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Ian joined the University as Dean of the Business School and Professor of Strategy in July 2012. He is currently a member of the Executive of the Association of Business Schools and was previously on the Executive of the British Academy of Management.
He is a graduate of The Australian National University (PhD, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, 1984) and the University of Wales, a Senior Fellow of the Advanced Institute of Management Research (AIM), an Academician of the Academy of Social Sciences (AcSS), and a Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM).
Ian conducts research in management teams to investigate the discursive leadership skills of senior managers, with the aim of improving their understanding of, and influence through, language skills. Stephen Roper is Professor of Enterprise at Warwick Business School and Director of the Enterprise Research Centre.
Dr David Milne graduated in Physics from Heriot Watt University in 1965 completing his PhD at Bristol University in X-ray Optics in 1968. David has kept a keen interest in education and the commercialisation of research creating a strong interaction between the Edinburgh University and the electronics industry for which he was awarded an OBE in 1984.
He received honorary degrees of Doctor of Science from Edinburgh and Heriot Watt and Doctor of Engineering from Bristol.
As Vice-President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh he led the Commercialisation Project with Scottish Enterprise which formed the basis for much of the subsequent government investment into technology transfer for company creation and growth in Scotland.
Since stepping down from Wolfson he has become Chairman of the Edinburgh International Science Festival, and Chairman of the James Clerk Maxwell Foundation. Nick has over 30 years of corporate business experience in UK and overseas and has pursued a portfolio career since 1995 straddling private and the public sectors. He served previously on the boards of Coats Viyella, Bank of Scotland (West) Board, Standard Life, Scottish Power, the Scottish Legal Aid Board and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency amongst others and also chaired Dynacast International, GAP Group, Stoddard International, the Institute of Directors (Scotland), Scotland the Brand, ScotlandIS, Scottish Networks International and the Glasgow School of Art amongst other companies and organisations. Richard Harrison joined the Business School in 2013 as Chair in Entrepreneurship and Innovation. Richard's research interests straddle the areas of entrepreneurship, innovation, leadership and strategy. He is founding co-editor of "Venture Capital: An International Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance" (Routledge).
Glen provides specialist advice on the legal, financial and employee engagement aspects of setting up and running employee-owned businesses. An economist, has been strategic planner in the textile industry and investment manager and advisor, all in businesses worldwide. Main interest is in the different ways that CEOs internationally develop strategies for their firms, and develop their operations in other countries. Previously Senior Lecturer in charge of strategy and Associate Research Director at Manchester Business School, following lectureships at Buckingham, Warwick and Bath universities. Strategic investment decisions - integration of strategy and finance - drawing on over 300 company case studies in 21 countries - half in vehicle components, half in a more representative sample of good companies. Main Focus: Britain, Germany, US and Japan and all four BRIC countries - Brazil, Russia, India and China. Alessa Witt is an independent, early-career researcher who holds a PhD from the University of Edinburgh. Paul has extensive experience working with leaders and high potential talent throughout Europe, Asia, the Middle East and Africa and across a range of sectors, both corporate and franchised, including automotive, travel and tourism, leisure and hospitality, recruitment and staffing, retail, contact centres, on-line retailing, property, telecoms and financial services.
Donald Anderson started work as a Medical Scientist with the Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service. In 1999 he was elected Leader of The City of Edinburgh Council, a position he held until he stood down in the autumn of 2006 to stand for the Scottish Parliament. During Donald’s involvement in economic development, Edinburgh became one of the strongest city economies in the UK.
Fifty years later, in 1950, the leading ten cities had doubled in size, and Shanghai, Buenos Aires, and Calcutta had joined the list.
The oldest surviving corporations, Stora Enso in Sweden and the Sumitomo Group in Japan, are about 700 and 400 years old, respectively.
I suspect that one cause of their durability is that cities are the most constantly changing of organizations.
The reversal of opinion about fast-growing citiesa€”from bad news to good newsa€”began with The Challenge of Slums, a 2003 UN-HABITAT report. In 2007 the United Nations Population Fund gave that yeara€™s report the upbeat title Unleashing the Potential of Urban Growth. If cities are concentrators of efficiency and innovation, an article about the scaling paper in Conservation magazine surmised, then, a€?the secret to creating a more environmentally sustainable society is making our cities bigger.
