalogued, could be sold successfully at auction and demonstrated that there was sufficient institutional and private interest in the United States to warrant serious attention on the part of the auction houses. Many of these artists were unfamiliar to western collectors and few had ever been previously offered at auction.
Wong as a specialist in Chinese painting and a mutually beneficial rivalry developed between the two houses.
In the Asia--especially Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore--economic prosperity, political stability, and increased education created an environment conducive to collecting art. In cooperation with their regional offices and representatives throughout the United States and abroad, the auction houses took advantage of their broad networks of contacts to locate potential sellers and to attract potential buyers. In June of 1982, when the Chinese painting department was struggling to gain credibility and recognition, Sotheby Parke Bernet offered for sale an extremely important painting by the most significant living Chinese painter of the time, Zhang Daqian. By 1984 the increased supply of good works, coupled with evidence of a modest but increasing demand internationally, justified semi-annual specialized sales of Chinese paintings and calligraphy accompanied by the publication of separate catalogues. Included among the leaves were examples of writing by the Song dynasty writers Liu Wuyan, Wang Sheng, Wu Ju, and Fan Chengda, and the Yuan dynasty calligraphers Zhao Mengfu, Xianyu Shu , Qiu Yuan, Zhang Yu, and Ni Zan. Signed Hengshan Wen Bi, and inscribed with a date corresponding to October 30, 1499, this short handscroll was accompanied by a most impressive series of colophons written by many of the luminaries of late 15th-early 16th century Suzhou, including Shen Zhou, Wu Kuan, Zhu Yunming, Wang Chong, Chen Shun, Peng Nian, Wang Guxiang , Wen Peng and others. The system required cooperation and coordination and it succeeded because the individuals involved were firmly committed to the success of the enterprise.
The new owner knew little more, except that it bore the signature of the famous Yuan dynasty literatus and he purchased it on the chance that it might be genuine.
She could not remember where or when she had acquired the album but since it did not fit in with the rest of her collection she decided to sell it. Buyers are always looking to acquire a€?fresh goodsa€? that have not appeared on the market before.
After his fathera€™s death, Zhang Xueliang took control over much of northeastern China and was a major player in the subsequent period of warfare, politics, and intrique which shaped the face of modern China. Prior to this occasion I had seen very few good Chinese paintings in private hands in Taiwan. He was always excited to talk about Chinese art, collecting, and his longtime friendship with Zhang Daqian, who had died in 1983.
Although I had already resigned my position at Sothebya€™s, at Zhanga€™s request I assisted in the cataloging of the sale.
During the late eighties and early nineties they became increasingly prominent bidders in New York sales of pre-modern paintings. Measuring more than thirty feet in length, the painting consists of ten sections, each depicting a specific view of a scholara€™s rock, as viewed from different angles.
We had developed an international interest in an art form that had previously seemed to many to be unapproachable and unsaleable.
Many of the new buyers--I hesitate to call them collectors--seemed to be in a hurry to buy a€?masterpieces,a€? major paintings by major artists. The nature of the auction house and its role in the art market had changed over the years; it had become much more of a retail outlet and had lost much of its exclusivity.
The establishment of regular auction sales of Chinese painting and calligraphy in Beijing, Shanghai, and elsewhere within mainland China, as well as in Taiwan, has further diluted the supply of quality works available to the New York-based auctions. The Chang Family Han Lu Studio Collection, sold by Christiea€™s New York in September 1996, featured a rare group of letters by Song dynasty writers in addition to several fine paintings and calligraphic rubbings. If the market rejects poor works of questionable attribution, that, in fact, is a positive indication for the field of Chinese paintings as a whole.
