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Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Sinema Films is leading TV Commercial Production Companies in New York provides video production and broadcast services. Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. Are you tired of feeling like you have no other choice but turn to the local cable companies to create your company’s television commercial? Advertising on TV is affordable these days and New York City companies are enlisting the video production service experts to create cable television commercials for them. Some people balk when they see the price of getting a jingle written for their business, but that investment is one that can be returned to you ten times over.
A commercial is about selling yourself to people, yes, and that means you want to present yourself in the best light possible, sure, but that doesn’t mean you need to be dishonest about who you are and what you do. The beautiful thing about local tv ads is that you are not bound by stodgy old corporate suits who frown on things that are out of the norm. Taken together, these five basic concepts are enough to ensure your commercial advert is the kind people will remember – and that’s exactly the point, isn’t it? The Middle East and North Africa region1 comprises 14 low and middle-income countries or territories stretching from Iran to Morocco (see Map). Settlement patterns vary, depending on historical forces and political changes, but populations are increasing in major cities and concentrating in larger villages in rural areas. Rainfed crops are grown during the wetter winter period, while irrigated areas are cultivated year round.
In comparison with other developing areas of the world, the Middle East and North Africa is not a particularly impoverished zone.
Historically, irrigation practices, coupled with effective indigenous technologies for managing the limited resources available, have meant that any outright malnutrition in rural areas has been associated mainly with crop failures resulting from droughts, pests, or the failure of the annual flood in the Nile Valley.
Historically, agriculture has played a key role in the development of many economies of the Middle East and North Africa; initially in the production of cereals and livestock and later in the development of fruits, vegetables and cash crops from irrigated or partially irrigated land. Eight major farming systems have been identified and broadly delimited, based on a range of criteria discussed in the first Chapter. Given the arid and semiarid nature of much of North Africa and the Middle East, the Irrigated Farming System has always been of crucial importance in generating much of the region's agricultural output.
Traditionally, areas within the Large-scale Irrigation Sub-System have been linked primarily to perennial surface water resources, such as the Nile and Euphrates valleys, but the intensification of traditional karez or qanat systems has also led to the evolution of large-scale irrigated areas wherever sub-surface water is abundant. The Small-scale Irrigated Sub-System also occurs widely across the region and although not as important as the larger schemes in terms of numbers of people involved, or in the amount of food and other crops produced, it is a significant element in the survival of many people in arid and remote mountain areas. The Highland Mixed Farming System is the most important system in the region in terms of population - with 27 million people engaged in agriculture - but contains only 74 million ha (7 percent) of the land area, thus leading to moderately high population densities.
The Rainfed Mixed Farming System contains almost 18 percent of the agricultural population but occupies only two percent of the land area, resulting in high population densities. Note: Prevalence of poverty refers to number in poverty, not depth of poverty, and is a relative assessment for this region. The Dryland Mixed Farming System is found in dry subhumid areas which receive an annual rainfall of between 150 to 300 mm. The Pastoral Farming System, mainly involving sheep and goats but also with some cattle and camels, is found across almost a quarter of the land area of the region - equivalent to around 250 million ha.
The Sparse (Arid) Farming System covers more than 60 percent of the region and includes vast desert zones. Small-scale artisanal fishermen have lived along the coasts of the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean for thousands of years, supplementing income from the sale of fish with small-scale crop and livestock production. Throughout the region a small population of urban residents, estimated to be less than 6 million people, engage in small-scale production of horticultural and livestock products - notably fruit, vegetables and poultry.
During the period 2000-2030, the population of the region is projected to almost double from its present 296 million6. Although there has been some reduction of hunger since 1970, it is estimated that 33 million people within the region were still undernourished in 1995-19977.
The overall total of 6 percent projected growth in calorie consumption is low, but the region will still achieve an average daily intake of 3170 kcal by 2030, comfortably exceeding the developing world average of 3020 kcal. Since 1961, cultivated land has expanded by 14 percent, while cropping intensity has increased by over 15 percent within the same period.
Currently, more than 20 million ha of land are irrigated - representing 32 percent of the total cultivated land in use and 60 percent of the land with irrigation potential. Based on irrigated area and efficiency, it is calculated that as much as 58 percent of available water in the region is being used for irrigation. Taking into account the expected expansion of the irrigated area, it is projected that water use for irrigation will account for 67 percent of the total renewable water resources in the region. Current fertiliser consumption represents only 7.2 percent of the total in all developing countries. The region has 197 million head of sheep and goats (see Table 3.3), accounting for about one-seventh of the total population of these animals in developing countries.
In many countries, a few very large production units now dominate the industry, limiting the opportunity for small-scale producers to enter into the market. Trade liberalisation has favoured the larger producers in the region, as many smaller operators have moved out of farming and trading altogether.
However, many small farm households have diversified their livelihoods by developing off-farm activities such as tourism, catering and other service activities - often through family linkages. Market development over the coming decades will depend closely upon the relationship between the region and the European Union (EU). Both development policies and investments in public goods have had a strong urban bias for many decades. The land reform issue remains one of the most intractable, as many people hold onto their fragmented holdings without any rationalisation or consolidation process in place; even where countries are officially undertaking land reform.
National livestock policies have tended to aggravate problems of overstocking, and therefore overgrazing, through the encouragement of the importation of cheap feed grains and the lack of regulation of numbers.
The high degree of centralisation of planning systems, and the rigid imposition of a target approach to production, has stifled innovation and diversification in many areas - particularly in the major irrigation schemes. For many years, the capitals of the region had relatively good communication connections with Europe, although some countries adopted a policy of strict control over the use of the facilities.
Until recently, government agricultural extension services were strong in several countries of the region; albeit with an emphasis on high potential areas, and on the regulation and control of land use and production practices. Tertiary agricultural education reached a world class level during the third quarter of the last century, with a number of globally recognised universities situated throughout the region.