In Peter Ackroyda€™s London: The Biography (2000), he quotes William Blakea€”a€?Without Contraries is no progressiona€?a€”and ventures that Blake came to that view from his immersion in London.
The common theory of the origin of cities states that they resulted from the invention of agriculture: Surplus food freed people to become specialists. Agriculture, it appears, was an early invention by the dwellers of walled towns to allow their settlements to keep growing, as in Geoffrey Westa€™s formulation. A study in Panama showed what happened when people abandoned slash-and-burn agriculture to move to town: a€?With people gone, secondary forest has regenerated. Though the squatters join forces for what the UN researchers describe as a€?cultural movements and levels of solidarity unknown in leafy suburbs,a€? they are seldom politically active beyond defending their own community interests.
A depiction of contemporary slum reality even more vivid than Neuwirtha€™s is an autobiographical novel by an escaped Australian prisoner who went into hiding in Mumbaia€™s slums, joined its organized crime world, and fell in love with the city. Social cohesiveness is the crucial factor differentiating a€?slums of hopea€? from a€?slums of despair.a€? This is where CBOs (community-based organizations) and the NGOs (national and global nongovernmental organizations) shine. For the first time in her life she had got rid of her husband, her in-laws, her village and their burdens. Shimu prefers living in Dhaka because a€?it is safer, and here I can earn a living, live and think my own way,a€? she says. The magic ingredient of squatter cities is that they are improved steadily and gradually, increment by increment, by the people living there. According to urban researchers, squatters are now the predominant builders of cities in the world. A reporter from the Economist who visited Mumbai wrote that a€?Dharavi, which is allegedly Asiaa€™s biggest slum, is vibrantly and triumphantly alive. The screen-printer who provides laundry bags to hotels, the charcoal burner who wheels his cycle up to the copper smelter and delivers sacks of charcoala€¦ , the home-based crA?che to which the managing director delivers her child each morning, the informal builder who adds a security wall around the home of the government minister, all indicate the complex networks of linkages between informal and formal. In many cities, the roughest slums are pressed right up against the most affluent neighborhoods. This book was finished before the full effects of the world financial crisis of 2009 could be studied.
Corporations are right to pay attention to what is now referred to as the BOPa€”bottom of the pyramid.
It doesna€™t matter whether you give people title deeds or secure tenure, people simply need to know they wona€™t be evicted. For the first time in her life she had got rid of her husband, her in-laws, her village and their burdens.A  A few months after she arrived, Shimu, now able to support her children, mustered the courage to return to her town and file for divorce. That bond back to the village appears to be universal.A  The Challenge of Slums observes that a€?Kenyan urban folk who have lived in downtown Nairobi all of their lives, if asked where they come from, will say from Nyeri or Kiambu or Eldoret, even if they have never been to these places. Together with Spotify Enterprise, Visual Art can help you fully harness the potential of combining music and moving image in commercial environments. Spotify Enterprise makes the music interactive and blurs the line between personal and commercial listening.
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Talk to us today to see how we can offer you a tailored digital media solution with Spotify Enterprise. Born in 1972, Danny Alexander grew up in the Highlands and Islands and went to Lochaber High School in Fort William.
In 2003 he was appointed the Head of Communications for the recently formed Cairngorms National Park Authority before becoming an MP for the newly created seat of Inverness, Nairn and Badenoch & Strathspey in the 2005 election. Danny joined the shadow Work and Pensions Team in 2005 and in July 2007 was appointed Shadow Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, holding the post until June 2008. He played a key role in the negotiating team and in the drawing up of the coalition document for the new Government. Brian Sloan has a background in financial services, hospitality and retail, and he was for over a year Chairman of Age Scotland Enterprises, the Charity’s social enterprise arm. Previously Brian was involved in strategic business development for Young Enterprise Scotland, charged with leading the promotion and expansion of enterprise into mainstream education.
Brian is married with four children, active both as a participant (golf and squash) and a spectator in a variety of sports and in early 2011 was appointed by the Scottish Government as a member of the Edinburgh Children's Panel. Recent and current research at the Institute on ageing and work has included a systematic review of the health, safety and health promotion needs of older workers and on-going work is adding to this evidence base in an EU funded project called e-capacit8.
After many years providing strategic management consultancy services within the Public and Private Sectors, although nominally retired, Bryan has continued to accept a number of strategic commissions across the Health & Social Care domain.
