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Author: admin | Category: Neck Tattoo Designs | 15.01.2015

How do people adapt to life in one of the most polluted cities in the world, in sub-zero temperatures, during extended periods with no daylight? Photographer Elena Chernyshova recently set out to explore those questions in Norilsk, Russia, a city of more than 170,000 people located above the polar circle.
The city-factory of Norilsk has only one reason to exist: maintaining the biggest metallurgical and mine complex in the world. Norilsk is home to a massive mining and metallurgical complex—workers extract and process vast amounts of nickel, copper, and cobalt, making up more than 2 percent of Russia’s GDP. But the history of the area is bleak. However, the relatively good economy comes with a price—the city is so polluted that residents suffer high rates of cancer, lung disease, blood and skin disorders, and depression. Chernyshova recently spent eight months in Norilsk between 2012 and 2013, over three separate trips.
ELENA CHERNYSHOVA: My mother lived in Chukotka (far northeast Russia) in a small town above the polar circle for 10 years. Norilsk is one of the coldest cities in the world with an average winter temperature of -25° C. When I was in Norilsk, people often complained about the city, its administration, awful ecology, tough climate, isolation (plane tickets are so expensive, that some people can’t leave for several years), slow Internet, etc., but they were also deeply attached to, and sincerely loved, Norilsk. Also, there are not a lot of places to go out, and the old Russian tradition of meeting in somebody’s flat and having a kitchen party is still alive. Children are allowed outside only under certain conditions, and sometimes have to spend several months indoors. During the polar night the sun doesn’t rise above the horizon, leaving the area without light.
Also, the corruption of the officials and the lack of enforcing the law against the air polution from metals production besides the harsh climate make it even harder to physically survive there and even with the retirement age for men from 50 to 55 and 45 to 50 for women (depending on the occupation) it is a common and is considered a quiet normal when a man dies at 50 years old.
Most of all i feared severe frosts, strong winds, but polar night, very long winter and isolation of the city turned out to be worse for me. I love your article I had forgotten how I love to learn more about other countries thank you…. The article evokes great questions may be we are to late to ask ourselves as world citizens. This article is inspiring me… Are there any volunteer opportunities for volunteering in the region? Right now (January 2014) most of Canada is in a deep freeze with similar temperatures but is sure to be short lived .
Este es un increible articulo, soy del Caribe y no puedo imaginarme vivir en un lugar tan particular como este, pero el que hayas hecho este reportaje me ayuda a imaginarme mejor como son las condiciones de vida de personas que viven simplemente en un ambiente totalmente distinto al mio. I loved the commentary on how more intimate of a culture they were due to lack of internet usage.
I should appreciate the sun more as I live in the Tropics and gets to sit in the park every morning with my dog.
Wish you showed more pcitures of the city itself as it does have a very beautiful architecture, more so in the oldest part which is a lot like Saint Petersburg. Good article otherwise, brought up a lot of good memories as you see I am originally from Norilsk myself. Tremenda historia, es un mal compartido en todo el mundo esto de olvidar que el hombre pertenece a la Tierra y no al reves. As top scientists head toward a summit later this year to hammer out rules governing the use of gene editing, companies developing one form of the technology, known as CRISPR-Cas9, for human medicine continue to raise cash hand over fist. The latest is Intellia Therapeutics, of Cambridge, MA, which announced today a $70 million round of funding.
With this cash infusion, Intellia CEO Nessan Bermingham said his company will also explore a third potential use for these therapies. But Intellia and its rivals take pains to separate themselves from the germline controversy. Now with 40 employees, Intellia is racing Editas Medicine and CRISPR Therapeutics to turn the research-lab phenomenon into human medicine. Editas, also of Cambridge, MA, said a few weeks ago it tapped into a large group of investors that include Bill Gates and one of his top advisors to raise $120 million. With that level of cash going into these companies, we’re likely to see the first CRISPR-related IPO well before we see the first CRISPR-related therapy enter clinical trials.
Another form of gene editing called zinc finger proteins, owned by Sangamo Biosciences (NASDAQ: SGMO), is farther ahead of CRISPR, with a program to treat HIV in Phase 2.