The Pastoral Farming System has also been included because of its relevance to other farming systems across the region. The Large-scale Sub-System is usually found along the major river systems downstream from dams and most large-scale schemes have an ancient history of development. Other large-scale fully irrigated individual schemes have emerged in recent years that are privately financed and operated. In view of the poor record of sustainability of state-managed irrigation schemes, the present trend is towards greater involvement of the water users in management. Measures aimed at reducing crop demand for water through rationing or switching to crops with a lower water requirement are now being promoted in the region. In order to underpin both the intensification and diversification of production, both of which are judged to be important strategies for poverty reduction, the most important priority is the introduction of water demand management, using a range of economic, regulatory and advocacy instruments. The overall management of these large schemes is in need of major overhaul if poverty reduction is to accelerate. In view of the emerging emphasis on water quality, it is expected that institutional factors such as regulations on levels of use of pesticides or nutrients will be a major consideration influencing future irrigation research programs. In this sub-system, owner-occupiers or tenants typically farm very small units (0.02 to 1 ha) often within the boundaries of larger, rainfed systems. This sub-system is characterised by limited water supplies, which reduce production opportunities, and often lead to opportunist planting following flooding or exceptional run-off. Water shortages and food deficits are among the crucial issues facing small-scale irrigation farmers in the region and should be given priority. Water shortage is the most crucial issue Yemen is currently facing and there is little chance that its importance will diminish in future unless appropriate measures are taken. Conscious of these issues, the Government of Yemen launched a wide-scale programme to improve the general efficiency of irrigation from groundwater resources in 1995. Small irrigated schemes in ecological niches offer opportunities for testing and introduction of new varieties of major crops and trees. This system has an estimated total population of 65 million people, of which 27 million are engaged in agri-culture (see Box 3.4), making it the most important within the region in terms of population.
The cereals that form part of the system are adapted to survive under snow and extended cold periods.
A typical farm household within this system may have a small area of cropped land (four ha), typically on old terraces.
Within the Highland Mixed System, inadequate maintenance of terraces in recent years has led to a decline in the quality of the natural resource base, and to increasing water erosion that has reduced productivity. There is limited scope for poverty reduction within the Highland Mixed Farming System through intensification or diversification of production. A pilot project undertaken over an area of 70000 ha in the Atlas Hills of Tunisia has demonstrated the feasibility of combining improved watershed management with improved income opportunities for participants. Project activities included forestry, agro-forestry, tree platforms (micro-terraces), small-scale earth bunds, small checkdams consolidated with fodder species, hill reservoirs and small irrigation schemes.
As the project is still underway, sustainability cannot be readily assessed, but an estimated 75 percent of the families have participated in one or more activities, while Government support systems have been restructured to provide options based on appropriate technologies and cost sharing with farmers. Similarly, there is a need for more equitable regulation and control of common grazing resources, that can only take place effectively with full participation of all stakeholders. Finally, there is a need for an end to policies of import subsidies on animal feed grains that depress local prices and make it difficult for local producers to compete.
This system contains an estimated total population of 40 million people, and an agricultural population of 16 million (see Box 3.7). 17 million ha, giving rise to population densities similar to those of the irrigated system.
In the more humid areas, tree crops (olives, fruits and nuts) are an important component and may dominate the system.
Many farms are intensively capitalised with a high level of inputs, and farmers are very sensitive to market opportunities.
A typical system farm manages about five ha in several parcels of land of different quality around the village.
Population density continues to rise and there is also a growing global influence on the system, both from imports of subsidised cereals and from the problems of access to markets.
This system appears to have potential for reduced poverty through intensification of production based, inter alia, on more effective management of natural resources and improved access to markets. Land reform programmes, which were begun years ago, should be continued, focusing on farm amalgamation, more equitable distribution of land and water resources and better access to services.
Reforms are urgently needed in the institutions that are designed to serve farmers, and in the development of social infrastructure that will encourage young people to remain in rural areas.
Policies are required to control a range of actions and practices with major negative environmental impacts; these include frequent, deep ploughing, excessive use of pesticides and excessive water extraction for irrigation. The Dryland Mixed Farming System covers an area of 42 million ha and contains an estimated total population of 50 million, with an agricultural population of 13 million (see Box 3.9). Interactions with pastoral systems are potentially strong as sheep may graze green barley in a dry year and the stubble of the harvested crop in average or wetter years. This system is primarily dependent on wheat and barley production, together with a strong interaction with small livestock (primarily sheep).
A further issue has been the failure to fully integrate cropping and livestock systems, because policies and price ratios have worked against this potentially stabilising feature. A typical household in this system has about seven ha of cultivated land located in small parcels on different types of land around the village. Notwithstanding substantial emigration from this system, there is judged to be some scope for poverty reduction through production intensification and growth in off-farm income - the latter largely through seasonal migration.
In this context, the importance of land consolidation and technologies for conservation is paramount: including development and adaptation of appro-priate and financially accessible technologies for conservation agriculture on slopes and vulnerable soils. While irrigated systems remain a high political priority, there is a need to recognise that a shift in resource allocation from irrigated agriculture to rainfed farming is essential if there is to be a realistic regional focus on poverty alleviation.
A new approach to research is called for in order to develop crop varieties with a shorter growing period, drought resistance, and improved grain and straw quality.
The system is based on the mobility of herds and flocks, which move with the availability of grazing - related to seasonal rainfall distribution - and the availability of water. A typical pastoral household has access to a very small area of cultivated land (1 to 2 ha), often cropped on an opportunistic basis.
Pastoralists remain an important linking group across the major farming systems in the region.