In New York, the Metropolitan Museum of Art has recently opened their renovated Chinese Galleries and, for the first time, thanks to a generous gift from Robert H. Specialized galleries have been established all over the world and several dealers in ancient Chinese art (including Kaikodo) have begun to feature contemporary paintings as well. The type of guohua practiced by the literati (wenrenhua) was severely attacked by many critics, among the most vocal of whom was the reformer Kang Youwei (1858-1927), who accused: a€?Four or five hundred years ago Chinese painting was the best. However, Qi did not sacrifice such traditional aesthetic values as excellence in brushwork, simplicity of form, and directness of expression; on the contrary, his work may be seen as advancing the art form in each of these aspects. Some of the most famous, including Xu Beihong (1895-1953), Liu Haisu (1896-1994), and Lin Fengmian (1900-1991), went to Europe to experience Western culture at first hand and to learn what they could about European art. Liu Haisu, renowned for being the first in China to employ nude models for life drawing in his art school, was enamored of the Impressionists and post-Impressionists.
Realistic oil painting, primarily figural themes, gradually incorporating more and more elements of the Soviet Socialist Realist style, became the new orthodoxy in China.
Even after he is a firmly functioning member of the new culture, the orientations of his beginnings still influence him.
When the field develops so that new data contradict these old beliefs, a basic conflict develops in the field of knowledge.
Art, parapsychology, ethics, and consciousness all play a part in comprehending these new realities.
Only a chameleon-like illustrator could successfully create in such an environment, so it is not surprising that much of the propaganda art of the period, in style as well as function, is closer to advertising in the West than it is to fine art. That the two worlds should come together in this age of instantaneous global communication should not surprise us, but one of the most curious, even ironic aspects of this cross-cultural exchange is the way in which contemporary Chinese and Western artists and audiences tend to view the othera€™s culture.
No attempt was made to keep up with new developments in Western science and art; in fact, these were suppressed just as strenuously as traditional painting was being repressed. While many European and American artists explored alternate views of reality, through investigations into Eastern spirituality and art, (assisted, in some cases, by mind-altering drugs), the mainland Chinese artists found themselves mired in Marxist dogma and bound to a tradition of painting that was trapped in a reality-warp. Artists working in mainland China today are, at least for the time being, more free to express themselves than they have been for many decades. Perhaps they have not all attained the same level of technical prowess that painters of Imperial China would have developed through years of copying calligraphy and old master paintings, but neither are they burdened with the unenviable task of upholding Chinaa€™s artistic legacy and maintaining her outmoded cultural values. Western domination of technology and the world economy is a remnant of her colonial past, and economists, politicians, and businessman now increasingly look eastward for expanding economies and emerging markets. Cross-cultural artistic exchanges will be so commonplace and will occur so quickly, and stylistic influences will be so vast and complex that regional or even national characteristics will be difficult, if not impossible, to discern.
As cultures co-mingle rather than collide the purity of each artistic tradition is free to be rediscovered. Andrews, Painters and Politics in the Peoplea€™s Republic of China, 1949-1979, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1994, p. Laing, The Winking Owl: Art in the Peoplea€™s Republic of China, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1988.
Arch Gen Psychiatry -- Early Coadministration of Clonazepam With Sertraline for Panic Disorder, July 2001, Goddard et al. The forum aimed to promote a better appreciation of the existing business opportunities offered in Morocco and China, and open up new economic prospects for the two countries. Along with this, various reforms have been introduced to improve the country's business climate, making the country attractive to both national and international investors. Bilateral economic relations will be further diversified to encompass unexplored sectors of mutual interest.
It is the outcome of a collaboration between Taubman Asia, a subsidiary of Taubman Centers, and Wangfujing Group, one of China's largest department store chains.