Added to this he continues to be deeply immersed in international standards development with ISO, CEN and BSI, and is currently part of an international Strategy Group working on Ambient Assisted Living for the Elderly and those with Long Term Conditions. Typical activities have been aimed at countering latent and low-level Mental Health problems at source in the context of the IAPT Cognitive Behavioural Therapy programme via the development of enhanced inter-disciplinary cross-agency community Well-Being services. For five years Tommy was a full-time carer for his late mother Joan who had Vascular Dementia and in 2011 undertook a walk around Scotland’s towns and cities to collect hundreds of life story letters detailing the experiences of individuals caring for a loved one living dementia.
Prior to joining PSYBT Brenda was employed by Scottish Enterprise, (SE) Scotland’s economic development body. She subsequently was project manager with the SE Financial Services Team responsible for the design, development and delivery of a strategy for the sector in Scotland with a focus on skills development. Before joining SE Brenda was engaged in medical and scientific research with both the NHS and in the private sector.
He was previously Director of Newcastle University Business School (2008-12) and Chair in Strategic Management at Lancaster University Management School (2001-08). He has undertaken major research and consultancy projects with a number of multinational companies and collaborates with linguist Professor Ruth Wodak and Dr Winston Kwon at the University of Lancaster. In 1970 he joined the Wolfson Microelectronics Institute at Edinburgh University and became director in 1973. He holds an honorary Professorship at the University of Edinburgh and was a member of the University Court from 1998 to 2007.
He was a recipient of the IEEE Millennium medal in 2000 and the RSE Royal medal in 2012 for his contribution to electronics and industry in Scotland. He is currently chairman of Social Investment Scotland, four private companies, two pension funds, an honorary professor at the University of Glasgow and a business angel and mentor. He has lectured in UK, Europe and Latin America on business and corporate governance, has been a visiting professor at Strathclyde University and is fluent in five languages. He was previously Director of the Management School at Queen's University Belfast (2006-2012), where he was academic lead on the development of new Management and Postgraduate and Executive Education Centre facilities and initial Director of the Leadership Institute at Queen's (2012-13), the University's executive education delivery channel. He has been involved in eleven employee ownership transitions thus far with another nine projects in the pipeline.

Advises managers and Chief Executives in Scotland, the Netherlands, France, Germany, Sweden, China, Italy and Finland on their international strategic development.
Particular focus is on who they involve in this development: their relationships with others. She has lived and has gained extensive academic and business experience in both Germany and Great Britain.
He brings a level of creativity and innovation that is inspiring, energising and valued – and at the same time ensuring the delivery of real personal and business results. He was also a member of the Boards of the Edinburgh Festival Fringe and the International Festival.
Most notably he led Edinburgh’s response to the hosting of the G8 Summit in Scotland and the call by Bob Geldof for a million people to march to Edinburgh. Countries that are highly urbanized have higher incomes, more stable economies, stronger institutions. The collaboration means that we have joined two state-of-the-art tools that work together towards making your digital platform into a natural part of the physical environment. Visual Art’s analysis tools give you insight into how your customers interact with your digital media and how well it performs in relation to set targets. Scheduling enables you to adapt the character of the music according to the day of the week and daypart, or temporarily changing it to suit holidays or campaigns.
He became the Charity’s Interim Chief Executive in July 2012 and was appointed Chief Executive in January 2013.
His financial experience included over a year as Head of Business Development with Capital Credit Union, Britain’s fifth largest not-for-profit cooperative.
This is closely linked with developing Compunetics as a new inter-disciplinary research topic based within the School of Electronics and Computer Science, but also closely involving Applied Psychology and Management  sciences within the University of Westminster. In the latter context he is guiding strategic development of the Dementia Action Alliance, having previously fulfilled a similar role for the Thalidomide Trust. As a result he has gained exceptionally wide range of expertise dealing with strategic and operational issues across the complete spectrum of Community, Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Care service commissioning and provision, spanning Physiological, Mental and Social problems.
Her role is to raise awareness of PRIME and what they offer to support self-employment for the over 50’s, to establish and develop partnerships with other organisations who share their interest in enterprise and to secure funding to support activities in Scotland. Her main area of responsibility was to secure funding from Trusts and Foundations to support a variety of programmes.
