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Author: admin | Category: Harley Tattoos | 07.05.2015

There’s nothing wrong with this system but it’s highly inefficient.  Lotsa waste involved, and you can never be 100% sure you’ve got the right ad aimed at the right demographic. They can parse down user info to pinpoint exactly the type of advertising we’re likely to respond to.
My wife and I can be on Facebook at the same time and get completely different sets of ads based on our activities and interests. Give up a modicum of privacy in return for all the cool free stuff the InterWebs can do for us.
But the user experiences between entrenched mass media and the new social media are diametric opposites. Again, nothing wrong with that.  If you want to enjoy a major league baseball game, the best way to do it is from the stands, not running around on the field. Two similar experiences, but experienced in two vastly dissimilar ways.  You can’t get the full enjoyment out of either by switching the way you experience them. The only interactivity Rush seeks from his audience is their purchase of Rush Limbaugh-related products, followed by purchase of his advertisers’ products and services. But social media avoids that straightjacket.  Who here hasn’t seen a post on cute li’l kittehs suddenly veer off onto a discussion of 16th century Dutch painting?
The great thing about social media is that it’s not constrained by timetables or agendas.  Rush needs to be on at a certain time every day so his audience will get into the habit of listening.
Literally within minutes of Rush’s initial statement, word was flyin’ ‘round the InterWebs. People who normally ignore politics, people who never listen to Rush not because of personal beliefs but just because they aren’t interested, people who normally can’t be bothered to sign a petition or go to a rally or attend a meeting, suddenly they were either being contacted by people they knew or else were seeing references to Rush’s statements online at their social sites. But within hours they were suddenly seeing lots of people they knew talking about it, expressing their feelings on the matter.
Rush and his fellow generation of mass media mavens are used to playing the game while their audience watch as spectators. Yeah, every now and then they’d lead ‘em in a wave, or have ‘em sing “Take Me Out To The Ball Game”, or do a 7th inning stretch.
And once in a great while they’d let ‘em come to the edge of the field to buy autographed balls and caps. And every once in an even greater while they might let one on the field briefly to wave at the camera but then they hustled ‘em back in the stands and played the game their way. See, that’s where mass media is trapped by its entrenched attitude.  They decide, you consume.
They depend on you to sit in the stands and watch passively, your interactivity limited to buying the products they tell you to buy.
For Rush to have gotten the same reaction out of his audience that the social networks got out of theirs would have required an elaborate campaign, fully strategized and funded, with days if not weeks of on-air promotion to arrive at a carefully scripted pre-selected conclusion. The social media storm that hit Rush came out of nowhere, was lead by nobody, cost nothing, and took virtually no time. There’s no one, nothing for Rush to push back against.  Wherever he turns his attention, the target is gone, long since dissipated and moving on to the next social media meme, being it tap dancing frogs or a new holistic cure for hiccups. They’re a ghost, a thing of the spirit, an unincorporated entity in the realm of the abstract. This small Internet encyclopaedia reviews a fascinating kind of the rich Indian cultural heritage - cave art of India created over the last 2,300 years - since the beginning of historical period. There have been preserved rather many ancient paintings in India - in spite of the fact that painting is comparatively short-lived and fragile art. Caves and rock-cut structures sometimes provide suitable conditions for paintings to survive - paintings here survive not just centuries but even tens of thousands of years.
India is extremely rich with ancient rock-cut cave temples - no other region in the world can compete with India in this respect. Basalt, diorite, granite is widespread in Deccan Plateau - these rocks can be tough and time resistant, thus providing ideal basis for paintings.
Since the beginning of historical times (approximately the 3rd century BC) India has experienced several periods of extreme flourishing and diversity of culture. Monuments of exceptional value are Bhimbetka Rock Shelters - here more than 500 caves and smaller rock shelters contain thousands of paintings. Prehistoric art is spread all over India from the south of Tamil Nadu to the snow-covered Himalayas. This long matured tradition is well manifested in the oldest preserved cave paintings in India.
Cave 10 in Ajanta Caves contains the oldest Indian paintings of historical period, made around the 1st century BC.
Murals in Ajanta are world-renovned and tell stories of the life of Buddha and other plots characteristic for Buddhist art. Unique monuments of art not only for India but for the whole world are paintings in Jogimara Cave (Chhattisgarh), made around the 1st century BC. Several Pitalkhora Caves (Maharashtra) were adorned with beautiful paintings in the 4th century AD - and remnants of these paintings on columns in Caves 3 and some other caves have been preserved up to this day. Some of the most beautiful ancient Indian cave paintings have been preserved in Bagh Caves (Madhya Pradesh).