And in China, we also have the same standard in building such malls," said Taubman, adding that he is confident in the opportunities brought by the two projects. Xi'an Shopping Center accounts for about 30 percent of the total space while in other malls owned by Taubman the proportion is about 12 percent. To ensure the village remained relevant in the modern era, he renovated an abandoned silkworm farm at the foot of the mountain, turning it into a creative arts space featuring traditional handicrafts, such as cotton shoes, as well as a cafe, tea house, bicycle club, bookstore, theater and design studio. Rural reform needs government policy support, but it also needs contributions from individuals," says Zhu, who is also involved in other village reform projects and has set up the Shanghai Urban and Countryside Interactive Development Center. It is home to 13 national post-doctoral science and technology research workstations, as well as 27 mobile workstations, with more than 1,200 employees involved. Gao invested in grape planting and he now owns an estate, which includes a hotel, and offers grape tasting, sightseeing and wine making activities. There was also a 'knock-on-the-door' activity to help neighbors network with each other and enhance communication among them. Pressure on deflation and capital outflow had eased; commodity prices, which had plunged in the previous six months, staged a rebound. That statement was widely reported and interpreted as the central bank's readiness to scale up liquidity injection if required. New loans extended by banks jumped to 4.61 trillion yuan, nearly 1 trillion yuan more than the same period last year.
Grotendorst said the company plans to "focus on full electrification of vehicle drive trends". The combined company has a global workforce of around 138,300 at about 230 locations in some 40 countries. In September 2012, still as DFM, she was appointed Cabinet Secretary for Infrastructure, Investment and Cities with responsibility for government strategy and the constitution.
Gasparello, who introduced me a few of her colleagues, including James Lally and Carol Conover.
Chinese Painting began to solidify its position in the art market, and was listed as a separate expert department at Sotheby Parke Bernet beginning in 1979 (although internally Chinese Paintings was under the jurisdiction of the Chinese Works of Art Department). Although neither sale was a financial triumpha€“the entire New York auction grossed just over $100,000a€“they paved the way for specialized sales of modern and contemporary Chinese paintings in both Hong Kong and New York and established the precedent for holding regular auctions in both locations.
For the next decade auction became one of the primary sources of Chinese painting and calligraphy for private collectors, dealers, and institutions. Twentieth century painting, in particular, satisfied a demand on the part of new collectors for art that was both Chinese and modern. The success of Sothebya€™s Chinese Painting Department was linked, to a great extent, to the overwhelming dominance of our worldwide Chinese Works of Art Department led by James Lally in New York and Julian Thompson in London.
The monumental six-panel work a€?Giant Lotusa€? had been purchased by Readera€™s Digest in 1963 from an exhibition of the artista€™s work held at Hirschl and Adler Gallery in New York.
The album was of great importance, for both artistic and historical reasons, but since no work of this type had ever been offered at auction before, the presale estimate was a conservative $30,000-50,000. The inclusion of the painting in the Imperial Collection of the Qianlong and Jiaqing Emperors, attested to by the six Imperial seals affixed to the painting and its appearance in the catalogue Shiqu baoji sanbian, added luster to its provenance. I had the good fortune to work directly with many capable and dedicated individuals, including Tammy Mui and Maria Chu in Hong Kong, and Angela Hsu and Laura Whitman in New York, all of whom began as administrators and became specialists in their own right. Based on the collectorsa€™ seals and colophons, the scroll displayed a magnificent provenance. There was much presale discussion among scholars as to the authenticity of the paintings, four of which bear the signature of Ma Yuan. Sellers, on the other hand, appreciate the ability to dispose of works in a discreet manner. He is most renowned (or notorious, depending on your point of view) for his participation in the Xia€™an Incident of 1936 whereby he captured Guomindang leader Chiang Kai-shek and forced him to negotiate with the Chinese Communist Party to create a united front to fight the Japanese.
Although there were no collectorsa€™ seals on the paintings, my experience told me that such high quality works, beautifully mounted, must be from a serious collection.
The auction of Fine Chinese Paintings from the Dingyuanzhai Collection was held in Taipei on Sunday, April 10, 1994. The ten images of the rock are interspersed with elaborate written descriptions composed and transcribed by the scholar-official Mi Wanzhong.
Even as I revelled in a genuine sense of accomplishment, I was wary of the future of the department.
They were generally more interested in the artista€™s name than in the quality of the work.
