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There is, however, another meaning that lies closer to heart of community change: the logic of how things work. Logic in this sense refers to "the relationship between elements and between an element and the whole." All of us have a great capacity to see patterns in complex phenomena.
The challenge for a logic modeler is to find and accurately represent the wisdom of those who know best how community change happens. Like a road map, a logic model shows the route traveled (or steps taken) to reach a certain destination.
The form that a logic model takes is flexible and does not have to be linear (unless your program's logic is itself linear). Whatever form you choose, a logic model ought to provide direction and clarity by presenting the big picture of change along with certain important details. Putting these elements together graphically gives the following basic structure for a logic model.
Using this generic model as a template, let's fill in the details with another example of a logic model, one that describes a community health effort to prevent tuberculosis. Remember, although this example uses boxes and arrows, you and your partners in change can use any format or imagery that communicates more effectively with your stakeholders. The linear model better guided discussions of cause and effect and how far down the chain of effects a particular program was successful.
When exploring the results of an intervention, remember that there can be long delays between actions and their effects. One of the greatest rewards for the extra effort is the ability to spot potential problems and redesign an initiative (and its logic model) before the unintended effects get out of hand, so that the model truly depicts activities that will plausibly produce the intended effects. Even though it leaves out information, a good model represents those aspects of an initiative that, in the view of your stakeholders, are most important for understanding how the effort works. Should the information become overly complex, it is possible to create a family of related models, or nested models, each capturing a different level of detail. Imagine "zooming-in" on the inner workings of a specific component and creating another, more detailed model just for that part. In the Examples section, the idea of nested models is illustrated in the Tobacco Control family of models.
The Comprehensive Cancer model illustrates a generic logic model accompanied by a zoom-in on the activities to give program staff the specific details they need.
Planners, program managers, trainers, evaluators, advocates and other stakeholders can use a logic model in several ways throughout an initiative. Remember that your logic model is a living document, one that tells the story of your efforts in the community. At first, you may not agree with the answers that certain stakeholders give for these questions.
By now you have probably guessed that there is not a rigid step-by-step process for developing a logic model. The HOME initiative, for instance, created different models to address the unique needs of their financial partners, program managers, and community educators. Here are the plot points common in most community change initiatives, presented with their "storytelling" names. An advantage of the graphic model is that it can display both the sequence and the interactions of effects.
Dramatic actions in the HOME initiative include offering educational sessions and forming business alliances, homeowner support groups, and a neighborhood organizing council. Stakeholders working on the HOME campaign understood that they were challenging a history of racial discrimination and economic injustice. Draft the logic model using both sides of your brain and all the talents of your stakeholders. Link components by drawing arrows or using other visual methods that communicate the order of activities and effects. Make sure it passes the "laugh test." That is, be sure that the image you create isn't so complex that it provokes an immediate laugh from stakeholders. Use PowerPoint or other computer software to animate the model, building it step-by-step so that when you present it to people in an audience, they can follow the logic behind every connection.
Also, when things are changing rapidly, it's easy for collaborators to lose sight of their common goals. As you improve, modify or realign your model, take stock of emerging activities and effects. The more complete your model, the better your chances of reaching "the promised land" of the story. In the HOME model, for instance, low home ownership persists when there is a vicious cycle of discrimination, bad credit, and hopelessness preventing neighborhood-wide organizing and social change. You can discover forces of change in your situation using multiple assessment strategies, including forward logic and reverse logic as described above.
After you've mapped out the structure of a program strategy, there is still another crucial step to take before taking action: some kind of simulation. Simulation is one of the most practical ways to find out if a seemingly sensible plan will actually play out as you hope. Though simulation is a powerful tool, it can be conducted in ways ranging from the simple to the sophisticated. Simulation can be as straightforward as an unstructured role-playing game, in which you talk the model through to its logical conclusions. In a more structured simulation, you could develop a tabletop exercise in which you proceed step by step through a given scenario with pre-defined roles and responsibilities for the participants. Ultimately, you could create a computer-based mathematical simulation by using any number of available software tools. The key point to remember is that creating logical models and simulating how those models will behave involve two different sets of skills, both of which are essential for discovering which change strategies will be effective in your community.
You can probably envision a variety of ways in which you might use the logic model you've developed or that logic modeling would benefit your work.
