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CSS can be used to style and animate scalable vector graphics, much like it is used to style and animate HTML elements. Scalable vector graphics (SVG) is an XML-based vector image format for two-dimensional graphics, with support for interactivity and animation. Because SVGs are basically text, they can be Gzip’d, making the files smaller that their bitmap counterparts (JPEG and PNG).
SVG comes with built-in graphics effects such as clipping and masking operations, background blend modes, and filters. To export an SVG from Illustrator, start by going to “File” > “Save as,” and then choose “.svg” from the file extensions dropdown menu. Whichever graphics editor you choose, it will not output perfectly clean and optimized code. Peter’s optimizer can also automatically move inline SVG properties to a style block at the top of the document. The following screenshot (showing the path from the image above) is a simple before-and-after illustration of how much Peter’s tool optimizes SVG.
After optimizing the SVG, it’s ready to be embedded on a web page and further customized or animated with CSS. The line between HTML and CSS is clear: HTML is about content and structure, and CSS is about the look.
In SVG 2, this list will include x, y, width, height, cx, cy and a few other presentation attributes that were not possible to set via CSS in SVG 1.1. We mentioned earlier that presentation attributes are sort of special style properties and that they are just shorthand for setting a CSS property on an SVG node. Indeed, presentation attributes count as low-level “author style sheets” and are overridden by any other style definitions: external style sheets, document style sheets and inline styles. Furthermore, keyword values for these attributes, such as the italic in font-style="italic", are also case-sensitive and must be specified using the exact case defined in the specification that defines that value.
All other styles specified as CSS properties — whether in a style attribute or a tag or in an external style sheet — are subject to the grammar rules specified in the CSS specifications, which are generally less case-sensitive.
SVGs can be animated the same way that HTML elements can, using CSS keyframes and animation properties or using CSS transitions. In most respects, SVG elements respond to transform and transform-origin in the same way that HTML elements do. By default, the transform origin of an HTML element is at (50%, 50%), which is the element’s center. What if we wanted to rotate the SVG element around its own center, rather than the top-left corner of the SVG canvas?
In SVG, the transform origin can be set using either a percentage value or an absolute value (for example, pixels). That being said, at the time of writing, setting the transform origin in percentage values currently does not work in Firefox.
In the following example, we have a pinwheel on a stick that we’ll rotate using CSS animation. Snap.svg is described as being to SVG what jQuery is to HTML, and it makes dealing with SVGs and its quirks a lot easier. In the example above, the path is drawn over the course of two seconds when the SVG is hovered over. The snippet above is a very simplified example showing that you can do the same thing we did with CSS but using JavaScript. The reason we’re covering embedding techniques is because the way you embed an SVG will determine whether certain CSS styles, animations and interactions will work once the SVG is embedded. If you intend using any advanced SVG features, such as CSS or scripting, the then HTML5 tag is your best bet. Because browsers can render SVG documents in their own right, embedding and displaying an SVG using an iframe is possible. Embedding SVGs inline is a good choice, as long as you’re willing to add to the size of the page and give up backwards compatibility (since it does not come with a default fallback mechanism either). An SVG embedded with an tag and one embedded as a CSS background image are treated in a similar way when it comes to CSS styling and animation. The following table shows whether CSS animations and interactions (such as hover effects) are preserved when an SVG is embedded using one of the six embedding techniques, as compared to SVG SMIL animations40. Table showing whether CSS styles, animations and interactions are preserved for each of the SVG embedding techniques.
Note that, even though SMIL animations will be preserved, SMIL interactions will not work for an SVG embedded as an image (i.e.