However, heavy grazing of the rangelands by livestock is believed to be the most widespread cause of vegetation and land degradation throughout the region. Intensive grazing around settlements is often related to the sedentarisation of nomadic herders. The availability of more secure watering points also induces pastoralists to change their herd composition in favour of sheep, which further increases grazing pressure around the watering points. One of the most important recommendations approved by the 1977 United Nations Conference on Desertification dealt with land degradation in rainfed farming areas. Centrally planned economies continue to marginalise and exclude pastoralists from most forms of support. Pastoral (steppe) areas could be managed sustainably through the revival of, and support for, older institutions for control of communal grazing areas by pastoralists themselves (the Hema system). The Al Badia steppe area of Syria receives less than 200 mm per annum of rainfall and has been subject to widespread deterioration of the rangelands and loss of wildlife habitats (and consequently of wildlife).
Major impacts and lessons learned include the feasibility of range rehabilitation by reseeding native species, the importance of community participation, project implementation flexibility, longer-term assistance for sustainability, the need for both local and national drought strategies and the need to focus on land tenure issues. In addition to the revival and development of local institutions, there is a need for new legislation that will protect the steppe environment and ensure sound long-term management of soil and pasture resources. There should also be a higher level of support given to research institutions engaged in the introduction of bushes and fodder intercrops adapted to local rangeland conditions (e.g. The review of the characteristics, trends and potentials of the main farming systems in the Middle East and North Africa clearly indicates the close interdependence of people, water and land-based resources. The most significant trend over the past 30 years has been accelerating urbanisation and the consequent growth of cities.
The key strategic priorities for the region are grouped below under five major themes that are considered to be essential elements in any overall support programme for the revitalisation of farming systems and rural livelihoods in the region, namely: Policies, Markets, Information, Technologies and Natural Resources.
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We asked some experts in  Television commercial production NYC and they offered these insights on how your TV spot can be something that won’t be forgotten. The tavern is also known for something else, though: its parking lot is full of actual, live chickens who just sort of wander around doing their thing. The region supports a population of 296 million people, over 120 million of whom live in rural areas. The region contains a significant number of pastoralists who move seasonally between low and high altitudes in mountainous regions and between wetter zones and the dry steppe. The early development of irrigation-based civilisations in much of the area laid the foundation for intensive agricultural systems still in use today. Rapid increases in population, arising from improved child survival rates and lower mortality in general, now threaten this historical equilibrium. A high proportion of poor households consist of farmers or pastoralists who depend on agriculture as a primary food and livelihood source. In 1997, agriculture contributed 13 percent to regional GDP and accounted for 19 percent of exports and 50 percent of employment in the region.
They are listed in Table 3.1 and their geographical location is indicated in the accompanying Map.
More recently, the availability of deep drilling and pumping technologies has permitted the development of new areas drawing entirely on subterranean aquifers.
This sub-system, which may be of considerable antiquity, typically develops along small perennial streams and at oases, or where flood and spate irrigation is feasible. Cultivated area is 14 million ha, including tree crops and vines; and there are about eight million cattle. The system contains an agricultural population of 13 million people and includes 17 million ha of cultivated land. It includes large areas of semiarid steppe lands, and is characterised by low population densities, with more densely populated areas around irrigated settlements. Approximately four million people (about five percent of the region's agricultural population) live within the system, and are concentrated in oases and a number of irrigation schemes (notably in Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Libya). There are an estimated one million people living in this system, which has an area of around 11 million ha. The contribution of this system to GADP is small at present, but the growth in livestock feedlots, fruit, and intensive vegetable production in urban areas may become increasingly important in the coming decades. At the end of the section, four of the regional farming systems described in the previous section of the Chapter are selected for further description and analysis. This could have a considerable negative impact in areas with fragile or vulnerable soils and sloping land, and will certainly be of importance for water resources everywhere. This number is not expected to change much during the period to 2030, although the percentage of the population that is undernourished will decline.
The increase is expected to derive mainly from the continued growth in consumption of meat (60 percent), as well as milk and dairy products (23 percent).
Currently, cultivated land in the region is 65 million ha, accounting for 76 percent of the estimated total potential. The average irrigation efficiency is about 50 percent, somewhat higher than the average of 43 percent in all developing countries.


However, four countries - Jordan, Libya, Saudi Arabia and Yemen - are already withdrawing volumes that exceed their annual water resource recharge; due to increasing demands for water both from their cities and from intensive agricultural systems. These average figures hide far more serious situations in a number of locations, where abstraction of groundwater is exceeding recharge and thus depleting strategic reserves.
During 1961-1997, crop production increased as a result of both harvested land expansion (29 percent), and yield increase (71 percent). The was no increase in fertiliser consumption in the region during the past decade, in contrast to the 3.5 percent annual increase for the developing world as a whole. Smaller businesses which deal in agricultural products have also found it increasingly difficult to compete and there are few areas in which they have any comparative advantage. This trend is expected to continue in the coming 30 years and off-farm income will progressively grow in importance, especially for poor households. Growing incomes in the Mediterranean countries of the EU will increase demand for North African and Middle Eastern products, and will likely attract European investment.
Many public institutions in the recent past have been extremely centralised and development policies have tended to favour cheap food for urban populations. Migration of young people to the cities means that the will to change the current system of land allocation and inheritance is weak. Technology advances in the transport of livestock and water, and the role of private capital, have continued to place exceptional stress on natural rangeland resources. Research has rarely been focused on applied problems of producers in risk-prone areas, or on the more efficient use of water.
However, the contrast with farming - and especially pastoral areas - could not have been greater; and this relative neglect has hindered the responsiveness of farmers in many countries to new international market opportunities. However, both cultivated and pastoral areas with low population densities have always lacked an adequate flow of technical and market information.