Both Sothebya€™s and Christiea€™s had undergone a gradual but undeniable shift in emphasis from expertise to marketing.
During the nineties, the New York auction rooms have been increasingly dominated by international dealers, such as Paul Moss, Harold Wong, and Kaikodo, representing themselves, institutions, and private clients all over the world. To blame every poor sales result on a€?the marketa€? shifts attention away from the real issues, which are the quality and quantity of the offerings.
Ellsworth, Chinese paintings from the 19th and 20th centuries are prominently displayed alongside masterpieces from earlier periods. They all progress along with the progress of science.a€?4 This emphasis on progress and the sincere belief that Western art (as the Chinese perceived it) was inherently more scientific and modern (and therefore more desirable) presented a serious challenge to advocates of literati painting and nearly signaled the end of the guohua tradition altogether. The degree of Qi Baishia€™s success is indicated most clearly by the fact that his style forms the basis of much of the guohua produced during the past fifty years.
There is great difficulty and struggle in recognizing, organizing, and solving the new problems presented by the conflict of the new data and the old beliefs and basic orientations. While much of the booka€“which deals primarily with scientific theorya€“is likely to be incomprehensible to most specialists of art, its observations are relevant here for at least two important insights. Not since the 1920s and 1930s, have young Chinese artists been able to explore such a broad range of stylistic and theoretical options and goals. Guohua need no longer be seen as the only medium capable of expressing the cultural identity of China because it is now clearer than ever before that there is no single identity and no single tradition that represents all Chinese.
Many aspects of popular culture have become globalized and most large companies have internationalized. Artists from all over the world will be able to express their individual perceptions of new global realities in a truly international, multicultural forum. Traditional Chinese painting can coexist with works in other media, as they exist today or as they will appear in the future, and it need not replace nor be replaced by any other art form. Compare my naive and overly optimistic study Painting in the Peoplea€™s Republic of China: the Politics of Style, Boulder, 1980. From April 22 to 24, it hosted the "China Good Tech-Overseas Talent Innovation and Startup Competition", with 29 high-end candidate projects in healthcare, smart hardware, energy conservation and exploration and marine technology participating. Bloomberg Intelligence Economics' China Monetary Conditions Index rose in March, hitting its highest level since September 2011, thanks to PBOC's strong pro-growth real interest rate stance, outstanding loans and real effective exchange rate. He was recently awarded the Degree of Doctor of Science honoris causa by the University of Lincoln. Since buying the first national rail franchise in 1993, Pete has continued to contribute massively to the preservation and development of this historic and essential industry. As a development professional, James continuously advises organisations on their growth plans, including Ministry of Sound, Capital Radio, Portland Communications (where he was managing partner) and PoliticsHome.
The following year I joined Paula Gasparello as a full time specialist in Chinese painting and we began to hold regular auctions of Chinese paintings and calligraphy. Although the art market as a whole was not particularly strong in the early 1980s the Chinese department, fueled in part by a burgeoning Hong Kong economy, held its own.
Sothebya€™s early entry into the market in Asia, particularly Hong Kong, gave us a distinct advantage in cultivating new buyers and sourcing potential consignors of paintings as well as ceramics and works of art. The curators of the Readera€™s Digest collection had no knowledge or interest in Chinese art, even contemporary Chinese art, and they decided to sell the work at auction. After intense competition, primarily among overseas Chinese collectors, the album sold for $297,000, nearly ten times the presale estimate and easily a world auction record for Chinese calligraphy at the time. The scroll had been consigned by a young Hong Kong collector and it was finally hammered down for $187,000 to a new North American collector bidding against stiff international competition. Additionally I received tremendous support from my colleagues in the international Chinese Works of Art Department and in Sothebya€™s regional offices, especially Rita Wong, Suzanne Tory, Meeseen Loong, Tony Omura, Timothy Sammons, Jonathan Bennett, David Priestley, and Patti Lam, all of whom were helpful in finding consignments as well as in assisting collectors and cultivating new buyers. Opinions ranged from a€?genuinea€? to a€?Southern Song, but not Ma Yuan,a€? to a€?Ming Academy work,a€? to a€?17th century copy,a€? but in the end the album was sold for $319,000 to a Chinese-American collector who believes it to be a genuine work of the Song master. In the case of famous works or well-established collections, however, the auction houses can also capitalize on the cachet and reputation associated with the individual work or collection. Chiang did give lip-service to the united front effort and flew back with Zhang to Nanjing where Chiang was given a heroa€™s welcome.