If and when CRISPR gets to the clinic, blood-borne diseases, such as various cancers, sickle cell disease, beta thalassemia, and others, could be the first milestone. Additionally, a nonprofit group, the Innovative Genomics Initiative of Berkeley, CA, is working with Children’s Hospital in nearby Oakland on a sickle cell disease treatment. Like its rival Editas, Intellia has tapped into a syndicate of nontraditional private investors for what looks like a crossover financing round; that is, a final shot of cash to prepare the company for a potential IPO, with investors who generally hold public stocks but look to get a head start by taking stakes in late-stage private biotechs.
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Workers suffer from pollution, heat, and noise, and must use masks or breathing tubes connected to oxygen tanks. The amount of sulfur dioxide in the air is so high that vegetation in an almost 20-mile radius has died, and residents are forbidden from gathering berries or mushrooms due to high toxicity. I caught up with her over email to learn more about her project, as well as the surprises she encountered while documenting this unique place. As a child, I was fascinated by her stories about the polar night, polar day, Northern lights, frost descending to -60 degrees, sparkling crispy snow, and food delivered in dry form or powder.
Her stories re-awoke my curiosity, and from that moment I couldn’t say whether I wanted to do a story about the adaptation of people to the hostile environment of the North, or about Norilsk itself. Norilsk has a “Walrus” club whose members swim in outdoor ice-holes despite the temperature. I also wanted to show the ecological catastrophe, and the domestication of this environment. I couldn’t understand how a place that looks like a hell on earth could awaken such sentiments.
Her fault was to have survived the German invasion of her village in the western part of Ukraine—she was then considered by the Soviets to be a collaborator of the German army. Large enclosed spaces are designed for them, so they can enjoy activities like cycling and running, even in the winter. I was completely disoriented all the time and had a horrible insomnia for more than a month.
City architects imagined a large park and a recreation area here, but development was never done. Leaving aside the the fact that I don’t like at all the problem that industries cause to nature and the people, I hate my hat off for this article. So, when my coworkers complain about the cold winter, I tell them that it is all relative (especially if comparing to Norilsk weather). This is a wonderful place, the pictures do not convey the atmosphere that exists among people who live in Norilsk. I find it fascinating that people leaving in such conditions can maintain a positive outlook on life.
It makes one wonder how our distant ancestors managed to survive similar conditions during the Ice Age, without modern technology. Living in this climate and condition would drive me insane over a period of time , especially with no daylight for 2 months .
Things like these really bring us closer to reality and makes us cherish what we have even more. They are working on therapies that alter somatic cells—those that cannot pass along genetic information to future generations. The three lay claim to various pieces of intellectual property underlying CRISPR-Cas9, and the outcome of a big patent fight could ultimately sway their fortunes.
CRISPR Therapeutics, based in London but with significant operations in Cambridge, MA, raised $64 million from Celgene (NASDAQ: CELG) and others earlier this year.
As I wrote about a couple weeks ago, IGI researchers should know soon whether their experiments to modify hematopoietic stem cells in sickle-cell-like mice are giving the mice normal red blood cells. Intellia’s Series B round was led by OrbiMed, with participation from Fidelity, Janus Capital Management, Foresite Capital, Sectoral Asset Management, EcoR1 Capital, and others. From 1935 to 1956 more than 500,000 prisoners were forced to work in the freezing cold under inhumane conditions.
Compensation for the risks is countered by 90 official holidays, and early retirement at 45-years old. The majority of buildings were constructed on pilings, which are now shifting due to melting permafrost. After swimming people warm themselves in small banyas (saunas) that are heated with steam from the power plant.


A column of 15-20 buses transports workers between the city and factories three times a day. After her liberation at the age of 29, she stayed in the city, having no other place to go. A simple trip from the house to the shop can be an extreme challenge, and these extremes teach us to appreciate many simple things that seem banal in other conditions, like daylight, warmth, or a cup of hot tea. I am still in contact with lot of people from Norilsk—some have become really good friends. I was very tired all day, then couldn’t fall asleep because my body hadn’t actually woken up. During this time, the body slows down its release of melatonin, causing a lack of deep sleep, increased anxiety, and depression, and physical discomfort. How much are we willing to damage nature and the health of hundreds of thousands of people in the drive for riches? The way people adapts and manages to make a life, and living in these parts of the world is truly remarkable.
I now live near Orlando and have absolutely no desire to recreate my time in -54 degree survival exercises. I don’t visit my home town for 5 years but I miss by winds, northern lights, northern tasty fish and venison ?? Norilsk’s people the kindest and the most supportive people in Russia. We don’t like outsiders messing into our lives, no matter how screwed up they may seem to others.
Me parecen completamente atinadas tus preguntas reflexivas sobre hasta donde llegara la ambicion humana. A big part of the puzzle they need to solve is getting CRISPR-Cas9’s machinery into various types of cells without getting chewed up inside the body or going astray into the wrong cells.
Original venture investor Atlas Venture as well as Intellia’s corporate partner Novartis also participated. Psychologically it was hard—I had an unreasonable anxiety, an almost animal fear that the light would never come back. I can’t speak for everyone but for us it was the family, having a sense of humour, spending a lot of time during the dark nights on reading and pursuing hobbies, and skiing in the mountains. And Yes, you can see Aurora (North Lights) there for many many times during the winter as well as many other nature’s wonders. And they do nothing to put there some good (not 30 years old) filtration (or whatever it is called) equipment. When my friends travels around the world, we always call me depending how many thousands of miles separate us. Bermingham said Intellia has already in-licensed from an undisclosed source drug-delivery technology called lipid nanoparticles to help shuttle the gene-editing machinery through the body and to the liver.
Editas is working with Juno Therapeutics (NASDAQ: JUNO), a rival of Novartis, on T cell therapies.
Now, most people live in Norilsk by choice—they have strong social and familial networks and can make a decent wage.
For example, after two months in Norilsk I didn’t pay much attention to the things that had surprised me at the beginning.
Skiing during the polar nights, when the whole sky is lit up on fire (aurora borealis) can be quite an experience.
BTW, in Russia surving family members are not entitled to collect money that, let’s say, the head of the family was paying during his whole life to the retirement fund (like social security benefits in US). So please understand that I have no patience for someone thinking how wrongly my people are living their lives. She is also quite brave to have produced this beautiful photo project in such challenging circumstances. But then I shouldn’t be surprised because she an example of the legendary Russian spirit of adventure and creativity.



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