In recent years, agricultural education institutions have generally not adopted new approaches to their curricula, nor have they employed innovative systems of delivery, such as distance learning. While it is neither demographically important nor offers a significant opportunity for poverty reduction, the role of the system in providing a reservoir of livestock which feed through into other systems - either seasonally or in the form of animals for fattening - makes it important in regional terms.
It encompasses two quite distinct sub-systems: the Large-scale Irrigated Farming Sub-System, common in a number of countries within the region, including Iraq, Syria, Morocco and Egypt, and the Small-scale Irrigation Sub-System, found scattered in small areas throughout such countries as Egypt, Yemen, Oman, Syria and the Maghreb.
Water is extracted using tubewells and distributed through sprinkler or trickle systems to farmers growing mainly high-value crops for export. Many have been plagued with problems of poor water management, disputes over water access, and quality and quantity issues. However, the participation of users in decision making concerning water management faces legal and institutional constraints to the transfer of management responsibility and to the legal basis for devolution of authority. However, given the present weak water pricing policies, water and irrigation services costs may not be significant in relation to other costs such as seed, fertiliser, pesticide and energy. The management of the irrigated land is often affected negatively by physical problems - soil and water quality, and problems of conflicting objectives between the State and individual owners and tenants.
These initiatives have to be locally tailored, but must also be embedded in national agriculture and water management policies.
Rising demand by non-agricultural users will lead to increasingly intense competition for water over time - making it a relatively more costly input.
Thus, these small-scale irrigated schemes are considered as part of the relevant rainfed farming system.
The cropping pattern and the type of crop developed are adapted to the water supplies and regime experienced over the years. A participatory process of introducing technological packages that provide improvements to local practices has proven to be effective in tackling the issue of water shortage in a number of cases.
The immediate consequence of the continuous decline in water resources has been household food insecurity, especially for poor families in vulnerable rural areas. The programme included the World Bank financed Land and Water Conservation Project which is based on cost-sharing, farmers' participation and modern irrigation technologies.
At the regional level, the mean savings in water use were at least 20 percent and have reached as high as 35 percent, particularly in the northwest of the country where most of the farms were equipped with bubbler irrigation systems. It is evident in some areas that a number of powerful individuals are controlling and capturing the bulk of available resources, using modern drilling and pumping equipment.
Stress tolerance, and the ability to grow in soils of low fertility, are important required characteristics and more adaptive research on these attributes is needed.
However, it covers an area of 74 million ha, so population densities are lower than in the irrigated and rainfed-mixed systems. Wheat and barley dominate the cropping pattern, which comprises primarily of monocultures with occasional fallows. The cultivated land is primarily used for cereal production (about three ha) and also for fruit trees, coffee, qat, olives and vegetables in some areas.
To some extent, this neglect of terrace maintenance has been caused by reduced labour availability, as a result of substantial levels of emigration to urban and plains areas.
Nevertheless, in order to protect existing levels of productivity and downstream rural and urban water users, the primary need is for the development of more sustainable watershed planning and management systems, plus the introduction of conservation tillage systems, and better integration of crops and livestock. The area is dominated by smallholders with fragmented holdings on slope land with extensive erosion, and has many landless families.
Consultative processes aimed at resolving conflicts between farmers and the Government over access to, and use of, national forest areas resulted in changes in tree species used, the opening of access paths, and the contracting of local labour for many forest activities.
The combination of participatory approaches, conservation measures and income creation will offer considerable potential for development elsewhere in the region. Older systems of management may need additional measures and a modern legal basis to take account of new capital financing of livestock. Although a substantial proportion of households are likely to abandon farming and move to areas with better economic opportunities and services, it will also be important to foster land consolidation for the remaining small producers. A wide diversity of crops and trees are grown in well-established patterns around settlements. They may be intercropped with cereals and vegetables while the trees are immature, but when mature they may become a monoculture. Cereals (about three ha) and legumes are managed collectively in blocks to aid mechanisation of operations and post-harvest grazing management. Strategies and policies of research and extension institutions are not addressing the main needs of small farmers. Subsistence farming is declining in these areas, while large-scale commercial interests are involved in high-input farming of export crops and livestock. In conjunction with this, and with the active participation of small farmer groups, continuing research is needed on systems of land and water management including traditional techniques used in the region. Restructuring and retraining of farmer-sensitive research systems and farmer-driven extension systems with farmer-researcher partnerships is one way forward. Improved natural resource management, enterprise diversification and off-farm income opportunities should also be promoted. The reliability of cropping is highly dependent on rainfall and the whole system is vulnerable to inter-annual and seasonal variation - both temporal and spatial - in rainfall.
Human nutrition in these systems is also an issue, as diets tend to lack variety and quality. Priorities should be focused on regulatory measures for access and use of land and water resources, as well as on technology development and dissemination with a focus on the poor. In many areas, this can only be achieved following a significant change in land ownership and distribution patterns through land consolidation.
Irrigated and rainfed systems interact strongly and it is not efficient to strengthen one without addressing the problems of the other.
Pilot studies should consider the socio-economic and cultural impact of the characteristics of the new crops, to ascertain whether they meet the needs of the society in which they will be used. It contains an estimated total population of 30 million and an agricultural population of eight million (see Box 3.11). This movement may be between more humid and drier lowland areas, or between the plains and highland areas. The family generally has access to about 100 ha of grazing land, and sometimes to larger areas through customary or rental arrangements, to support varying numbers of sheep, goats, and cattle.
Because of the continually rising demand for meat, primarily from urban areas, pastoral systems will remain important, even with the rise in importance of urban-based livestock feedlots. Resource degradation is the reason for the steady decline in pastoral incomes, resulting in complex demographic, economic and social changes. In the hyper-arid zones, the livestock survive for a period on xerophytic shrubs and ephemeral grasses, and once these plants are grazed livestock have to be moved elsewhere. The settlement of former nomads entails concentration of their herds on grazing land around their new homes.