The presale exhibition was extremely well attended and the salesroom was packed with serious collectors of Chinese art as well as dozens of unfamiliar faces and first-time buyers who were not really art collectors but were aware of the identity of the owner and hoped to come away with a piece of history.
Following the painting are lengthy colophons by Ming and Qing dynasty writers, including Dong Qichang.
I found it increasingly difficult to procure enough authentic paintings and calligraphy to satisfy their needs. But to dwell on these philosophical differences would present a negative picture of what I saw as a very positive decision and a logical career progression. Taiwan buyers are not as active as they once were but they are beginning to be replaced by a new generation of collectors in mainland China.
Selectivity is the key to survival, for auction houses and dealers alike, because selectivity is the key to collecting.
Not only were Chinese artists and intellectuals largely cut off from their own past, they were also isolated from artistic and scientific developments in the rest of the world.
In the struggle confusions arise, and there is a loss of communication among many of the students of the field of knowledge.
1936), and others, who discovered and pursued the underlying intellectual and spiritual connections between traditional Chinese painting and 20th century Western art, particularly abstract, non-objective painting. An accurate assessment of the visual arts in todaya€™s China would require investigation into an unprecedented variety of media including oil painting, acrylics, watercolor, gouache, sculpture, woodblock prints, ceramics, textiles, film, graphic design, and installation art in addition to the traditional forms of Chinese painting and calligraphy. Hong Kong and overseas Chinese have had to grapple with complex questions of identity on a daily basis.
It is equally clear, however, that, in spite of all attempts to suppress it, traditional Chinese painting is both resilient and relevant. Young people the world over listen to the same music, eat the same hamburgers, and wear the same sneakers.
Guohua will survive because of its unique and timeless artistic qualities: expressiveness of line, simplicity of form, and purity of spirit. In 1997, he established London & North Western Railway, a state-of-the-art independent railway maintenance company.
Ma, Director of Chinese Paintings at Christiea€™s, is determined to maintain a market presence in New York, it would appear that a corporate decision has been made to eventually shift the sale of virtually all Chinese paintings, both classical and modern, to Hong Kong.
I readily agreed to research and catalogue the sixteen paintings and one calligraphy, which included works by Wen Zhengming, Lu Zhi, Wang Wen, Wen Boren, Ju Jie, Lan Ying, Wang Duo, Wang Jian, Fa Ruozhen, Wang Hui, Wang Yuanqi, Gao Qipei, Huang Shen, Zheng Xie, Li Fangying, and Luo Ping. By early 1982 economic pressures led to a significant number of layoffs at Sotheby Parke Bernet. It allowed elderly collectors to dispose of works they no longer needed and families to discreetly disperse inherited private collections. The entire auction totaled nearly $800,000, well below the $1,200,000 presale low estimate for the 126 lots, but encouraging nonetheless because nearly 80% (by value) was sold and a number of pieces brought strong prices.
Later, the Ming scholar Chen Jiru attached a colophon and the painter Cheng Zhengkui affixed his seal, and it then found its way into the hands of two of the premier collectors of the 17th and 18th centuries, Liang Qingbiao, and An Qi, who recorded it in his Moyuan huiguan. Nestled amongst the leaves of the album was a short note written in French which indicated that the work had been purchased from a soldier who had fought in China, presumably during the Boxer Rebellion of 1900. Paintings that have been exhibited in museums or have appeared in serious publications tend to be more marketable. Zhang Xuelianga€™s efforts to unify China against a common enemy, however, were rewarded with a swift court-martial and more than five decades of house arrest.
