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Saunzee Custom Displays  Leki trecking pole display exhibiting at trade show, Maple plywood and metalfree stand display, Moveable island display. Suffrage leader Lucy Burns (1879-1966) was imprisoned at the Occoquan Workhouse in Virginia, probably in November 1917, after she and others were arrested for picketing the White House in support of a federal amendment granting women the right to vote. On Election Day in 1920, millions of American women exercised their right to vote for the first time. During the 1850s, the women’s rights movement gathered steam, but lost momentum when the Civil War began. Others argued that it was unfair to endanger black enfranchisement by tying it to the markedly less popular campaign for female suffrage.
This animosity eventually faded, and in 1890 the two groups merged to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association.
Starting in 1910, some states in the West began to extend the vote to women for the first time in almost 20 years. World War I slowed the suffragists’ campaign but helped them advance their argument nonetheless: Women’s work on behalf of the war effort, activists pointed out, proved that they were just as patriotic and deserving of citizenship as men, and on August 26, 1920, the 19th Amendment to the Constitution was finally ratified. If you completed your subscription and still have not received an email, please contact us.
Spamming, and check out Spamming on Wikipedia, Youtube, Google News, Google Books, and Twitter on Digplanet.
Electronic spamming is the use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited messages (spam), especially advertising, as well as sending messages repeatedly on the same site.
Spamming remains economically viable because advertisers have no operating costs beyond the management of their mailing lists, servers, infrastructures, IP ranges, and domain names, and it is difficult to hold senders accountable for their mass mailings.
The term spam is derived from the 1970 Spam sketch of the BBC television comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus.[5] The sketch is set in a cafe where nearly every item on the menu includes Spam canned luncheon meat. It later came to be used on Usenet to mean excessive multiple postinga€”the repeated posting of the same message. In the late 19th Century Western Union allowed telegraphic messages on its network to be sent to multiple destinations. Earliest documented spam (although the term had not yet been coined[14]) was a message advertising the availability of a new model of Digital Equipment Corporation computers sent by Gary Thuerk to 393 recipients on ARPANET in 1978.[10] Rather than send a separate message to each person, which was the standard practice at the time, he had an assistant, Carl Gartley, write a single mass email. Spamming had been practiced as a prank by participants in multi-user dungeon games, to fill their rivals' accounts with unwanted electronic junk.[16] The first known electronic chain letter, titled Make Money Fast, was released in 1988. The first major commercial spam incident started on March 5, 1994, when a husband and wife team of lawyers, Laurence Canter and Martha Siegel, began using bulk Usenet posting to advertise immigration law services. Email spam, also known as unsolicited bulk email (UBE), junk mail, or unsolicited commercial email (UCE), is the practice of sending unwanted email messages, frequently with commercial content, in large quantities to an indiscriminate set of recipients. Increasingly, e-mail spam today is sent via "zombie networks", networks of virus- or worm-infected personal computers in homes and offices around the globe. An industry of email address harvesting is dedicated to collecting email addresses and selling compiled databases.[20] Some of these address-harvesting approaches rely on users not reading the fine print of agreements, resulting in their agreeing to send messages indiscriminately to their contacts. Despite the high number of phone users, there has not been so much phone spam, because there is a charge for sending SMS, and installing trojans into other's phones that send spam (common for e-mail spam) is hard because applications normally must be downloaded from a central database. Spreading beyond the centrally managed social networking platforms, user-generated content increasingly appears on business, government, and nonprofit websites worldwide. Many online games allow players to contact each other via player-to-player messaging, chat rooms, or public discussion areas. Spamdexing (a portmanteau of spamming and indexing) refers to a practice on the World Wide Web of modifying HTML pages to increase their chances of high placement on search engine relevancy lists. Screenshot from a spam video on YouTube claiming that the film in question has been deleted from the site, and can only be accessed on the link posted by the spambot in the video description (if the video were actually removed by YouTube, the description would be inaccessible, and the deletion notification would look different). Yet another kind is actual video spam, giving the uploaded movie a name and description with a popular figure or event that is likely to draw attention, or within the video has a certain image timed to come up as the video's thumbnail image to mislead the viewer, such as a still image from a feature film, purporting to be a part-by-part piece of a movie being pirated, e.g. SPIT (SPam over Internet Telephony) is VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) spam, usually using SIP (Session Initiation Protocol). Academic search engines enable researchers to find academic literature and are used to obtain citation data for calculating performance metrics such as the H-index and impact factor.