While increased water supplies are necessary in the drylands for a proper use of natural resources and to alleviate adverse living conditions, the almost inevitable result is the concentration of population and livestock around these watering points, which disturbs the fragile ecosystem.
The recommendation called for the establishment of legal limits to cultivation by tractor ploughing in marginal drylands, which are more suited for grazing. This is unfortunate as pastoral systems with well-balanced grazing management are the most sustainable way in which natural resources in low-rainfall areas can be managed and conserved. The highest priority for this system is greater flexibility and integration in agropastoral systems. However, this would be only a partial solution as urban-based owners who frequently have different priorities to those of pastoralists, now finance many herds.
International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas [ICARDA] and its collaborating national research and extension partners).
There are also important linkages between different farming systems, particularly between livestock and cropping systems. This trend is likely to continue, resulting in rapidly rising demands for water and food - particularly cereals and livestock products. Be bold about who you are, what you believe, how you do business, and the kind of unique personality you have.
The long history of human settlement, unequal access to land and increasing urbanisation have led to serious degradation of land and forest resources in much of the region.
The more humid areas have a Mediterranean climate, characterised by long, dry summers and mild, wet winters. A wide range of subtropical crops, including fruit and vegetables, is also grown under irrigation in the summer months.
Furthermore, historical evidence indicates that, in Roman times, much of North Africa enjoyed sufficient rainfall to support widespread rainfed cultivation of cereals and other crops. Although the growing cities have proved to be a magnet for many young people, unemployment rates in urban areas are high.
Poverty is conditioned primarily by lack of access to the limited soil and water resources and by low productivity, and it is aggravated by highly unpredictable rainfall, relatively few crop and livestock options, and continuing natural resource degradation. However, there are large variations across countries depending on the relative importance of non-agricultural income in the economy.
Large-scale schemes are found across all zones and include high-value cash and export cropping and intensive vegetable and fruit cropping. It sometimes also draws on shallow aquifers and boreholes, although these rarely penetrate to the depths seen in the large schemes.
Although the system is by definition principally rainfed, an increasing area (presently about 0.6 million ha) is now benefiting from the availability of new drilling and pumping technologies, which have made it possible to use supplementary winter irrigation on wheat and full irrigation on summer cash crops4. Population density tends to be lower than in the other main arable systems and average farm sizes are larger. About 1.2 million ha of irrigated cropland are utilised for the production of dates, other palms, fodder and vegetables. As modern technology and capital have been injected into the offshore fishing industry, the artisanal fishing system has contracted. The areas around major centres of population are particularly likely to suffer from various forms of environmental degradation and water shortage. Currently, the average daily calorie intake is 2980 kcal - 13 percent higher than the average for all developing countries and the highest among the six regions in this study.
In many rural areas the quality of nutrition is not good, particularly for poorer people in drier and more isolated systems.
These figures indicate that most cultivable land is already being exploited and that there is limited scope for further expansion. The exploited hydrological resources of the region account for only 1.4 percent of the total annual renewable water resources in the developing world. Economic competition for the limited renewable water resource base of the region is intensifying.
The current total annual production of meat is nearly 6 million tons and it is projected to continue to grow until 2030. There is minimal development of small-scale agro-processing industries in all but a few countries. Nevertheless, the policies of national governments concerning private enterprise development will strongly affect the speed of response to these opportunities.
Infrastructural investments have also favoured major centres of population; primarily in the provision of water, basic services and communications links.
The only places where there have been major change are where larger operators have been able to buy-out smaller farmers.
The lack of regulation has undermined the strength of older institutions and the system of communal range management which were designed to manage resources in a sustainable manner. This situation may be set to change with recent advances in information technology, including satellites and cell phones, which open up new possibilities for communication. In recent years, however, some countries have piloted computer-linked dissemination of farm management information. However, many universities have the capacity to improve quite rapidly, and it is expected that most will modernise these aspects during the coming decades. Typically, these schemes are characterised by large-scale centralised management of water access and distribution, and may be managed in large blocks with mechanised inputs. These schemes not only present a challenge to older irrigated areas in the market place, but are also a threat to nearby small-scale systems that rely on simpler water lifting devices, as the high volume of water extraction from deep aquifers is contributing to declining water tables as the rate of extraction exceeds the rate of recharge (e.g. This situation does not encourage the efficient use of water and a far-reaching restructuring of water pricing and subsidy policies is required.
In addition, the household manages small numbers of cattle, goats and sheep, which are fed from a combination of limited common grazing land, crop residues and cultivated fodder crops.
In addition, irrigation will need to become more flexible to accommodate the perennial hydrological risk in the region. This will tend to shift water supplies towards higher-value crops requiring more sophisticated management and equipment. This type of farming occurs throughout the plains areas of the region, as well as on terraced hillsides where it may be derived from an ancient system. With extremely limited possibilities for the expansion of available water resources except at prohibitive costs, the only solution left is to optimise the output from existing resources. Considering the current operational costs that farmers have to pay for pumping water (even with relatively low energy costs), the cost of investment in modern irrigation equipment is recovered within two to four years from water savings alone.
Where this is happening, policy initiatives to promote more equitable access will be essential.