This provided her with a varied career, initially in the field of securing foreign direct investment for Scotland, including a period working in the US. This strategy was devised in collaboration with industry partners, Scottish government, academia and the professional financial bodies in Scotland.
She leads on all flagship programme developments and particularly our work with young people. He was a member of the Communities Committee dealing with housing, planning, charity law, and social issues, and more recently Convenor of Parliament’s Transport, Infrastructure and Climate Change Committee. As things stand, more than half the over 60 population are involved in some sort of formal and structured voluntary work; over half of the population believes that this is part of what they should aspire to in later life, and a third are willing to take part in informal volunteering. He has also held positions at Durham, Glasgow and Manchester, and was an internal strategy consultant at Tesco PLC (1985-92). Stephen joined Warwick in 2008 having previously been Professor of Business Innovation at Aston Business School. He spun out the Institute in 1985 forming Wolfson Microelectronics Ltd an independent company of which he was CEO until retiring in 2007. Prior to that he held the Dixons Chair in Entrepreneurship and Innovation at University of Edinburgh, and has held senior academic positions at Aberdeen, Ulster and Queen's. Before working with CDS, Glen held senior positions within sales, operations and general management.
He has spent over 30 years researching strategic approaches to globalisation, comparing 21 countries worldwide through extensive field research, in over 300 companies including particularly the automotive sector. From 1990 he was Convenor of Economic Development, a position he held until the Scottish Local Government Reorganisation in 1995, when he was elected to the City of Edinburgh Council.
The Council’s response was recognised by the Chartered Institute of Public Relations, with the award of their Grand Prix award in 2006. Prahalada€™s The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Eradicating Poverty Through Profits (2005).
With unlimited access to Spotify’s music catalogue of more than 30 million songs you can make sure that your brand is always playing the right music at the right time. And with the help of Spotify’s vast music catalogue, filling it with attractive content is easy. Rachael has been instrumental in the last 10 years in raising the profile of creative approaches to engaging young people, with a specific focus on engaging young people within their local communities. Patrick has also been involved with issues from asylum and civil liberties to sexual health and food policy. Stephen’s research interests include small business development and policy, mid-market firms, innovation policy and evaluation and regional development. Laura started her Purchasing career as a Graduate at Polaroid after gaining a degree in Technology and Business Studies from Strathclyde University. Prior to this he worked in industry for over 10 years with British Aerospace and then GKN, Britain's two largest engineering companies. Although these successful businesses are primarily found as part of the German Mittelstand, Alessa was one of the first to formally identify equivalents in Britain. Donald was given responsibility for Economic Development in the new Council and in 1998 he left the Health Service to become a full time politician. Dawn was co-host of the 8th World Congress on Active Ageing, in 2012 and on the Expert Panel for the Chief Medical Officers Start Active Stay Active recommendations for physical activity and public health in 2011.
She has in depth knowledge of the social housing, regeneration and youth sector, and understands the challenges and opportunities faced when transforming communities. He is also the joint Convenor of the Scottish Green Party.Before Parliament Patrick worked in the sexual health field, for an organisation called PHACE Scotland which is now part of the Terrence Higgins Trust. It means, quite simply, that a majority of the older population are ready to do what they can, unpaid, to support the fabric of society; they are doing exactly what we expect responsible citizens to do. Current projects focus on innovation and exporting, innovation and survival and institutional supports for open innovation.
She also runs training courses to move research into practice with allied health professionals and fitness instructors. Improving the environment through high quality public art is one of Impact Arts strategic priorities. Her recent research (MRC and NIHR) focuses on effects of visualisations of biomechanics on adherence to exercise in older people with a history of falls, group versus home exercise referred through the GP on habitual physical activity, effects of the Otago home exercise programme in visually impaired older people, the outdoor environment on avoidance of activity and falls in older people and reducing sedentary behaviour (long periods of sitting) in older people. Rachael has specific expertise in creative community consultation within a wider strategic framework, and has a long track record in translating this into highly creative, tangible project ideas which partners can engage in and adopt.
Venture capital provides the necessary funding, but SMEs lack understanding of the business value curve utilised by financiers to gauge the risk-reward characteristics of an investment. Strategies need to convey how the business model will evolve in order to deliver on the strategic intent.
