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There seems to be a lot of confusion amongst singers, especially those who are not trained or have no musical background, with regards to certain vocal terminology. A companion to this article, How To Determine Singing Range and Vocal Fach (Voice Type), provides additional practical information on several of the topics discussed more briefly in this article. In its broadest sense, the term vocal range refers to the full spectrum of notes that a singer's voice is able to produce, starting from the bottommost note and reaching to the uppermost note. An untrained singer typically has a more limited range than a well-trained singer, who has learned how to gain access to more notes through correct technique and through regularly exercising and using the vocal instrument for singing tasks.
In opera or solo classical music, often only the parts of the range that are considered musically useful are counted as part of the range. Put even more simply, a certain section of a singer's range, (likely the middle portion), will make up his or her most comfortable and practical range, whereas other sections of the same singer's range, (the highest and lowest portions), will be available or accessible, but will not necessarily be as strong or as desirable in tone. In choral music, where many voices are singing in unison, it is somewhat less important for each individual voice to be flawlessly produced or completely audible over the orchestra. To learn about how you can find your vocal range, read the section on range in How To Determine Singing Range and Vocal Fach (Voice Type). The term register can be somewhat confusing, as it encompasses several aspects of the human voice, including a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a particular range of pitches, and a characteristic type of tone or quality of sound. Singers and singing teachers can aurally identify these changes in voice quality when singing two or more octaves of a musical scale.
It is generally taught that the human voice has two passaggi - a primo (first) passaggio and a secondo (second) passaggio, connected through a zona di passaggio (passage zone). Additionally, due to the greater diversity of laryngeal size and vocal-tract construction among males, range demarcations among male voice categories are more distinct than those of female voices. A major goal of classical voice training is to maintain an even timbre or consistency of tone throughout the passaggi, so that moving through them, or singing within them, is seamless, effortless and undetectable to the listener.
For a practical way to locate your lower and upper passaggi, please refer to the passaggi section of How To Determine Singing Range and Vocal Fach (Voice Type).
Singers typically use this mode of phonation to obtain pitches at a very low frequency that they may not otherwise be able to access in the chest register, although it can be carried up into the chest register, as well.
Vocal fry has become enormously popular within many contemporary methods of voice training, and is frequently used very heavily during lessons and in practice routines. However, most ENTs and speech language pathologists consider vocal fry to be the result of either dysfunction or poor usage.
Until more recently, there has been little mention of the vocal fry register in singing pedagogy (and especially in classical circles) for several reasons. Modal (or normal or natural or chest) register refers to the natural disposition or manner of actions of the vocal folds.
The timbre of chest voice is warmer and darker ('oscuro') than that of middle and head voice, and it is characterized by darker vowel qualities or mellowness. For more information about the natural voice, refer to the Chest Voice section in Good Tone Production for Singing. In women, the register between chest voice and head voice is called the middle register, or medium voice. The zona di passaggio is the term that is used for the middle voice in men that lies between the primo and secondo passaggi. Throughout history, the term falsetto has had various meanings for different groups of users, leading to a great deal of confusion about how to define it. The term falsetto sometimes refers to the vocal register occupying the frequency range just above the modal (or chest) register and overlapping with it by approximately one octave.
Although falsetto is a type of tonal quality that does indeed run 'parallel' to, or alongside, the male head register in terms of range, the two occuring through roughly the same range of pitches, falsetto and head voice do not refer to the same mode of phonation. In falsetto production, the vocalis muscle are inactive and lengthened tremendously by the action of the cricothyroid muscles, which are nearly at their maximum contraction.
The difference between falsetto and head voice is primarily a matter of timbre or specific vocal technique used to achieve the tone that is unique to falsetto.