Hormel Foods Corporation, the maker of SPAM luncheon meat, does not object to the Internet use of the term "spamming". Hormel also made two attempts that were dismissed in 2005 to revoke the marks "SPAMBUSTER"[36] and Spam Cube.[37] Hormel's corporate attorney Melanie J. In addition, spam has costs stemming from the kinds of spam messages sent, from the ways spammers send them, and from the arms race between spammers and those who try to stop or control spam.
The costs of spam also include the collateral costs of the struggle between spammers and the administrators and users of the media threatened by spamming.[43] Many users are bothered by spam because it impinges upon the amount of time they spend reading their email.
Email spam exemplifies a tragedy of the commons: spammers use resources (both physical and human), without bearing the entire cost of those resources.
In all cases listed above, including both commercial and non-commercial, "spam happens" because of a positive cost-benefit analysis result; if the cost to recipients is excluded as an externality the spammer can avoid paying. Transaction cost: The incremental cost of contacting each additional recipient once a method of spamming is constructed, multiplied by the number of recipients (see CAPTCHA as a method of increasing transaction costs).
Benefit is the total expected profit from spam, which may include any combination of the commercial and non-commercial reasons listed above. In an attempt to assess potential legal and technical strategies for stopping illegal spam, a study from the University of California, San Diego, and the University of California, Berkeley, "Click Trajectories: End-to-End Analysis of the Spam Value Chain", cataloged three months of online spam data and researched website naming and hosting infrastructures. One of the chief values favored by many long-time Internet users and experts, as well as by many members of the public, is the free exchange of ideas. An ongoing concern expressed by parties such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the American Civil Liberties Union has to do with so-called "stealth blocking", a term for ISPs employing aggressive spam blocking without their users' knowledge. Some see spam-blocking tools as a threat to free expressiona€”and laws against spamming as an untoward precedent for regulation or taxation of e-mail and the Internet at large. In November 2004, Lycos Europe released a screen saver called make LOVE not SPAM that made Distributed Denial of Service attacks on the spammers themselves. Anti-spam policies may also be a form of disguised censorship, a way to ban access or reference to questioning alternative forums or blogs by an institution.
Sanford Wallace and Cyber Promotions were the target of a string of lawsuits, many of which were settled out of court, up through a 1998 Earthlink settlement[citation needed] that put Cyber Promotions out of business. In 2007, Robert Soloway lost a case in a federal court against the operator of a small Oklahoma-based Internet service provider who accused him of spamming. In June 2007, two men were convicted of eight counts stemming from sending millions of e-mail spam messages that included hardcore pornographic images. Edna Fiedler, 44, of Olympia, Washington, on June 25, 2008, pleaded guilty in a Tacoma court and was sentenced to 2 years imprisonment and 5 years of supervised release or probation in an Internet $1 million "Nigerian check scam." She conspired to commit bank, wire and mail fraud, against US citizens, specifically using Internet by having had an accomplice who shipped counterfeit checks and money orders to her from Lagos, Nigeria, the previous November. Despite the statutory tort that is created by the Regulations implementing the EC Directive, few other people have followed their example. In October 2008, a vast international internet spam operation run from New Zealand was cited by American authorities as one of the worlda€™s largest, and for a time responsible for up to a third of all unwanted e-mails. While most countries either outlaw or at least ignore spam, Bulgaria is the first and until now[when?] only one[citation needed]to legalize it.

It took activists and reformers nearly 100 years to win that right, and the campaign was not easy: Disagreements over strategy threatened to cripple the movement more than once. During the 1820s and 30s, most states had extended the franchise to all white men, regardless of how much money or property they had.
Almost immediately after the war ended, the 14th and 15th Amendments to the Constitution raised familiar questions of suffrage and citizenship. Anthony, believed that this was their chance to push lawmakers for truly universal suffrage. This pro-15th-Amendment faction formed a group called the American Woman Suffrage Association and fought for the franchise on a state-by-state basis.
While the most widely recognized form of spam is email spam, the term is applied to similar abuses in other media: instant messaging spam, Usenet newsgroup spam, Web search engine spam, spam in blogs, wiki spam, online classified ads spam, mobile phone messaging spam, Internet forum spam, junk fax transmissions, social spam, spam mobile apps,[1] television advertising and file sharing spam.