In a coalition or collaborative partnership, the logic model makes it clear which effects each partner creates and how all those effects converge to a common goal. First, no matter how logical your model seems, there is always a danger that it will not be correct. At the other extreme, it would be ridiculous and unproductive to map all the simultaneous forces of change that affect health and community development.
On a purely practical level, logic modeling can also be time consuming, requiring much energy in the beginning and continued attention throughout the life of an initiative. Indeed, logic models can be very difficult to create, but the process of creating them, as well as the product, will yield many benefits over the course of an initiative. As a means to communicate a program visually, within your coalition or work group and to external audiences, a logic model provides a common language and reference point for everyone involved in the initiative.
You will probably revise the model periodically, and that is precisely one advantage to using a logic model.
The Community Builder’s Approach to Theory of Change: A Practical Guide to Theory Development, from The Aspen Institute’s Roundtable on Community Change. The CDC Evaluation Working Group provides a linked section on logic models in its resources for project evaluation.
Logic Model Magic Tutorial from the CDC - this tutorial will provide you with information and resources to assist you as you plan and develop a logic model to describe your program and help guide program evaluation.
Tara Gregory on Using Storytelling to Help Organizations Develop Logic Models discusses techniques to facilitate creative discussion while still attending to the elements in a traditional logic model. Theory of Change: A Practical Tool for Action, Results and Learning, prepared by Organizational Research Services.


Theories of Change and Logic Models: Telling Them Apart is a helpful PowerPoint presentation saved as a PDF. University of Wisconsin’s Program Development and Evaluation provides a comprehensive template for a logic model and elaborates on creating and developing logic models.
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By whatever name you call it, a logic model supports the work of health promotion and community development by charting the course of community transformation as it evolves. We see systems at work and find within them an inner logic, a set of rules or relationships that govern behavior.
With an understanding of context and knowledge about cause and effect, we can construct logical theories of change, hypotheses about how things will unfold either on their own or under the influence of planned interventions.
It explains why the program ought to work, why it can succeed where other attempts have failed. Let's illustrate the typical components of a logic model, using as an example a mentoring program in a community where the high-school dropout rate is very high. The arrows between the boxes indicate that review and adjustment are an ongoing process - both in enacting the initiative and developing the model. The two formats helped communicate with different groups of stakeholders and made different points. The circular model more effectively depicted the interdependence of the components to produce the intended effects.
Also, certain system changes can trigger feedback loops, which further complicate and delay our ability to see all the effects.
Many planners like to use the following three categories of effects (illustrated in the models above), although you may choose to have more or fewer depending on your situation. The main point is to clearly show connections between activities and effects over time, thus making explicit your initiative's assumptions about what kinds of change to expect and when. While the starting point for logic modeling is to identify the effects that correspond to stated goals, your intended effect are not the only effects to watch for.
There is always a risk that our "cure" could be worse than the "disease" if we're not careful.
Although it captures the big picture, it is not an exact representation of everything that's going on. In most cases, the developers will go through several drafts before producing at a version that the stakeholders agree accurately reflects their story. One model could sketch out the broad pathways of change, whereas others could elaborate on separate components, revealing detailed information about how the program operates on a deeper level. For a complex initiative, you may choose to develop an entire family of such related models that display how each part of the effort works, as well as how all the parts fit together.
This closer view focuses on a specific component or set of components, yet it is still broad enough to describe the infrastructure, activities, and full sequence of effects. This view expands on a particular part of the sequence, such as the roles of different stakeholders, staff, or agencies in a coalition, and functions like a flow chart for someone's work plan.
It includes a global model that encompasses three intermediate outcomes in tobacco control - environments without tobacco smoke, reduced smoking initiation among youth, and increased cessation among youth and adults. Notably, the intended effects on the zoom-in are identical to those on the global model and all major categories of activities are also apparent.
One model may serve more than one purpose, or it may be necessary to create different versions tailored for different aims.
This approach explores the rationale for activities that are proposed or currently under way. It does this through a combination of educating community residents, organizing the neighborhood, and building relationships with partners such as businesses. Collect narrative descriptions, justifications, grant applications, or overview documents that explain the basic idea behind the intervention effort. Mortgage companies, grant makers, and other decision makers who decided whether to allocate resources for the effort found the global view from space most helpful for setting context. For example, in the HOME model, credit counseling leads to better understanding of credit ratings, while loan assistance leads to more loan submissions, but the two together (plus other activities such as more new buyer programs) are needed for increased home ownership.