There is a strong and growing demand in Northern Europe for organic foods and other agricultural products grown without chemical inputs, and this has created an opportunity to grow crops that are suited to specific niche situations. Common grazing lands usually surround these cropped areas, and may be used by owners from the same region or by pastoralists migrating to the plains for the winter season. A decline in soil fertility, resulting from continuous cropping and low nutrient return, is also an issue in some plateau areas. The effectiveness of these technical changes depends upon the participation of the agricultural population in the planning and management process; and on the establishment of appropriate local institutions that can ensure equitable benefits to all producers. Average family incomes are estimated at US$110 per month, of which seasonal migration and other off-farm labour account for about half. Large water retention schemes, which mostly benefited downstream landowners, were replaced with farmer-selected technology options implementable on individual farms. Scarcity of drinking water, for both humans and animals, in the mountain areas is one of the most serious problems and large number of new water points are needed. Wheat, barley, lentils, chickpeas, potatoes, sugarbeet and faba beans are the main annual crops.
In the drier areas, cereals become more dominant and there is often a greater interdependence among farming families who frequently share resources and equipment. Other trends include the decreasing proportion of wheat and the greater use of legumes in the rotation, increasing farm size and mechanisation (including the rapidly rising use of supplementary irrigation), migration to urban areas and growing dependence on off-farm income to secure food and livelihood security.
At the same time there appears to be little commitment by many governments to supporting the sector - particularly the smaller farmers - through regulation of imports and specific support to poor farmers. In combination with these actions, there is a need to identify economic incentives for improved water resource management and to develop communally based initiatives for the long-term management of water catchments - including the rehabilitation of terrace systems and the reintroduction of intercropping systems.
Particular focus is needed on technologies for small-scale women farmers and women's labour. The cultivated area is 17 mil-lion ha and cropping is dominated by cereals (mainly barley and wheat), grown in alternation with single or double season fallows. In the recent past, there has been a decline in wheat area and renewed use of indigenous barley varieties.
Under these circumstances, farmers progressively rely more on livestock systems for subsistence and cash income. The family has a few cows and small numbers of sheep (nine on average), which are grazed around the village and for part of the year in the steppe. A systems perspective on land and water resource management planning activities should be encouraged and ultimately adopted by the provincial and district planning bodies. A new approach is also required in the way in which research is organised and managed to better serve these systems. In the past, water was only obtainable from fixed water storage systems, but the use of mobile water tankers has enabled livestock owners to travel larger distances seasonally. The household may manage a number of animals for urban based capitalists, either seasonally or in a long term arrangement. For this reason, there appears to be a balance between carrying capacity and livestock in the hyper-arid zones. Under drought conditions, these herders are forced to graze their animals in areas where most drinking water is available.
It was based on the fact that these areas are particularly vulnerable to extensive clearing and excessive mechanical cultivation. Increased capitalisation and specialisation has led to the marginalisation and neglect of many pastoral groups and without some attention, protection and support, many are likely to disappear. Intervention is needed in order to monitor management systems - including both urban-based and pastoral stakeholder groups - and to establish codes of conduct and management that ensure the long-term sustainability of natural resources on the range. It should reinforce or create conditions to ensure that the long-term interests of groups dependent on the rangelands for their livelihood, prevail over the short-term interests of individuals or groups external to the range.
Investment in the agricultural and rural development sectors, apart from irrigation, has been relatively modest.


In the rural areas, the growth in the proportion of income earned from non-agricultural activities is likely to continue and this has to be considered when strategic options for potential investment are being reviewed.
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Access to water, both in terms of quantity and quality, remains a key issue in the both agricultural and national economies.
Patterns of water use vary greatly but, throughout the region, inappropriate policies on water pricing and centralised management systems have meant that water is seldom used efficiently. The major crops grown within small-scale irrigation areas are mixed cereals, fodder and vegetables. The first is dominated by rainfed cereal and legume cropping, with tree crops, fruits and olives on terraces, together with vines. The main rainfed cereals are barley and wheat grown in a rotation that includes an annual or two-year fallow, but the risk of drought is high and considerable food insecurity exists.
Strong linkages exist to other farming systems through the movement of stock, both through seasonal grazing of herds in more humid areas and through the sale of animals to large feedlots located in urban areas. In addition, an estimated 2.7 million cattle, pastoralists within this system also raise camels, sheep and goats. The overall calorie intake reflects high levels of consumption of cereals (20 percent higher than the developing world average) and meat, and is also influenced by the above-average access to food in the oil-rich countries of the region. Although meat and cereals may be reasonably accessible, vegetables and fruits are relatively scarce and expensive. Nevertheless, during 2000-2030, cultivated land use is still expected to expand, reaching a figure of 82 percent of the total potential. The aridity of the region means that irrigation is the principal means of agricultural intensification and diversification. During 2000-2030, the total irrigated area within the region is forecast to grow by 20 percent. Disputes over water use rights and resource allocation between sectors and across international borders are also becoming more evident, as limits to economic capture are reached. Milk production is currently 17 million tons, following a growth rate of 3.4 percent per annum since 1970.
Any growth of small-scale enterprises has usually been through individual, or close family efforts and not through co-operative movements or producer organisations. The development of road systems has generally served national security or urban objectives, rather than rural development; indeed, their construction has sometimes been in conflict with agricultural needs.
It is widely recognised that the reorganisation of land holdings is a prerequisite for the introduction of technologies that will conserve soil and water resources in the long run. Extension systems have often been very top down in design and delivery, leaving little scope for farmer-driven initiatives and partnerships. Farmer training has lagged behind other regions and this is holding back technology adoption and farming efficiency, as well as failing to build the skills of household members related to employment opportunities in the off-farm and urban economies. This system is dominated by intensive year-round cropping, by both owner-occupiers and tenants.
In other schemes water access and distribution is also managed centrally, but the land has been allocated to large numbers of tenants or owners who individually manage small plots - from 0.5 to 5 ha - and share other inputs and marketing facilities.
A clear range of economic incentives to encourage the adoption and extension of innovative technologies is also necessary. Conjunctive use10 and aquifer storage and recovery will become important tools in managing this risk.