Paintings have been preserved also in the royal Badami Cave Temples (Karnataka) from the late 6th - 7th century AD. Unusual monument of art is tempera painting in natural cave shelter - Ravan Chhaya rock shelter near Sitabinji (Orissa). The review of ancient Indian cave painting started with Ajanta Caves and it ends with the other greatest achievement of Indian rock-cut architecture - Ellora Caves (Maharashtra). Less impressive traces of ancient paintings from the 3rd - 8th centuries AD are found in rather many cave temples of Maharashtra - Karsamble, Thanale, Kuda, Lenyadri, Shivneri, Tulja Lena, Manmod, also famous Elephanta Caves and Bhaja Caves. In early medieval times the most beautiful Indian cave paintings were created in Southern India. Exceptional - but still comparatively little known - monument of Indian art are paintings in Sittanavasal Cave (Tamil Nadu). Armamalai Cave (Tamil Nadu) is natural cave which served as Jain sanctuary around the 8th century AD.
Thirunadhikkara Cave Temple (now Tamil Nadu, earlier Kerala) is rock-cut Jain temple from the 7th - 8th century AD. Olipathivishnu Vishnugraham is Vishnu temple, one of Malayadipatti rock-cut Hindu temples (Tamil Nadu).
There are rock-cut cave temples and dwellings for monks also in the far north of India - Himalaya. There is uncertain information about faint traces of paintings also in Tabo Caves (Himachal Pradesh) - although most likely there are meant the beautiful wall paintings in nearby Tabo Monastery.
Medieval paintings from as late as the 14th century AD are found even in Bhimbetka Rock Shelters (Madhya Pradesh) - thus these caves contain medieval paintings next some of the oldest cave paintings in India.
Medieval cave paintings are found also in Murugan Temple, Thiruparankundram (Tamil Nadu), Kanheri Caves (Maharashtra), Manmod Caves (Maharashtra), Undavalli (Andhra Pradesh). In Jogimara Cave (Chhattisgarh) the paint was laid on white base plaster although in some places the paint had been laid also on unprepared base. Kuda Caves and Manmod Caves (both in Maharashtra) were plastered with a mix of earth and rice-shaff. Some may believe that artwork of cave temples was made by meditating, self-denying monks of these temples - but this is far from truth. Armamalai Cave serves as interesting proof for theory that some art styles were spread by guilds of artists moving around the country in search of work.


There is noticeable also division of work among the different specialists - for example, one was drawing outlines, another - coloring them. Ancient and medieval artists had profound knowledge (which is lost now) about the natural pigments. World is not rich with ancient paintings - due to this Indian cave paintings certainly deserve a lot more attention and care than today.
Here are listed those caves and rock-cut structures in the territory of India which still contain paintings from historical time. One of the highest achievements of ancient people worldwide is Ajanta Caves (Maharashtra) - 29 rock-cut temples made in the 2nd century BC - 480 AD.
Colourful, diverse murals in Ajanta Caves serve as integral, extremely valuable addition to beautiful architecture and countless sculptures.
The beautiful paintings in Armamalai Cave (Tamil Nadu) became known fairly recently - in the late 1960s - early 1970s. The pride of Badami (Karnataka) - the ancient capital of early Chalukya dynasty - is four beautiful cave temples from the late 6th - early 7th century. The ceiling of the most beautiful - Cave 3 still is adorned with beautiful ancient mural showing four-armed Brahma on his swan.
Some of the most outstanding early Indian cave paintings - and possibly some of the best paintings from this period worldwide - are in Bagh Cave (Madhya Pradesh), caves 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7. The main value of Bhimbetka rock shelters (Madhya Pradesh) most certainly are not medieval and ancient paintings. Ellora Caves (Maharashtra) belong to the highest achievements of mankind both regarding the engineering skills and arts.
Already the oldest group of caves here - Buddhist caves from 630 - 700 AD - contain paintings of Buddhist panteon. Unique monument of history is the ancient theatre with Jogimara and Sita Bengra Caves (Chhattisgarh).
Some caves in the enormous complex of Kanheri Caves (Maharashtra) at the outskirts of Mumbai contain paintings. Karsamble Caves (Maharashtra) are somewhat less known Buddhist rock-cut temples, hewn in the rock around the 2nd century BC.
Several out of 40 Lenyadri Caves (Maharashtra) - ancient Buddhist temples from the 1st - 3rd c. The cliff walls and ceiling in one of the two rock-cut Hindu temples in Malayadipatti (Tamil Nadu) - Olipathivishnu Vishnugraham (the 8th - 9th century AD) - are covered with paintings.