Because the barrier to entry is so low, spammers are numerous, and the volume of unsolicited mail has become very high. As the waiter recites the Spam-filled menu, a chorus of Viking patrons drowns out all conversations with a song repeating "Spam, Spam, Spam, Spama€¦ lovely Spam!
The unwanted message would appear in many, if not all newsgroups, just as Spam appeared in nearly all the menu items in the Monty Python sketch. Messages that were crossposted to too many newsgroups at once a€“ as opposed to those that were posted too frequently a€“ were called velveeta (after a cheese product).
The incident was commonly termed the "Green Card spam", after the subject line of the postings. Spam in email started to become a problem when the Internet was opened up to the general public in the mid-1990s. Many modern worms install a backdoor that allows the spammer to access the computer and use it for malicious purposes.
Although less ubiquitous than its e-mail counterpart, according to a report from Ferris Research, 500 million spam IMs were sent in 2003, twice the level of 2002. This can be especially irritating to customers not only for the inconvenience, but also because of the fee they may be charged per text message received in some markets. Fake accounts and comments planted by computers programmed to issue social spam can infiltrate these websites.[25] Well-meaning and malicious human users can break websites' policies by submitting profanity,[26] insults,[27] hate speech, and violent messages. What qualifies as spam varies from game to game, but usually this term applies to all forms of message flooding, violating the terms of service contract for the website. These sites use "black-hat" search engine optimization techniques to deliberately manipulate their rank in search engines. In 2003, this type of spam took advantage of the open nature of comments in the blogging software Movable Type by repeatedly placing comments to various blog posts that provided nothing more than a link to the spammer's commercial web site.[28] Similar attacks are often performed against wikis and guestbooks, both of which accept user contributions. The most common technique involves spammers (or spambots) posting links to sites, most likely pornographic or dealing with online dating, on the comments section of random videos or user profiles. However, they did ask that the capitalized word "Spam" be reserved to refer to their product and trademark.[34] By and large, this request is obeyed in forums that discuss spam.
Attorney Derek Newman responded on behalf of SpamArrest: "Spam has become ubiquitous throughout the [w]orld to describe unsolicited commercial email. In addition, there are the opportunity cost of those who forgo the use of spam-afflicted systems. Because spamming contravenes the vast majority of ISPs' acceptable-use policies, most spammers have for many years gone to some trouble to conceal the origins of their spam. Many also find the content of spam frequently offensive, in that pornography is one of the most frequently advertised products.
Also, spammers may target different networks to different extents, depending on how successful they are at attacking the target. It is normally linear, based on the incremental benefit of reaching each additional spam recipient, combined with the conversion rate.
In 2004, the seized Porsche of an indicted spammer was advertised on the Internet;[50] this revealed the extent of the financial rewards available to those who are willing to commit duplicitous acts online. These groups' concern is that ISPs or technicians seeking to reduce spam-related costs may select tools that (either through error or design) also block non-spam e-mail from sites seen as "spam-friendly". Even though it is possible in some jurisdictions to treat some spam as unlawful merely by applying existing laws against trespass and conversion, some laws specifically targeting spam have been proposed.
Attorney Laurence Canter was disbarred by the Tennessee Supreme Court in 1997 for sending prodigious amounts of spam advertising his immigration law practice.
Fiedler shipped out $609,000 fake check and money orders when arrested and prepared to send additional $1.1 million counterfeit materials. As the Courts engage in active case management, such cases would probably now be expected to be settled by mediation and payment of nominal damages. In a statement the US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) named Christchurcha€™s Lance Atkinson as one of the principals of the operation.
But on August 26, 1920, the 19th Amendment to the Constitution was finally ratified, enfranchising all American women and declaring for the first time that they, like men, deserve all the rights and responsibilities of citizenship. At the same time, all sorts of reform groups were proliferating across the United States–temperance clubs, religious movements and moral-reform societies, anti-slavery organizations–and in many of these, women played a prominent role. As a result, they refused to support the 15th Amendment and even allied with racist Southerners who argued that white women’s votes could be used to neutralize those cast by African-Americans. Instead of arguing that women deserved the same rights and responsibilities as men because women and men were “created equal,” the new generation of activists argued that women deserved the vote because they were different from men. In 1916, NAWSA president Carrie Chapman Catt unveiled what she called a “Winning Plan” to get the vote at last: a blitz campaign that mobilized state and local suffrage organizations all over the country, with special focus on those recalcitrant regions. This was used as a tactic by insiders of a group that wanted to drive newcomers out of the room so the usual conversation could continue. It grew exponentially over the following years, and today composes some 80 to 85 percent of all the e-mail in the World, by a "conservative estimate".[18] Pressure to make email spam illegal has been successful in some jurisdictions, but less so in others. This complicates attempts to control the spread of spam, as in many cases the spam does not obviously originate from the spammer.