At evaluation time, each of these actions is closely connected to output indicators that document whether the program is on track and how fast it is moving.
And don't forget to include important feedback loops - after all, most actions provoke a reaction. Having a well-developed logic model can keep stakeholders focused on achieving outcomes while remaining open to finding the best means for accomplishing the work. In order to tell a complete story or present a complete picture in your model, make sure to consider all forces of change (root causes, trends, and system dynamics). When exploring forces of change, be sure to search for personal factors (knowledge, belief, skills) as well as environmental factors (barriers, opportunities, support, incentives) that keep the situation the same as well as ones that push for it to change. As logical as the story you are telling seems to you, as a plan for intervention it runs the risk of failure if you haven't explored how things might turn out in the real world of feedback and resistance. Simulation is not the same as testing a model with stakeholders to see if it makes logical sense. As a detailed description of your initiative, from resources to results, the logic model is equally important for planning, implementing, and evaluating the project. Planners often summarize an effort by listing its vision, mission, objectives, strategies and action plans. The family or nesting approach works well in a collaborative partnership because a model can be developed for each objective along a sequence of effects, thereby showing layers of contributions and points of intersection.
A comprehensive model will reveal where physical, financial, human, and other resources are needed. It is possible to design a documentation system that includes only beginning and end measurements. Most initiatives are founded on assumptions about the behaviors and conditions that need to change, and how they are subject to intervention. The terms used in a model help to standardize the way people think and how they speak about community change.
When you undertake the task of developing a logic model, be aware of the following challenges and limitations. The world sometimes works in surprising, counter-intuitive ways, which means we may not comprehend the logic of change until after the fact.
In most cases, there is a tension between focusing on a specific program and situating that effort within its broader context. A modeler's challenge is to include enough depth so the organizational context is clear, without losing sight of the reasons for developing a logic model in the first place. The process can demand a high degree of specificity; it risks oversimplifying complex relationships and relies on the skills of graphic artists to convey complex thought processes.
The process of developing the model brings together stakeholders to articulate the goals of the program and the values that support it, and to identify strategies and desired outcomes of the initiative. It helps stakeholders agree on short-term as well as long-term objectives during the planning process, outline activities and actors, and establish clear criteria for evaluation during the effort. Working backwards, you begin with the desired outcomes and then identify the strategies and resources that will accomplish them. Because it relates program activities to their effect, it helps keep stakeholders focused on achieving outcomes, while it remains flexible and open to finding the best means to enact a unique story of change. You will have opportunities to interact with the material, and you can proceed at your own pace, reviewing where you need to or skipping to sections of your choice.
Centers for Disease Control Evaluation Group provides links to a variety of logic model resources.
Kellogg Foundation Logic Model Development Guide is a comprehensive source for background information, examples and templates (Adobe Acrobat format).
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Its oil reserves are estimated at between 750 million and 1.1 billion tons (6-9 billion barrels) of recoverable oil. Effective logic models make an explicit, often visual, statement of the activities that will bring about change and the results you expect to see for the community and its people.
It is also possible to use a network, concept map, or web to describe the relationships among more complex program components.
This can also be expressed as the problems or opportunities that the program is addressing. If you understand the basic elements of a logic model, any labels can be meaningful provided stakeholders agree to them.
Try to define essential concepts at the design stage and then be consistent in your use of terms. Any intervention capable of changing problem behaviors or altering conditions in communities can also generate unintended effects. Part of the added value of logic modeling is that the process creates a forum for scrutinizing big leaps of faith, a way to searching for unintended effects.
Individually, each model conveys only essential information, and together they provide a more complete overview of how the program or initiative functions. This view answers questions such s: Do the activities follow a single pathway, or are there separate pathways that converge down the line? This view answers the same questions as the view from outer space, but with respect to just the selected component(s). But the zoom in unpacks these activities into their detailed components and, more important, indicates that the activities achieve their effects by influencing intermediaries who then move gatekeepers to take action. Alternatively, if your program is already under way, a model can help you describe, modify or enhance it.
The same people who will use the model - planners, program managers, trainers, evaluators, advocates and other stakeholders - can help create it. On the other hand, while developing the model you might see new pathways that are worth exploring in real life.
It starts with a clearly identified value, a change that you and your colleagues would definitely like to see occur, and asks a series of "But how?" questions: But how do we overcome fear and stigma?
If your venture involves a coalition of several organizations, be sure to get descriptions from each agency's point of view.
