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AbstractAn action research study using a series of staged focus groups with senior house officers (SHOs) and educational supervisors (ES) was used to identify the perceptions of the strengths and challenges in the SHO training programme and to indicate areas for improvement.The basic findings were not entirely surprising, with SHOs wanting more detailed feedback from educational supervisors and educational supervisors challenged (by time constraints and competing clinical and research responsibilities) in meeting the expectations of the SHOs.
MethodAn action research methodology was used involving the systematic collection, organization and interpretation of relevant and valid textual material derived from talk.
ResultsOne educational supervisor and one SHO were unable to take part because of other commitments at the time the focus groups were scheduled, leaving 8 educational supervisors and 15 SHOs.The first round comprised two groups of educational supervisors (n=5 and n=3) and three groups of SHOs (n= 7, n=5 and n=3). DiscussionThe results of this qualitative study (in terms of the problems perceived by educational supervisors and SHOs and the strategies they suggested to effect change) are context specific and not generalisable to other dental hospitals. This journal is a member of and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Since this template is supplied in a .doc format with no file protection you are free to edit the template as needed. This Medical Questionnaire for GP template is part of our range of Employment documents which we have created and filed in the most relevant categories around the site. This template is reserved for registered users only, if you have a free subscription please ensure you are logged in, if not please subscribe below. Please note that whilst most of our templates have been reviewed by a legal professional, due to the complexities of individual businesses we cannot guarantee their suitability for your intended application. Our FREE Bizorb account provides unlimited access to business news,downloadable templates, industry articles, videos, advice and tools at no cost! Desktop computer with survey clip board flying out of screen concept for online survey, questionnaire or voting (EPS #35478). Desktop computer with survey clip board flying out of screen concept for online survey, questionnaire or voting.
However the novel approach of using staged focus groups enhanced the educational supervisors' perception of the SHOs' view of their training and the SHOs' perception of the challenges faced by educational supervisors.
Although still regarded with scepticism by some in the medical community it is nevertheless a systematic and reflective process, which can be contested and shared.5Each of the focus groups and feedback meetings was led by one of the authors (MT) who audio taped, transcribed, read and re-read the transcript. Two members of the original groups were unable to take part in this second stage and therefore the second round comprised, one mixed group (n=10) of five SHOs and five educational supervisors, an SHO group (n=10) and an educational supervisors group (n=3).1 First round – 'What is going well? However it is the methodology that is transferable and we believe has the potential to significantly influence the quality of SHO training in other settings. We carefully review our templates to ensure they can be reused quickly and easily with minimal input. Most of our users base their own documents on our templates by adding their own logos, fonts or colours as well as any other specific information they require.
For example, in this Medical Questionnaire for GP template you will see where we have highlighted names, addresses and other details you will want to personalise.
As a free Bizorb subscriber you have access to hundreds of templates covering every area of business. We would always advise you have any finalised documents checked by a legal professional before use. This royalty-free stock vector clip art image is available for download in a package that includes an EPS vector file and a high-resolution 300-dpi JPEG at 3000x2527 pixels. Thus a culture of dialogue was created which supported change and innovation.This process was able to directly inform and influence the development of a new induction programme for SHOs and provide valuable insight into the use of the portfolio of learning and the provision of study opportunities.