Depending on the embedding technique you choose, you might need to apply certain hacks and fixes to get your SVG to be cross-browser responsive. Whichever technique you choose, the first thing you’ll need to do is remove the height and width attributes from the root element.
An SVG embedded using an tag will automatically be stretched to the width of the container in all browsers (once the width has been removed from the , of course). The only way to make an iframe responsive while maintaining the aspect ratio of the SVG is by using the “padding hack” pioneered by Thierry Koblentz on A List Apart43.
When an element’s padding is set in percentages, the percentage is calculated relative to the width of the element, even when you set the top or bottom padding of the element.
The svg-height and svg-width variables are the values of the height and width of the , respectively — the dimensions that we removed earlier.
We position the iframe absolutely because collapsing the container’s height and then applying the padding to it would push the iframe beyond the boundaries of the container.
Finally, an SVG embedded inline in an tag becomes responsive when the height and width are removed, because browsers will assume a width of 100% and will scale the SVG accordingly.
However, one important note here is that the viewport that the SVG responds to is the viewport of the SVG itself, not the page’s viewport!
When the SVG is referenced, it will get the styles specified in the media queries above when the has a max-width of 50em or 30em, respectively. In addition to accessibility, don’t forget to optimize your SVGs and provide fallbacks for non-supporting browsers. Last but not least, you can always check support for different SVG features on Can I Use49. In this article, which is a modified transcript of a talk I recently gave1 at CSSconf EU2 and From the Front3, I’ll go over the prerequisites and techniques for working with CSS in SVG.
In other words, SVGs are XML tags that render shapes and graphics, and these shapes and graphics can be interacted with and animated much like HTML elements can be.
Fallbacks for non-supporting browsers are easy to implement, too, as we’ll see later in the article. This is basically the equivalent of having Photoshop photo-editing capabilities right in the browser.
In one sense, they have a very accessible DOM API, which makes them a perfect tool for infographics and data visualizations and which gives them an advantage over HTML5 Canvas because the content of the latter is not accessible. It is a highly popular editor, with a nice UI and many capabilities that make it the favorite of most designers. Even though its UI is not as nice as Illustrator’s, it has everything you need to work with vector graphics. It is not free either, but it has been making the rounds8 among designers lately and gaining popularity9, with a lot of resources and tools10 being created recently to improve the workflow. After choosing your favorite editor and creating an SVG but before embedding it on a web page, you need to export it from the editor and clean it up to make it ready to work with.
But the workflow applies to pretty much any editor, except for the Illustrator-specific options we’ll go over next.
SVG files, especially ones exported from editors, usually contain a lot of redundant information, such as meta data from the editor, comments, empty groups, default values, non-optimal values and other stuff that can be safely removed or converted without affecting the rendering of the SVG. Peter Collingridge’s SVG Editor14 is an online tool that you input SVG code into either directly or by uploading an SVG file and that then provides you with several optimization options, like removing redundant code, comments, empty groups, white space and more. The nice thing about it is that, when you check an option, you can see the result of the optimization live, which enables you to better decide which optimizations to make. For this reason, it only makes sense that SVG presentation attributes would contribute to the style cascade. The fill color of the circle will be deep pink, which overrides the blue fill specified in the presentation attribute. A simple yet very nice effect comes from the Iconic26 icons set, in which a light bulb is lit up when hovered over. For example, when specifying the fill color of an element, the attribute must be written as fill="…" and not fill="…". That being said, the SVG “Styling”28 specification recommends using the exact property names (usually, lowercase letters and hyphens) as defined in the CSS specifications and expressing all keywords in the same case, as required by presentation attributes, and not taking advantage of CSS’s ability to ignore case.
However, a few inevitable differences result from the fact that, unlike HTML elements, SVG elements aren’t governed by a box model and, hence, have no margin, border, padding or content boxes. If you specify a transform-origin value in percentages, then the value will be set relative to the element’s bounding box, which includes the stroke used to draw its border.
Note that, at the time of writing, CSS 3D transformations are not hardware-accelerated when used on SVG elements; they have the same performance profile as SVG transform attributes.

If you want to morph paths — that is, animate from one path to another — then you will need to use JavaScript for the time being.
The animation would require you to know the total length of the path you’re animating and then to use the stroke-dashoffset and stroke-dasharray SVG properties to achieve the drawing effect. Jake includes a nice interactive demo that makes it easy to see exactly what’s going on in the animation and how the two SVG properties work together to achieve the desired effect. The main advantage of this tag is that there is a standard mechanism for providing an image (or text) fallback in case the SVG does not render. This might be a good method if you want to completely separate the SVG code and script from your main page. Styles and animations applied to an SVG using an external CSS resource will not be preserved once the SVG is embedded.
The reason for this is that the way browsers determine the dimensions of an SVG differs for some embedding techniques, and SVG implementations among browsers also differ. I will only cover the fix or hack needed for each embedding technique to make the SVG responsive in all browsers for that technique.
It will behave just like any other bitmap background image and will respond to CSS’ background-image properties as expected. It will then scale as expected and be fluid in all browsers except for Internet Explorer (IE). For it, all browsers will default to the default size for replaced elements in CSS42, which is 300 by 150 pixels. The idea behind the padding hack is to make use of the relationship of an element’s padding to its width in order to create an element with an intrinsic ratio of height to width. However, IE has the same 150-pixel fixed-height issue for the tag mentioned earlier; unfortunately, setting the width of the SVG to 100% is not sufficient to fix it this time. So, we wrap in a container, apply the padding-hack rules mentioned above to the container and, finally, position the absolutely inside it. That is, the dimensions of these elements will form the viewport inside of which the SVG is to be drawn and, hence, will form the viewport to which the CSS media-query conditions will be applied. In another sense, you can inspect each and every element in an SVG using your favorite browser’s developer tools, just like you can inspect HTML elements. Some of these attributes are shared with CSS, such as opacity and transform, among others, while some are not, such as fill, stroke and stroke-width, among others. As you can see, presentation attribute styles are overridden by all other styles except for those specific to the user agent. If you specify the transform origin in absolute values, then it will be set relative to the SVG canvas’ current coordinate system of the user. So, for the time being, your best bet is to use absolute values so that the transformations behave as expected.
If you do that, I recommend using Snap.svg35 by Dmitry Baranovskiy, the same person behind the SVG library Raphael36.
I recommend reading his article if you’re interested in learning more about this technique.
If the SVG cannot be displayed for any reason — such as because the provided URI is wrong — then the browser will display the content between the opening and closing tags.
However, manipulating an SVG image from your main page’s JavaScript becomes a little more difficult and will be subject to the same-origin policy39. The Adobe Flash plugin requires the tag, and supporting this tag is the only real reason for its use with SVG.
Working with inline SVG and CSS is a lot easier because the SVG can be styled and animated by targeting it with style rules placed anywhere in the document. Therefore, the way SVG is handled is different and requires some style tweaking to make it behave consistently across all browsers. The only difference here is that we do not need to explicitly set the height and width of after positioning it. For a complete and excellent guide, I recommend Leonie Watson’s excellent article on SitePoint47.

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