Small-scale irrigation schemes are often found in isolated areas and provide food and other products primarily for local markets. Box 3.3 illustrates a case from the Yemen where a participatory approach to water management has successfully reduced the mining of groundwater. In addition, however, the new technology offers benefits beyond water savings, including significant improvements in yield and product quality, and added value resulting from changes in cropping patterns or increase in the irrigated area. Small-scale schemes, which offer important niches for local economies and the potential for higher value crops, are threatened by the depletion of water resources and the degradation of the environment. The key to this process would be to support small producers with access to these markets, through region-branded marketing groups and introductory preferential access. The system depends upon the exploitation of high altitude arable and common grazing lands where cold winters lead to dormancy or very slow growth of crops and fodder species. Where livestock are present, overgrazing close to settlements and water points has further contributed to soil degradation. Box 3.6 presents an example of an approach to effective watershed management that contributed to poverty reduction in Tunisia. Degradation of vegetative cover and soil erosion is extensive in the zone, and conflicts over resource access were increasing, while technologies offered by public extension services were often inappropriate. Support was provided for tree crop establishment (olive, almond, and fruit trees) combined with contoured intercropping of legumes.
For similar reasons, linkages to the off-farm economy should be strengthened in order to promote, inter alia, off-farm employment. Farm systems are diversified and there is a seasonal interaction with livestock (mainly sheep and goat) owners in the use of crop residues and other fodder.
Women are becoming increasingly marginalised in the production process and their labour is being progressively displaced, as men dominate the mechanisation processes for all the main crops.
Near the coast, the system is under considerable pressure in some areas by demand for land for urban settlement, tourism and other forms of economic speculation (e.g. In order to ensure the success of these changes, the following principal areas of action are suggested. The success of these measures will depend to a large extent upon strengthening the role of women in watershed resource management and restoration.
Occasionally, and especially in higher-rainfall areas, legumes (lentils and chickpeas) may be grown. The most critical issue concerns the limited access to new crops and varieties by most farmers. Migration to urban areas has been increasing and remittances to families remaining in these areas play a significant role in food security. Poorer families have some members who work for larger farmers or have temporary or more permanent work in urban areas.
Such bodies would benefit by extending their representative membership to include all stakeholders who can participate in decision making. There needs to be more proactive research with the active participation of smaller farmers - particularly women - on the development of these interventions.
Crop residues, subsidised grains and purchased fodder make up the remainder of feed requirements. Drought diminishes rangeland productivity, but also adversely affects feed quality and species diversity.
In the arid and semiarid zones, livestock density is above the potential carrying capacity most of the year, and these are the areas where most of the desertification takes place.
This eventually leads to the complete disappearance of the most palatable herbaceous cover, particularly around boreholes that provide drinking water for humans and animals all year round.
The long-term maintenance of the resource base in semiarid areas can only be assured by strong collective responsibility. This will require training programmes for both urban and pastoral participants in monitoring and management of herds and range condition.
Local adaptive research with farmer and pastoralists - if encouraged and supported - will spread their application. It may have cost Budweiser a lot of money to get someone to write “This Bud’s For You” for them, but it was certainly worth it, since just reading the phrase probably brought the song back into your head! Whether it’s guys who love working on their trucks on the weekends or stay at home moms who never get a moment to themselves, create a concept that will appeal to your target audience.
If you really want to stand out, you might want to consider using a unique format such as 65mm or vistavision, both use anamorphic lenses and offer unique aesthetics, even when viewing on a computer or cell phone. The Middle East is an important site of early settled agriculture, and the centre of origin and diversity of several major cereal and legume crops, and of the early domestication of sheep and goats. These aggregates include centres of population, often located in dispersed, intensively irrigated areas within arid and semiarid zones.
Land ownership is highly skewed, with a small number of farmers owning large areas of the better quality land. The relatively low potential for increasing output without irrigation has meant that many economies have had to rely on alternative engines for economic growth, including petroleum extraction, mining, manufacturing, trading and other commercial activities. Significant economic and environmental externalities have arisen through excessive utilisation of non-recharged aquifers while, in a number of cases, the excessive application of irrigation water has resulted in rising groundwater tables, soil salinisation and sodisation problems.
These areas also provide important focal points for socio-economic activity, but intense local competition for limited water resources between small rural farmers and other users is becoming increasingly evident. In Yemen, this sub-system includes qat and coffee, which are traditionally the most important tree crops in mountain regions. The more humid areas (600 to 1000 mm annual rainfall) are characterised by tree crops (olives and fruit), melons and grapes. The livestock, including six million cattle and a greater number of small ruminants, interact strongly with the cropping and fodder system. Seasonal migration, which is particularly important as a risk minimisation measure, depends on the availability of grass, water and crop residues in neighbouring arable systems. The system provides opportunistic grazing for the herds of pastoralists, following scattered storms and in good seasons.
However, this average masks the existence of vulnerable groups within some countries, as well as hiding the differences between oil-exporting and the non-exporting countries.
As shown in Figure 1.3 of the first Chapter, there has been some reduction in dollar poverty within the region during the past decade. However, the newly cultivated land will often be seriously constrained by climate, slope or poor soils. Away from large perennial waterways, agricultural requirements for water have traditionally been met through the exploitation of shallow groundwater and seepage and small-scale impoundment. This will bring total irrigated area to a level equal to 77 percent of all land with irrigation potential. Under these circumstances, irrigation development is becoming increasingly conditioned by socio-economic and environmental realities to the extent that management of demand for both water and irrigation services is now an imperative. Although barley is second in importance in terms of area, it is exceeded by both maize and rice in terms of output. In recent decades, poultry numbers (900 million in 2000) have increased very rapidly - at a rate of almost 6 percent per annum, nearly double that for developing countries as a whole. The absence of credit for small producers and lack of market intelligence concerning overseas markets has also acted as a constraint to any significant development at this level. Similarly, a great deal of high quality land has been lost close to cities, as a result of weak planning regulations and lack of forward thinking.