A framework is proposed through which SMEs can develop a strategy aligned with investor requirements. Waagkapitaal kan die nodige befondsing verskaf, maar SMEs benodig kennis van die besigheidswaarde kurwe, wat deur beleggers gebruik word om die risiko-opbrengs van 'n belegging te assesseer. Strategieë moet oordra hoe die besigheidsmodel die strategiese intensie gaan aflewer.
Many entrepreneurs are not opting to formulate formal strategies [3], as current models neglect to detail the processes involved to guide the entrepreneur in such an endeavour [1]. However, about 75% of new SMEs (small- to medium-sized enterprises) in South Africa do not become established; in fact, it is less likely that a new SME in South Africa will survive beyond 42 months than in any other Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) sampled country [5]. The model describes how economic development facilitates rising per capita income, and coincides with the migration of labour from the primary production and extractive services to manufacturing and later service industries, as illustrated in Figure 1.
Less developed countries often have a large agricultural sector, with the economic development of natural resources and the extractive industry promoting the migration of excess labour to these specific regions of economic activity.
The resulting oversupply of labour in these regions results in surplus workers becoming entrepreneurs in an effort to create self-employment and thus to survive. As the value-adding industrial sector develops, small and medium enterprises emerge to support further industrialisation as they supply institutions that pursue increased production efficiency through economies of scale. These small and medium support companies are often the result of entrepreneurial actions as economic agents try to fulfill an industry need that is often initially met by imports. As the economy develops, an increase in disposable income translates into a shift from industrial activity to an expanding service sector to meet the needs of an increasingly affluent population.
Increasing access to education translates into the industrial sector's ability to evolve and produce a larger variety and sophistication of products. As knowledge-generating institutions gather momentum, there is an increase in research and development, with opportunity-seeking entrepreneurs delivering innovative products and services, and even whole new industries. Subsequently these entrepreneurial businesses emerge as significant contributors to economic growth and to wealth creation. Drucker highlighted that these agents, the 'intrapreneurs', and larger businesses cannot survive "unless they acquire entrepreneurial competence" [12]. A significant portion of the literature in economics has stressed the importance of entrepreneurship at the micro-level to achieve economic growth at the macro-level (e.g.
Consequently, Lumpkin and Dess [16] have touted the small business as an outstanding vehicle through which entrepreneurs can channel their entrepreneurial ambitions, as the business is seen as an extension of the individual who is in charge. The most often cited and most impressive example of this is the observation that the share of employment by the Fortune 500 companies dropped from 20 per cent in 1970 to 8.5 per cent in 1996. Together with this, an aversion (or inability) to achieve growth has been identified as a principal reason for business decline and ultimate failure [20]. Storey [19] proposes that growth is synonymous with longevity; negative or stagnant growth rates indicate future problems for the SME.
Other motives for growth, along with continuity of business, include the achievement of economies of scale, increased market share and subsequent profitability, exploiting new business opportunities, credibility in the market, and achieving a higher market value for the business [19]. Wiklund [21] proposed an integrative model (as illustrated in Figure 2) that suggests how entrepreneurial activity, the business environment, business resources, owner attitude towards growth, and strategic fit combine to create a sustainable competitive advantage.
The environment has aggregate benefits for all market participants in that the business growth rate is affected by the industry growth rate [21].
However, studies have found that high growth among SMEs is due to their ability to develop market niches [23].
The idea is that these resources have to be combined and utilised in a manner that creates a sustainable competitive advantage [24].
Wiklund [25] proposed that - even if growth is not an entrepreneur's initial goal - business owners may develop a more positive attitude towards growth, especially if they are favourably exposed to the new tasks that accompany business growth. Should a business be unable to acquire the necessary resources, or should it be ineffective in combining them to exploit a market segment, it will be unable to sustain a competitive advantage and will fail [21].
However, it can be accurately described as "an overall collection of business decisions and actions" [27] in order to gain and sustain a competitive advantage.

Hrebiniak and Joyce [28] maintained that a successful strategy enables business performance and effectiveness - the result of an effective match between the business, its processes, and the external environment.
As a consequence different frameworks have been popularised by various pioneers in an effort to help businesses to exploit their strengths and weaknesses in relation to the external environment (Table 1). Teece [38] described a business model as that which encapsulates the logic of how the company combines and utilises its resources to create and deliver value in order to deliver on its strategic objective.