As you iteratively refine the model, ask yourself and others if it captures the full story. Does it contain big leaps of faith or does it show change through a logical sequence of effects?
These outputs could be the number of educational sessions held, their average attendance, the size of the business alliance, etc. If you need to take a detour or make a longer stop, the model serves as a framework for incorporating the change. Does your model reveal assumptions and hypotheses about the root causes and feedback loops that contribute to problems and their solutions?
Building a model on one pathway to address only one force would limit the program's effectiveness. The point of a simulation is to see how things will change - how the system will behave - through time and under different conditions.
Kellogg Foundation notes (see Internet Resources below), refining a logic model is an iterative or repeating process that allows participants to "make changes based on consensus-building and a logical process rather than on personalities, politics, or ideology.
When planners are discussing options and setting priorities, a logic model can help them make resource-related decisions in light of how the program's activities and outcomes will be affected. It gets everyone rowing in the same direction, and enhances communication with external audiences, such as the media or potential funders.
With this in mind, modelers will appreciate the fact that the real effects of intervention actions could differ from the intended effects. Many models seem to suggest that the only forces of change come from within the program in question, as if there is only one child in the sandbox. When the initiative ends, it provides a framework for assessing overall effectiveness of the initiative, as well as the activities, resources, and external factors that played a role in the outcome. Combining this with forward logic, you will choose certain steps to produce the desired effects.
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In that context this literature review produced by the Governance and Social Development Resource Centre (GSDRC) is a useful stock take, citing both humanitarian policy documents as well as real-life examples of LRRD being applied. Unlike the minister, whose every word could affect billions of dollars on the commodity markets, Muhanna can speak more freely. And even though everyone has been bundled up like Nanook of the North lately, no one pointed out the coatroom. When deciding tosupport UN Security Council Resolution 1970 andmaking no objection toResolution 1973 onLibya, we believed that these decisions would help limit theexcessive use offorce andpave theway fora political settlement. A logic model keeps participants in the effort moving in the same direction by providing a common language and point of reference. In the world of machines, the only language a computer understands is the logic of its programmer. And by working in teams, persistently over time if necessary, there is hardly any system past or present whose logic we can't decipher. Magical assumptions, poor reasoning, and fuzzy thinking increase the chances that despite our efforts, the future will turn out differently than we expect or hope. By defining the problem or opportunity and showing how intervention activities will respond to it, a logic model makes the program planners' assumptions explicit. Models can even be built around cultural symbols that describe transformation, such as the Native American medicine wheel, if the stakeholders feel it is appropriate. One cannot study the link between X and Y and, independently, the link between Y and X and predict how the system will behave. The process of developing a logic model supports this important dialogue and will bring potential misunderstandings into the open. This level of detail is necessary for program staff, but it may be too much for discussions with funders and stakeholders.
For practical reasons, though, you will probably start with a core group, and then take the working draft to others for continued refinement. By making each stakeholder's thinking visible on paper, you can decide as a group whether the logic driving your initiative seems reasonable.
For the HOME campaign, we collected documents from planners who proposed the idea, as well as mortgage companies, homeowner associations, and other neighborhood organizations. Those resources may be financial, but they may also include people, space, information, technology, equipment, and other assets.
None of these facts are included in the model per se, but a shaded box labeled History and Context was added to serve as a visual reminder that these things are in the background. By connecting activities and effects, a logic model helps avoid proposing activities with no intended effect, or anticipating effects with no supporting activities. The clarity of thinking that occurs from the process of building the model becomes an important part of the overall success of the program." With a well-specified logic model, it is possible to note where the baton should be passed from one person or agency to another. An alternative approach calls for tracking changes at each step along the planned sequence of effects. For example, some of the links in a logic model may have been tested and proved to be sound through previous research.
Even stakeholders who are skeptical or antagonistic toward your work can be drawn into the discussion and development of a logic model. Certain actions might even make problems worse, so it's important to keep one eye on the plan and another focused on the real-life experiences of community members. This places a high burden on modelers to pay attention to detail and refine their own thinking to great degree.
Louis Vuitton Outlet Online Since the beginning of the year, the number of people who have crossed the threshold from food insecure to severely food insecure, also rose, jumping from 2.5 million in January, to 5 or 6 million now, as the lean season begins. We have a highly accessible economy, so it makes sense that Chinese companies would be interested in investing in Australia and gaining greater access to what we are able to provide. Uggs Outlet When you choose an "all natural" chocolate syrup for your kids' ice cream, are you thinking it has less sugar? They realise just how protective shadows can be, with black animals and birds becoming invisible during the intense shades of high summer.