Many areas suffer from recurrent problems of water misuse and mismanagement, salinity, sodicity, and gypsum soil problems (Euphrates). Water User Associations (WUAs) are becoming more common in these situations, dealing with ongoing operation and maintenance and ensuring better water sharing procedures.
In addition to this, there are institutional and financial issues related to the responsibility of users for organisation and management of the systems and for cost recovery. If subsidies are provided, they should be focused on boosting on-farm investment in modern technology and equipment that will facilitate the re-allocation of water from low to high value uses.
Some of these involve traditional irrigation practices, water rights and scheme organisation. Increased competition from subsidised imports of meat and dairy products for urban consumers continues to impoverish small producers by pushing down prices. The process of changing farmer organisation into user and special-interest groups, and the strengthening of locally active NGOs, have been critical to the success of the whole programme.
Vegetables, oil crops and flowers may also be grown, often with protection (polythene tunnels) in order to access specialised markets in Northern Europe and elsewhere.
Connected with this, there is a place for the development of simple processing methods, direct marketing by producers, and storage facilities at strategic points. Farmer study tours and interregional workshops for farmers, researchers and extensionists could be valuable. Some of the more arid areas with lighter soils experience severe wind erosion problems during the dry season.
Participative, on-farm research related to crop-livestock integration, and to resource conservation with a focus on risk reduction and sustainability of systems, is likely to produce long-term benefits for the poor in these systems. Opportunistic ploughing of rainfed marginal areas may produce a few good harvests in the short term, but will, in the longer term, lead to erosion.
This will probably require formal contractual arrangements - between pastoralists and cultivators - concerning the kinds of interaction that are desirable from the perspectives of equity and environmental management. Box 3.13 contains a brief description of a case from Syria in which an area of degraded steppe has been rehabilitated through the introduction of native plant and animal species together with the revival of older community based management systems. In view of the interdependency of resource management systems, the neglect of one farming system could have a major impact on people dependent on other systems.
In the context of halving hunger and poverty and based on the above analysis of farming systems, the relative importance of five household strategies for escaping poverty are shown in Table 3.4.
The region was also a major area of innovation in agriculture between the 4th and 11th Century AD, when many new crops and technologies were introduced from the Far East.
In addition, the large-scale irrigated areas - which cover only 2 percent of total land area - include a further 17 percent of the agricultural population. In addition, the highly fragmented nature of many holdings leads to inefficient land management practices.
The Small-scale Irrigation Sub-System is not mapped due to its highly dispersed nature, but areas of substantial small-scale irrigation within other systems are indicated on the regional Map by hatching. The second sub-system is based primarily on the raising of livestock (mostly sheep) on communally managed lands. There is also some protected cropping5 with supplementary irrigation, for potatoes, vegetables and flowers.
In good years, rainfed barley is grown for grain, but when there is insufficient rainfall for adequate maturation, it is common for it to be fed as fodder to livestock. The boundary between pastoral grazing and sparse agriculture systems is indistinct and depends on climatic conditions.
Access to land will become increasingly difficult over the coming years - particularly for poorer people - and the expected increase in the cultivation of marginal land will lead to significant environmental degradation. The 20th Century saw the construction of several large dams to provide storage for large-scale perennial irrigation schemes covering many square kilometres. Overall irrigation water requirements are expected to grow by 14 percent and efficiency of water use is estimated to reach 65 percent. Conflicts over rates of water extraction are already becoming a major issue in and around centres of population, and these conflicts are expected to intensify in the future. In several cases, large-scale irrigation represents significant areas within the overall cropped area of the country (e.g. This could also represent an opportunity for those farmers who wish to become more involved in the tourism sector. More adaptive, systemic research is required, both agricultural and socio-economic, on crop-livestock integration and risk reduction, and the stability and sustainability of farming systems. Pastoralists keep mainly sheep in their herds and flocks, but many also have goats, donkeys and camels. If drought continues to the extent of rangeland desiccation, pastoralists abandon the area.
The natural vegetation on such land often constitutes the better quality rangeland available to the pastoralists.
The table indicates that, for the region as a whole, exit from agriculture is the most important of these strategies, followed by increased off-farm income. Markets are generally weak and many policies are geared toward urban needs - for the most part the provision of cheap food. In some cases, both the livestock and the people who control them are transhumant, migrating seasonally between lowland steppe in the more humid winter season and upland areas in the dry season. Common crops are wheat, barley, chickpeas, lentils, and the fodder crops - vetches and medics.
Where water is available, small areas of crop production have been developed to supplement the diets and income of pastoral families. More significantly, groundwater has been progressively used as a principal buffer for the reduction of hydrological risk.
There is a need to address the dearth of recent case studies on farming systems in this region. Among on-farm household improvement strategies, diversification and intensification are of equal importance, following closely behind off-farm income in the overall ranking. Cereal farmers and pastoralists are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of subsidies on imported grains. Poverty is moderate, but would be higher without extensive off-farm income from seasonal labour migration.
The development of higher value crops, such as fruits and vegetables, has been constrained not only by low rainfall, but also by relatively poor market linkages. This insurance function has now turned into dependency in many countries, as demand has outstripped the capacity of other sources. The development of effective farmer-participatory research methods and support to farmer-driven research activity, also merit a high priority. The animals are thereby pushed to less productive rangeland, which becomes further impoverished as a result. Poverty within this system is extensive, as markets are often distant, infrastructure is poorly developed and the degradation of natural resources is a serious problem.



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