A good business model will provide considerable value to the customer and collect a viable portion of this in revenues. But developing a successful business model (no matter how novel) is not itself sufficient to assure a sustainable competitive advantage. Like economic development, businesses have the choice of being input factor driven (e.g. Companies can employ one or all of these strategies with varying degrees of success [40]. Given these available options, studies have produced mixed results, with theorists unable to agree on the best course of action to accelerate growth [1].
The different decisions and actions would thus follow and hold under different conditions, given a set of entrepreneurial characteristics that might be beneficial in one configuration or context and action might work adversely in another.
It is important to take into account the specific dimension of SMEs, as small businesses are not just smaller versions of big businesses (as discussed earlier). The critical requirement for small businesses in these industries is strategic flexibility [44]. These businesses have to be more flexible, have closer ties with their customers, and have the ability to translate their vision into action more efficiently [45].
These small businesses also struggle with limited financial, technological and human resources, little market information, and necessary economies of scale [45]. Unless business owners have a strong belief in their ability to formulate a successful strategy and to grow the business, they would not attempt formal strategy formulation but rather align their goals along a certain objective. Strategic intent is the antithesis of strategy focus, which attempts to search for a fit between existing resources and emerging opportunities, whereas strategic intent stipulates an aspirational outcome, recognises the misfit between resources and aspirations, and attempts to find a way to bridge the gap. It provides a sense of direction and purpose for each stakeholder in the organisation [47] & [25]. These entrepreneurs integrate action and analysis, and emphasise the need for strategic orientation in management and for knowledge about the market, customers and competitors in a global environment of increasing competition and shortening product and service life-cycles. Martin and Staines [52] proposed that a lack of managerial competency is the main reason that new businesses fail. The lack of support services, or their relatively higher unit cost, was also found to hamper SMEs' efforts to improve their management capabilities.
This is supported by evidence [53] that, although numerous institutions provide training and advisory services, there is still a skills gap in the SME sector as a whole due to the inability of many entrepreneurs to afford such services. Shane and Cable [55] concluded that networking reduces information asymmetry in negotiations with creditor, debtors and other financiers.
Technology supports entrepreneurs in the implementation of their strategy by maximising business opportunities [57].
However, the use of technology also involves costs; and where new or even established SMEs experience difficulty in purchasing the necessary technology, this may hamper their growth and sustainability [58]. Cook and Nixson [61] concluded that "notwithstanding the recognition of the role of SMEs in the development process in many developing countries, SME development is always constrained by the limited availability of financial resources to meet a variety of operational and investment needs". Private equity fills the gap between entrepreneurs financing the business themselves and conventional capital market activity in growing private enterprises. The impact that private equity has had on business development extends beyond the financial backing to the contribution of business expertise, training, networks, and skills transfer, all of which would raise the efficiency of the sector being entered [62]. Due to the higher risk of the investment, investors expect a higher rate of return compared with exchange-traded equities. The investments may be made at any point of the business cycle of the company, from the initial planning stages of a new venture to an established firm ready to go public [63].
Regulation 28's aim is to ensure that the savings that South Africans contribute toward their retirement are invested in a prudent manner - one that not only protects the retirement fund member, but is also channelled in ways that would achieve economic development and growth. The alternative investments limit, which increased to 15% of the portfolio's limit, includes hedge funds, private equity funds, and other assets, as shown in Table 2.
The increase in this limit is expected to increase the amount of funds available to private equity and VC funds. Pooling capital in order to invest in private companies (this gives smaller investors access to private companies experiencing greater growth than their publicly-traded peers); 2. The delegation of investments through fund managers with the required experience and incentives to screen, evaluate, and select businesses with potential for high growth; and 3.
The fund managers source exit opportunities and realise their gains by exiting businesses and subsequently realising a return from the portfolio of businesses for the private equity fund's investors.
This can be done in a number of ways, of which the main strategies include a private sale or an Initial Private Offering (IPO). The business would thus need to be driven up the J-curve towards a purchasable business or one that can be offered publicly (Figure 3).