Given that oil has always been a key element of Saudi policy, he is very knowledgeable about where the country is headed. It’s an affordable and accessible way for beginners to learn the game of golf, and for hacks like me to get a little more serious and consistent. Unfortunately, theactions undertaken byNATO countries under these resolutions led totheir grave violation andsupport forone ofthe parties tothe civil war, with thegoal ofousting theexisting regime, damaging inthe process theauthority ofthe Security Council. I love this drop lamp hung in threes over a dining-room table or on its own in a cozy reading-nook corner. He understands his responsibility, and he understands what we re trying to do as a football team. Yet, through experience and awareness of recurrent patterns, we comprehend it, and, in many cases, can successfully avoid its problems (by carpooling, taking alternative routes, etc.). On the other hand, some events that seem unexpected to the uninitiated will not be a surprise to long-time residents and careful observers. At various points on the map, you may need to stop and review your progress and make any necessary adjustments. It is also common to hear people talk about effects that are "upstream" or "proximal" (near to the activities) versus "downstream" or "distal" (distant from the activities). You can talk about it, clarify misinterpretations, ask for other opinions, check the assumptions, compare them with research findings, and in the end develop a solid system of program logic. The important thing to remember is that these are not three different programs, but different ways of understanding how the same program works. The HOME campaign runs because of the input from volunteer educators, support from schools and faith institutions in the neighborhood, discounts provided by lenders and local businesses, revenue from neighborhood revitalization, and increasing social capital among community residents.
Although it is impossible to represent all of those factors in a model, you can strive to include features that remind users those conditions exist and will affect how change unfolds. All programs evolve and change through time, if only to keep up with changing conditions in the community. And for those who implement, the modeling answers practical questions about how the work will be organized and managed.
The ability to spot such mismatches easily is perhaps the main reason why so many logic models use a flow chart format. With a logic model, program planners can identify intermediate effects and define measurable indicators for them.
Other linkages, by contrast, may never have been researched, indeed may never have been tried or thought of before. Once you've got them talking about the logical connections between activities and effects, they're no longer criticizing from the sidelines. Prior to the beginning of each session, the agents were informed that providing false testimony to the body was unlawful. And a few of Ortega’s twelve brothers and sisters live in the area and help out on the farm. Wholesale Jerseys "This report is relevant to persons who are seriously ill, their parents, children, extended families which essentially means every American," said VJ Periyakoil, director of Palliative Care Education and Training at Stanford University's School of Medicine, who was not involved in the report. He assigns her to the island to research immortality, and she suspects the key to realizing it lies in the pre-teen Natalia, another prisoner. Shapcott describes Golf Revolution as the “yoga model”—you join a club and drop in for as much or as little training as you want in a pay-as-you-go way.
Because disciplines have their own jargon, stakeholders from two different fields might define the same word in different ways. This product then becomes a powerful tool for planning, implementation, orientation, evaluation, and advocacy, as described above.
Verbs such as teach, inform, support, or refer are often connected to descriptions of program activities. The explicit form of a logic model means that you can combine evidence-based practices from prior research with innovative ideas that veteran practitioners believe will make a difference.
They'll be engaged in problem-solving and they'll be doing so in an open forum, where everyone can see their resistance to change or lack of logic if that's the case.
You'll have to decide on the basis of stakeholders' uses what level of precision is required.
The BND agents repeatedly insisted that the selectors provided by the US were precisely checked. It's also Natalia who greets Barry when he arrives on the island six months after Claire and Moira's escape attempt, searching for them.
The name riffs on Matson's love of traditional folk textiles and patterns that inspire and become incorporated in her work. Adjectives like reduced, improved, higher, or better are often used when describing expected effects. Your activities, based on a clear analysis of risk and protective factors, are the answers to these kinds of questions, Your interventions reveal the drama in your story of directed social change. If you are armed with a logic model, it won't be easy for critics to claim that your work is not evidence-based.
The insurgents want to carve out a separate state governed by their strict interpretation of Islamic law, and some have links to the Islamic State group. That same line of reasoning could also be uncovered using if-then statements: If we focus on briefing legislators, then they will better understand the issues affecting kids.




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