Without commenting in detail about either of the works I said simply: a€?The owner of these paintings must have many good things.
The sale was a tremendous success and Zhang Xueliang, along with his loving wife Edith, moved to Hawaii where they remain today as Zhang begins his second century on this earth. Wu Bina€™s name does not figure prominently in traditional Chinese accounts of painting history but he is highly regarded by Western scholars. There was now firm evidence that the right Chinese painting in the right economic environment could sell for more than a million dollars, but it had to be just the right painting offered at just the right time. Perhaps my own notions of quality were too high and my standards for judging authenticity were more strict than the current market necessitated, but I found myself rejecting many works that were later sold successfully elsewhere. Ma the autonomy to structure the sales in a way that is most beneficial to the company and to his clients. Guggenheim Museum is planning a major exhibition of 5,000 years of Chinese art which will include modern and contemporary works in a variety of media, and the Asia Society is organizing a show of contemporary art by Chinese artists living outside of China for the fall of 1998. Artists in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and abroad have of course had many more artistic options open to them and they have already made significant contributions to the field contemporary art.
However, it is interesting to observe that these individual Chinese artists of diverse backgrounds have found common ground in their choice of medium.
It is worth noting that most of the Chinese painters who worked in both Western and Chinese media demonstrated a distinct preference for the latter in their late years. In cyberspace, national borders do not exist and information is constantly exchanged across continents at lightning speed.
Paula Gasparello was one of the casualties and I was given responsibility for all sales of Chinese paintings in New York and Hong Kong. Sothebya€™s and Christiea€™s performed the traditional auction house role of providing a secondary market for dealers, museums, and collectors and, in the case of some contemporary works, occasionally played the unfamiliar role of developing a primary market through the introduction of new artists into the marketplace. I was astounded to be asked by the curator whether the six large hanging scrolls, which are clearly meant to be hung together as a single work, could be sold separately. The scroll subsequently entered the Qianlong Imperial collection and it is dutifully noted in the Shiqu Baoji xubian. This album must have been looted from the Imperial Palace when the combined Western military forces were called in to quell an anti-Christian, anti-foreign Chinese peasant uprising. I would like to see them.a€? The intermediary left, saying that she would talk with the owner. Not surprisingly, this long handscroll was hotly contested by two dealers bidding on behalf of American private collectors, and it was finally sold for $1,210,000. The few buyers at the top were unpredictable, buying in what seemed to me to be a rather indiscriminate manner, often paying high prices for works of dubious merit while ignoring what I considered to be high quality examples. For whatever reasons, my competitor was extremely adept at finding works that suited the tastes and budget of the new clientele and Christiea€™s consistently won the battle of market share, which is a house-to-house comparison performed by auction house accountants, like a bizarre postmortem ritual wake, after every series of auctions.
The auction houses are large international corporations with tremendous costs and huge overhead.
An examination of the current state of guohua as a distinct type of Chinese art, however, is useful because the limited focus of the investigation brings heightened clarity to larger artistic issues. Their conscious decision to work with traditional brush and ink applied to absorbent paper, at a time when so many other options are available, indicates at the least a tenuous link to Chinaa€™s artistic past.
Modern communications and transportation have made all markets international, including the art market. This afforded me a unique opportunity to build up a new market but I was faced with the daunting challenge of trying to make sense out of a very complicated subject.
I was relieved to land the consignment and to receive permission to sell the painting as one lot! In spite of the impressive pedigree of the handscroll, two of the leading authorities on Chinese calligraphy in America initially expressed doubts about its authenticity, perhaps confusing it with a well known related work in a Japanese collection.