Falsetto also refers to a vocal technique that enables the male singer to sing notes beyond the vocal range of the normal (chest, modal or natural) voice. It is not standard practice to say that a female singer is using a falsetto voice, because when a woman's vocal folds are not fully approximated, her tone merely sounds breathy. For more details on falsetto tone production, refer to the Falsetto section in Good Tone Production For Singing. Head voice (voce di testa) is sometimes called the 'lighter mechanism' of the voice because mass reduces as the vocal folds elongate. More detail about training the head voice can be found in Good Tone Production For Singing. The whistle register, (typically occurring between C6 and D7), is the highest register of the human voice, and refers to the register above the head register in female voices. This register has a specific physiological production that is different from that of the other registers, and is so called because the timbre of the notes that are produced from this register are similar to that of a whistle.
Women of all voice types can learn to use the whistle register, although lower female voices, such as true contraltos, may not be able to access this register. It may be beneficial for female singers to practice flageolet because it encourages a full extension of the vocal folds - at pitches above C6, the folds become their thinnest, with increased damping and diminished mass, offering even more resistance to the exiting air - because it will make high notes within standard repertoire more accessible. Through voice classification, singers- voices are evaluated and designated into voice types. Voice classification was developed within classical music, and it is often used within opera to associate possible roles with potential voices. Many singers are classified incorrectly by unknowlegeable vocal teachers and choir directors. How To Determine Singing Range and Vocal Fach (Voice Type) explains in greater detail why it's important to classify voices and how to do so correctly.
Additionally, vocal weight, which is often determined by the thickness of the vocal folds, may refer to a voice's ability to handle changes in vocal dynamic, and may affect its overall vocal agility, as different voices handle changes in dynamic differently.
Soubrette is a French voice classification term assigned to women who often play young, flirty physically active operatic roles. The term tessitura, (which comes from the Italian word for 'texture'), generally describes the most musically acceptable and comfortable timbre for a given voice type.
Tessitura also refers to the pitch range that most frequently occurs within a given piece, or part, of music.
Voice type is often confused with vocal range by contemporary or non-classical singers (e.g.
For the benefit of more visual readers, I have also included diagrams of a keyboard with the standard (classically and chorally defined) ranges for each vocal type shaded in. Finally, I have opted to use scientific pitch notation, where C4 refers to middle C (and A4, the A above middle C, has a frequency of 440Hz), to keep these definitions as succinct as possible.
A bass who can sing G1 or lower is known as a sub-bass or contrabass singer, or a basso profundo. A baritone refers to the male singer whose range falls somewhere between that of a bass and that of a tenor.
This intermediate male voice type tends to have the lower extension and 'depth' of timbre of a baritone, yet the lightness, agility and upper extension of a lower tenor.
Males with high vocal ranges, or who can project falsetto pitches in a clear sound, are referred to as countertenors.
Contralto is the deepest female singing voice, and the contralto range would be below that of an alto. In choral music, alto is the lowest female voice part in a four-part harmony, and the standard range is approximately E3-E5.
Sopranos take the highest female part, which usually encompasses the melody of a song, in four-part choral style harmony. Sopranos who can sing higher than C#6 are known as a sopraninos, although they are most likely to be called sopranos.


In music, a melody, (also tune, voice, or line), is a linear series or succession of notes, not a simultaneity, as in a chord (see harmony). Harmony is the simultaneous use of different pitches within a musical scale, as when the individual notes of a 'chord' are being sung at the same time by different sections of a choir. The ability of humans to perceive pitch is associated with the frequency of the sound waves that is encountered by the ear. When people talk about 'hearing pitch' or 'singing on pitch', they are referring to the ability to mentally identify and vocally reproduce the notes that they are supposed to be hearing and singing. Absolute pitch, widely referred to as perfect pitch, is the ability of a person to identify (e.g. The term relative pitch may denote the skill used by singers to correctly sing a melody line, following musical notation, by pitching each note in the melody according to its distance from the previous note (e.g.
Unlike perfect pitch, relative pitch is common amongst non-musicians and can be developed through ear training. To learn more about pitch, persistent pitch problems and tone deafness, please read my article on these topics. An octave is an interval of eight diatonic (full) notes comprising a complete musical scale, or a note that is eight tones above or below another note. Certain sound waves when played or sung simultaneously will produce a particularly pleasant sensation when heard. Any two sounds whose frequencies (heard as "pitch") make a 2:1 ratio are said to be separated by an octave. Research by speech pathologists and vocal pedagogues has revealed that the vocal folds are capable of producing at least four distinct vibratory patterns, which, in turn, create four different registers within the human voice, although not everyone can produce all four of them. The vast majority of speaking is done in this register - men speak entirely within their chest register, while women speak in both their chest and middle registers.
Unlike the other registers within the voice, it does not begin at the same absolute pitch within every female voice type, and there is typically no discernable passaggio marking the transition into this register, which is why it is often considered to be an extension of the head register, rather than a unique or separate register. Solo singers are classified into voice types based in part on tessitura - where the voice feels most comfortable and has the most pleasant tone for the majority of the time. This quality of the voice is one of the major determining factors in voice classification within classical singing, and constitutes a subcategorization of vocal types (or parts). In classical music, a soubrette can be considered a female soprano who sings best in middle voice with no strenuous vocal dynamics. Put simply, tessitura refers to the range of pitches in which a singer is most comfortable singing, as well as the section of a singer's range where the voice has the most pleasant-sound or tonal quality and easy volume. Tessitura addresses not merely a range of pitches but also takes into consideration the arrangement of those pitches in music, or melody (e.g.
The shorter the wavelength and the more rapid the cycles, the higher the frequency and the higher the pitch of the sound.
That is, two sound waves sound good when played together if one sound has twice the frequency of the other. Similarly two sounds with a frequency ratio of 5:4 are said to be separated by an interval of a third. Many opera houses will keep lists of singers divided by their voice classifications and refer to these lists when casting for operas. In some singers, a phenomenon known as damping appears, with the amount of glottal opening becoming less and less as the pitch rises, until only a tiny slit appears on the highest pitches.
It can 'slice' though a full orchestra (rather than 'singing over' it, like a dramatic voice).
The pitch of a note is described by its frequency, which is measured in hertz (Hz), or cycles per second.



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