Manmod Caves (Maharashtra) is a large (45 caves) group of ancient Buddhist and Jain temples cut in rocks mainly in the 1st - 3rd century AD. Some 2000 years ago Pitalkhora Caves (Maharashtra) were among the largest temple complexes in India. Aihole (Karnataka), the ancient capital of Chalukya dynasty, contains beautiful rock-cut Hindu temple from around 550 AD - Ravana Phadi. Originally the temple was lavishly adorned with paintings but now only fragments of plaster with coloring remain on the ceiling. Triangular cleft between two giant boulders near Sitabinj contains unique tempera painting from the 7th century. Amazing rock-cut Buddhist temples from the 13th - 15th century AD, located in Jammu and Kashmir.
Shivneri Caves (Maharashtra) are 50 rock-cut Buddhist temples, made in the 1st - 3rd century AD.
Some of the most beautiful ancient Indian cave paintings are located in Sittanavasal Cave (Tamil Nadu) - Arivar-Koil. A group of simple, ancient rock-cut dwellings for Buddhist monks of nearby Tabo monastery (Himachal Pradesh).
This group of 11 man-made caves - Buddhist temples - was hewn in rock in the 1st - 3rd century AD. Udayagiri Caves were created as Jain cave temples around the 1st century BC, later turned into Hindu shrines.
The first floor contains frescoes made in the 7th - 8th century AD, part of paintings is made also somewhat later. It disappears together with its base - paper, fabric, wood, plaster and even walls of stone masonry buildings. Due to this the paintings in caves, on natural rock face provide the only possibility to see the ancient paintings (another, less convenient possibility is provided by ceramics). Geology of Deccan Plateau and some more regions of India provides enough cliff faces and domes perfectly suitable to create rock-cut architecture. Shade of deep cave and skilful protection from seeping water provide ideal protection from elements. Cultural heritage of India can be compared with the stars in the sky - everyone can look at it but no one is able to grasp the true extension of it. Contrary to other ancient Indian cave paintings drawings here are not related to religion: here is adorned a rock-cut cave supposedly used as dressing room of actresses in nearby open-air theatre. This truly brilliant sophisticated artwork has been created around the 4th - 6th century AD. Here the ceiling of the magnificent Cave 3 contains drawing of four-armed Brahma on his swan. In the 7th century here has been painted royal procession - it is possible that this shelter served as a royal hunting lodge. Traces of paintings are found also in Ravana Phadi - exquisite cave temple from 550 AD in the ancient capital Aihole (Karnataka). Flowers in this pond are collected by monks, there are shown ducks, swans, fishes and animals. In the 9th - 10th centuries AD it was converted into Hindu shrine and decorated with beautiful paintings.
Several cave temples with beautiful paintings are in Tibet and Nepal, but at least one is located also in India. But art lovers would be rather disappointed by the quality of medieval paintings in Bhimbetka - the drawings here look unprofessional, amateurish. Ancient and medieval Indian cave painting has been made mainly in fresco and tempera techniques.
First the surface was prepared - stone surface was chiseled to make rough surface holding the plaster.
This technique allowed to make paintings which preserved much of their original glory even after 1,500 years of abandonment in tropical climate.
Walls and ceilings to be painted were covered with a thick mud plaster in brownish orange color. Before applying the color the rough surface of granite was smoothened with a thin coating of lime.
First on the brick structure there was laid a thick layer of mud and then it was covered with lime. Walls of Sittanavasal Cave are not very even and thus the plaster has different thickness - from 1 to 8 mm.
Just like in medieval Europe, the beautiful artwork of Indian cave temples was made by the groups of professional painters. This southern cave temple contained murals made in northern tempera technique - in these times (the 8th century AD) the demand for construction and art in Southern India was in demand and there could be more than enough work for experienced northerners.
Colors made of plants and minerals did not bleach when mixed with lime and very well withstood the test of time.


In Sittanavasal Cave damp air facilitated growth of slime consisting of algae and lichen - throughout the centuries it covered the paintings. This is surprising - the paintings luckily have survived thousands of years until one day comes somebody to spray over his worthless name.
Caves contain the oldest known Indian paintings of historical time - from the 2nd century BC. Some art historicians consider that artistic qualities of these paintings surpass the art of Ajanta, Ellora, Sittanavasal (see all in this list). Cave 12 - the large shrine - contains paintings of Buddha, which are made after the 4th century AD. More than 500 caves contain a lot more ancient artwork here - up to 15,000 years old paintings and even more than 290,000 years old petroglyphs. Most paintings of this time show hunting scenes, Buddhist monks have added some drawings of deities as well. These incredibly impressive and beautiful caves once were covered with plaster and painted in bright colors. Remnants of paintings are seen in the most beautiful temple - Cave 16, Kailasanatha, sometimes around 760 - 860 AD.