Her involvement was primarily to seek clarification if required and to encourage all members of the group to participate equally. This makes it quick and easy for you to create detailed documents for you or your business without having to write them from scratch. There are no limits to the number of templates you can download or the time in which you are allowed to download them. If you have any questions relating to the use of our templates then please feel free to contact us to discuss further. These findings may only be of local interest, however the method employed can be transferred to other contexts to support a grass roots approach to change.
This author had not been involved in the design or implementation of the SHO training programme but had previous experience of educational evaluation and had also been involved in portfolio research in a primary care setting.6All the educational supervisors (n=9) and all the SHOs (n=16) were invited to take part in two rounds of focus groups. Both groups, (SHOs and educational supervisors) were pragmatic and creative when given the opportunity to share their thoughts about how SHO training could be developed. We focus all of our attention on bringing you templates that help you do your job more easily and at lower cost. The focus groups were unstructured apart from two broad questions designed to promote discussion.
Had the ideas for change been based on the opinion of just one of these groups, for example educational supervisors alone or SHOs alone, or even based on questionnaire responses it is unlikely that the data would have been as rich and hence the information as relevantThe SHOs were happy to be involved in spite of being aware that they would not necessarily benefit directly from the changes made.
Such change has made demands of both SHOs and their consultant educational supervisors and stretched the finite resources of the training environment.
However the frustration for educational supervisors was that they could see how much better the training could be if they had more time to devote to SHO training.2 First round –'What are the problems in current training? They were particularly keen for this process not to be merely an evaluative process but one which would result in change for their successors. The SCOPME report also identified several unresolved questions including 'whether the service demands of the hospital make it more difficult for SHOs' training needs to be met'. All participants received advance notice of the two broad questions on which discussion would be based: What is going well?What are the problems in the current training programme?Following the first round, themes were identified (Appendix 1) using an editorial style, which makes observations in the margins of texts. The process gave ownership to the educational supervisors and an impetus to implement the changes despite the pressures of their teaching, research and clinical work.There is much to be gained from using the methodology described.
The experience of one of the authors (JDC) is that SHOs have an incomplete understanding of the service and other demands on their consultant educational supervisors and both parties, to a varying extent, find it difficult to assimilate the newer learning methods in the context of their day-to-day work. These are organized into categories or codes, which are then re-read for further interpretation.7 The categories that emerged from the texts were returned to the focus groups and the hospital dental services tutor (JDC) for comment. However such an investment supports the view that worthwhile change is not a 'quick fix' but a process that requires the commitment of time and resources and the view of change as a long-term process. The first challenge of managing change, then, is to establish the need for, or benefit to be gained from, the change and to involve all whom it will affect.4 It was therefore important for SHOs and consultant educational supervisors to openly discuss the good and problematic aspects of the SHO training programme and together consider the changes which could be made to maximise the potential of available training opportunities. As a final stage in the process all the data was re-interrogated for inconsistencies and tensions.
Such is the paradox in our current climate of change.Top of pageAcknowledgementsThis study was funded by a grant from SCPMDE. This triangulation process of both data and investigator is required to ensure that the information collected is of the highest quality.8 This process informed the development of a questionnaire, based on the themes identified, which was administered to all participants at the beginning of the second round of focus groups.
It would not have been possible without this, and the valuable contributions made by the SHOs and the educational supervisors, for which the authors are grateful.


When you do something badly it really sticks and you think "Oh no I am really bad." '"I don't think that people tell you enough when you are doing something right. When you do something badly it really sticks"There was a feeling that the SHOs could not influence the frequency with which their educational supervisor saw them for formal appraisals (this contrasts with the educational supervisors' perception that some SHOs were difficult to meet!).
They comprised three groups – one of SHOs, one of educational supervisors and one mixed group.
Limited clinical supervision was considered to compromise both the learning opportunities available and the quality of patient care. It was felt that unless the diaries were formally recognised they might not be of interest to other hospitals or dental schools when applying for jobs.
Nobody wants to know where it is and it just got put away.'SHOs saw preparation for Membership of the Faculty of Dental Surgery (MFDS) examination as important and were motivated to study but expressed the need to have leisure time as well. They felt that the introduction of MFDS, with its three parts, had put increasing pressure on their time and their finances. For some the learning curve was steepest in the first two weeks, for others it continued steeply over the first six months. More consultants and sub-consultant specialist staff would allow better supervision and service delivery, but would require additional funding.The logistics and practicalities of rotations are challenging and the ideal is not always possible. For example, the introduction of the General Professional Training Scheme9 resulted in some SHOs working in a discipline they would perhaps have preferred not to.
This could reduce their initial confidence but, the educational supervisors thought, would benefit them in the long term.The educational supervisors thought that it was sometimes difficult through constraints on time to get feedback from other members of staff, such as lecturers and career grade NHS staff involved in the supervision of the SHOs. The other two groups shared in more detail their perceptions of the written feedback from the previous focus groups prior to discussion about changes that might be made.In response to the feedback from the first round of focus groups, the educational supervisors tended not to be surprised by the SHOs' comments. They acknowledged that the SHOs had high expectations of the training programme but felt that some were unrealistic.
Making better use of this meeting and developing its value to the SHO, may overcome some of the problems expressed by the SHOs. The educational supervisors also felt that the potential value of appraisal meetings was not realised but had no immediate suggestions as to how this experience could be improved. The educational supervisors thought that SHOs perhaps misunderstood the concept of supervision.
However, it was acknowledged that this was the result of the SHOs 'playing safe', allowing them to have a flexible career pathway.It was recognised that SHOs coming from vocational training would have experienced one-to-one teaching, which it was felt the dental hospital and school could not provide. This seemed a key challenge.There is a need to explain the objectives of the training to the SHOs in terms of how they might direct their learning to achieve them. Educational change may often be made as a result of external demands such as statutory bodies, specific interests of dental educators or competing demands on educational supervisors or SHOs.
Having been derived through a grass roots approach it is therefore more likely that the implementation and adoption of change will be more successful.



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