In order for this growth to happen, the business would need to pass through or skip various stages of business development in order to have grown. During initial assessments for investment, the business will be subjected to assessments that evaluate whether it will be able to survive through the various developmental phases to the point where it is exit-able. Team size or experience is less important in the later assessment stages than the significance of the entrepreneurs' social skills, such as impression management, persuasiveness, ability to think on their feet, and to answer questions and advise over measurable factors [72]. Mainstream finance theory measures the economic value of any investment through the present value of future cash flow; but this presents some difficulties when applied to businesses in the early stage of their development, as most information is not available to deliver on this calculation. This has often been the source of frustration between VCs and entrepreneurs; yet entrepreneurs can set up their businesses in a way which would result in higher valuations by VCs [75]. The spread of skills in top management also reduces the 'key man' dependency risk (risk of losing an individual who holds all the knowledge). The quantity and quality of these networks are salient signals to the VC firm that positively correlate with the speed and valuation of an IPO. The probability of success is also increased by the non-financial contributions of VC companies to the businesses.
VC companies that provide support for their investments see better performance and a more substantial return-on-investment [76] & [77].
This experience, together with an extensive network of contacts, is crucial when deciding on an investment and on the appropriate resources and configuration needed to grow the business.
This preparedness of a business's people, systems and structure to deliver on its strategy is defined by the human, information and organisational capital - the intangible assets that are the foundation for strategic change, which most often involves new markets, products, or corporate transformation [79]. These models usually are rigorous and have limited complexity, with their relevance being a function of fit between their assumptions and reality. In strategy, no one model can embody all the relevant variables, and thus the applicability of any model's findings are almost inevitably restricted to a small group of businesses or industries whose characteristics fit the model's assumptions.
The theory embodied in frameworks is contained in the choice of included variables, the way variables are organised, the interactions among the variables, and the way in which alternative patterns of variables and company choices affect outcomes.
The framework seeks to help the analyst to analyse the problem better through understanding the business and its environment, and defining and selecting from among the strategic alternatives available, no matter the industry or starting position. A system problem might be complex as a whole (I), but it needs to be broken down into smaller sub-problems (II).
It is in the second quadrant that a greater understanding of the source of the individual issues is unearthed.
A large number of sub-solutions can be found for the sub-problems (III), which can then be pieced together to find a solution for the whole (IV). In the real world flow of problem-solving, this feedback system would be embedded between each of the quadrants. The tools given in Figure 6 might be old or new, and are not the only tools available; but they have been used according to what the authors believe is applicable. These tools are given here to guide the entrepreneur to utilise them in a different way to reach the desired objectives per quadrant. The tools prescribed for the entrepreneur or SME management should provide them with insight into the following issues (possible applicable tool(s) provided in brackets): What are the future industry trends (PESTE)?
This is conducted along the various stages of the value curve, called here 'value curve mapping', in order for the entrepreneur or SME management to answer the question: How are industry participants currently combining the various elements within the business function to deliver value to the customer? By designing and implementing a visual management system, the business will have created a structured communication system and made knowledge more explicit and less tacit. The quadrant aims to address risk related to growth by providing the necessary structure and clarity on the way forward [45]. The proposed business model would have to deliver value to the industry and address misconceptions regarding South Africa's ability to deliver effective quality tools.
The mid-technology segment is more difficult to infiltrate as suppliers need to generate trust in delivering tools that can perform more complex functions along with after-sale maintenance services. For the lower segment, Asian and East European imports often arrive and require modifications because of ineffective specification translations.
Local companies are unable to provide the necessary after-sale services for the medium technology segment imports: they are unfamiliar with the tool function through lack of insight into the motives behind the design. With superior tool design capabilities, West European tool manufacturers face considerable barriers to entry; however, local customers have to pay significant fees to import large complex tools with associated shipping lead times, and to ship them back to the country of origin for maintenance and repairs. A financial roadmap - which dictated how funds would be raised to increasingly absorb the outsourced functions and thus facilitate growth - was compiled with the first round of shareholder fundraising underway . However, they neglect to detail the processes involved in developing the strategy and subsequently achieving success. The framework will ultimately be tested to see whether it would fall into the category of SMEs that are successful after the first two years. Capitalism and democracy in the 21st century: From the managed to the entrepreneurial economy. Linking two dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation to performance: The moderating role of environment and industry life cycle. Attitudes to growth among owners of small and medium-sized enterprises and the implications for business advice. The significance of sustained entrepreneurial orientation on performance of firms - A longitudinal analysis. A historical comparison of resource based theory and five schools of thought within industrial organisation economics. The definition and development of open innovation models to assist the innovation process.

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