Jogimara Cave - possible dressing room - contains one the oldest known interior designs in the world made in the 1st century BC. Several caves contain remnants of plaster with traces of paintings from the 6th - 7th century AD.
Remnants of paintings - simple ornaments performed in bad quality - are in cave II, possibly from the 10th - 11th centuries. There is controversial information about dim traces of ancient paintings in these caves - but most likely there are no paintings present.
In the 9th - 10th century AD it became a Hindu shrine and was adorned with paintings depicting scenes from Ramayana and Mahabharata. Columns and ceiling in the unusual round shrine in Cave 2 contain traces of once beautiful paintings. Due to this today we have very few examples of ancient painting - although many indications show that painting has been very popular and well developed form of art since many thousands of years. In this respect each rock painting resembles a keyhole through which we see the abundant and vital life of our ancestors. It is estimated that there are more than 1,500 individual rock cut caves in India and there still are discovered new ones. Large area of India and diversity of cultures promise diversity in artistic styles as well.
Painting is just one of dimensions of Indian culture - but knowing the distinguished and extraordinary achievements in other arts, we can expect values of world importance also from Indian painting. Paintings show dancing couple, fish and elephant figures, seen also unclear painting of chariot. Somewhat better preserved are the paintings in the most magnificent Hindu temple - Kailasanatha (Cave 16, built around 760 - 860 AD). Most paintings here are made in the 9th century AD and still cover the ceiling and upper part of columns. Now only hazy outlines remain - but once upon a time these were colourful depictions of the stories from Ramayana and Mahabharata.
Saspol Caves (Jammu and Kashmir) are amazing rock-cut temples from the 13th - 15th century AD. Just like in European frescoes the first layer of plaster contains coarse sand and the second is more fine. The most admired cave temples - like Ajanta, Ellora, Badami - were not a shelter from worldliness. Thus, for example, painting in Jogimara was done in two layers - the original by expert artist in the 1st century BC and the latter by another artist, in inferior quality.
There were mastered several colors, thus, for example, in Sittanavasal painters used black, green, yellow, orange, blue and white pigments. Paintings are in Caves 1, 2, 6, 7, 9, 10 (oldest paintings from the 2nd century BC), 16, 17 (some of the best cave paintings in India), 19, 20, 26, 27. Some Jain temples - Cave 32 (Indra Sabha), Cave 33 - contain remnants of valuable murals from 800 - 1000 AD - this artwork marks the end of ancient period in the Indian art and beginning of medieval art.
The walls here are covered with paintings of non-religious nature showing dancing humans, animals. Cave 7 was converted into Hindu temple and was adorned with recent paintings, as recent as the 19th century. In the 4th century AD temples were adorned with beautiful murals, especially fine paintings have been preserved on columns of Cave 3. By the way here are the oldest petroglyphs in the world - at least 290,000 years old cupules. Many of woman paintings and sculptures depict such mythical beings as yakshas, nagas, vrikshikas, river goddesses Ganga and Yamuna. Samava-sarvana is special, beautiful audience hall where Tirthankaras (great liberated souls in Jain religion) delivered sermons after they reached realisation (kevala-gnana). The style of these paintings later evolved into Kerala style of painting frequently used in built temples. Plastering in Ajanta was done by very skilled artisans - often sculptures were plastered to get effect of smoothness. At the time of their creation the murals of Bagh were lively, beautiful, expressing vivid imagination and talent of artists. These wonderful temples were exactly in the epicentre of mundane ambitions, rivalry and showoff.
Only today it sounds simple - back then these chemical compounds had to be tested - how they react with plaster, each with other, with water and glue, how they change after the plaster has fully dried.
Caves 10, 11, 12, 13, 17 though contain traces of ancient Buddhist paintings - for most part simple ornamental adornment. Earlier whole cave was covered with beautiful paintings - now they have been preserved only on the ceiling. Later Jain temples - Cave 32 (Indra Sabha) and Cave 33 from the 9th - 11th century contain remnants of beautiful murals which in their artistic technique show the beginning of medieval period in Indian painting. Bulls, elephants, apsaras and gods gathered in this audience hall to witness this grand scene.
Drawings show ten incarnations of Vishnu - Dashavatara and other motives of religious nature. The dominant color here is bright blue, but paintings themselves represent exciting fusion of Tibetan and Indian Buddhist art.
Unusual shine was achieved by adding powdered conches and seashells - such polished plaster has glassy surface. Thus it is quite possible that the brilliant work of ancient masters was expensive and these masters - very well known and much sought after. Artistic quality, composition and technique of this artwork surpasses most of similar paintings elsewhere.



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