As a result of the suppression of the Boxer Uprising, not only did the Qing government suffer the indignity of agreeing to pay a huge indemnity to the foreign powers, but a number of European, Japanese, and American soldiers helped themselves to what they considered to be war booty and souvenirs from the Forbidden City. Landing an important collection or estate creates an opportunity for promotion and also enhances the reputation of the department within the field and within the company.
Later that day, while Rita Wong, then head of the Taiwan office, was driving me home it occurred to me that the most logical source of the two paintings had to be Zhang Xueliang. The results of the June 1992 New York auctions of Chinese paintings, however, proclaimed Sothebya€™s the victor in market share, winning by a substantial 53% to 47% margin. As was the case during the first half of this century, the decision to paint guohua will be made for different reasons by different artists. At the time Chinese paintings were occasionally sold by Sothebya€™s London as well, where they were included as a postscript to Japanese print sales. The image of a€?Giant Lotusa€? appeared as a wrap-around cover for the June 1982 auction of Chinese Works of Art and Paintings and it attracted interest from across the globe, selling to a collector in Taiwan for $77,000, at the time a world-record auction price for a contemporary Chinese painting. Fortunately two astute overseas Chinese collectors recognized the scrolla€™s importance and they bid it up to a final price of $77,000. A significant number of paintings and large quantities of Imperial ceramics and other works of art must have found their way into Western collections during the early part of this century in this manner, although the casual note found in this album provides rare documentation of the phenomenon. In his youth, well before the Xia€™an Incident, Zhang had been known as a collector of Chinese art.
On the other hand, the size of the operation can render the fundamentally simple process of selling individual works of art overly complicated and expensive. For some, the impetus will be to continue to be part of an unbroken artistic tradition which they can trace back into antiquity, thus reaffirming their own cultural identities.
Even today, there is something about using brush and ink, like eating food with chopsticks, that feels natural to a Chinese artist. Pete is a director and currently chairs the board of Cadogan Entertainment Investments Ltd, the landlords of County Hall, Britain’s second biggest building and a key London tourist attraction.
The Spelman paintings were significant in that they presented to the market a group of excellent works with generally reliable attributions.
I was gradually able to wrestle control from the Japanese Department and for a time we experimented with selling Chinese paintings through the London Chinese Department. The sale of the painting received significant publicity in Taiwan and Hong Kong and it helped to bolster Sothebya€™s reputation in Asia for expertise in Chinese paintings. In a relatively small but extremely specialized market, like Chinese paintings, there may be other, more efficient ways to match buyer with seller. For others, the choice of guohua may be primarily a reaction against the repressive artistic policies of the Communist regime, ostensibly denying their ties to the recent past.
The market there never developed and to this day collecting interest for Chinese painting in Europe remains limited. In early publications on Chinese painting his name is often listed as the owner of specific works which had not yet resurfaced. For still others, the immediacy and sensitivity of the traditional medium and its unmatched ability to respond to the subtlest of touches, may be reason enough to adopt the art form, affirming the individuala€™s artistic identity, irrespective of his political viewpoint. However, perhaps because of this quirk in the market, Europe became for me a significant source of paintings for sale in both New York and Hong Kong. Over the next few years I developed a peculiar relationship with Zhang Xueliang, through his intermediary, who initially did not acknowledge his identity but realized that I knew who the real owner of these works was.
She began showing me paintings on his behalf, some for sale, some not, and she would relay back to Zhang my comments about the works. If not, we are witnessing the close of a short but intense chapter in Chinese painting history. We began selling the less important scrolls, which did not bear his collectora€™s seals, but gradually he consigned, always through a friend in the United States, major paintings by artists such as Shen Zhou and calligraphy by as importantt a writer as Zhao Mengfu. If the major auction houses decide that it is no longer financially viable to continue to hold sales of Chinese paintings in New York, it will be up to a few committed and knowledgable dealers to try to pick up the slack. How can those who paint just for fun in their spare time capture the true character of all things on earth.



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