As instant messaging tends to not be blocked by firewalls, it is an especially useful channel for spammers. Usenet convention defines spamming as excessive multiple posting, that is, the repeated posting of a message (or substantially similar messages). Most forum spam consists of links to external sites, with the dual goals of increasing search engine visibility in highly competitive areas such as weight loss, pharmaceuticals, gambling, pornography, real estate or loans, and generating more traffic for these commercial websites. This is particularly common in MMORPGs where the spammers are trying to sell game-related "items" for real-world money, chiefly among them being in-game currency.
Many modern search engines modified their search algorithms to try to exclude web pages utilizing spamdexing tactics. Another possible form of spam in blogs is the spamming of a certain tag on websites such as Tumblr. When the user chooses to receive the spam call, a pre-recorded spam message or advertisement is usually played back. There are the direct costs, as well as the indirect costs borne by the victimsa€”both those related to the spamming itself, and to other crimes that usually accompany it, such as financial theft, identity theft, data and intellectual property theft, virus and other malware infection, child pornography, fraud, and deceptive marketing.

Email, Usenet, and instant-message spam are often sent through insecure proxy servers belonging to unwilling third parties. Spammers send their spam largely indiscriminately, so pornographic ads may show up in a work place email inboxa€”or a child's, the latter of which is illegal in many jurisdictions. Thus considerable resources are employed to actually measure the amount of spam generated by a single person or group. In 2004, United States passed the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 that provided ISPs with tools to combat spam. In 2005, Jason Smathers, a former America Online employee, pled guilty to charges of violating the CAN-SPAM Act. It is the largest amount awarded in compensation in the United Kingdom since Roberts v Media Logistics case in 2005.
New Zealanda€™s Internal Affairs announced it had lodged a $200,000 claim in the High Court against Atkinson and his brother Shane Atkinson and courier Roland Smits, after raids in Christchurch.
Meanwhile, many American women were beginning to chafe against what historians have called the “Cult of True Womanhood”: that is, the idea that the only “true” woman was a pious, submissive wife and mother concerned exclusively with home and family. The so-called Equal Rights Amendment has never been ratified.In 1848, a group of abolitionist activists–mostly women, but some men–gathered in Seneca Falls, New York to discuss the problem of women’s rights.
In 1869, this faction formed a group called the National Woman Suffrage Association and began to fight for a universal-suffrage amendment to the federal Constitution.
The costs, such as lost productivity and fraud, are borne by the public and by Internet service providers, which have been forced to add extra capacity to cope with the deluge. Spam captured a large slice of the British market within lower economic classes and became a byword among British children of the 1960s[citation needed] for low-grade fodder due to its commonality, monotonous taste and cheap price a€” hence the humour of the Python sketch. The efforts taken by governing bodies, security systems and email service providers seem to be helping to reduce the onslaught of email spam. In November 2008 an ISP, McColo, which was providing service to botnet operators, was depeered and spam dropped 50 to 75 percent Internet-wide. The prevalence of Usenet spam led to the development of the Breidbart Index as an objective measure of a message's "spamminess". Some of these links contain code to track the spambot's identity; if a sale goes through, the spammer behind the spambot works on commission.
To comply with CAN-SPAM regulations in the US, SMS messages now must provide options of HELP and STOP, the latter to end communication with the advertiser via SMS altogether. In gameplay terms, spamming also refers to the repetitive use of the same combat skills as a cheap tactic (e.g.
For example, the search bots will detect repeated keywords as spamming by using a grammar analysis.
Another frequently used technique is using bots to post messages on random users' profiles to a spam account's channel page, along with enticing text and images, usually of a sexually suggestive nature. This is generally easier for the spammer as VoIP services are cheap and easy to anonymize over the Internet, and there are many options for sending mass amounts of calls from a single location. SpamArrest, Hormel attempted to assert its trademark rights against SpamArrest, a software company, from using the mark "spam", since Hormel owns the trademark.
Spammers frequently use false names, addresses, phone numbers, and other contact information to set up "disposable" accounts at various Internet service providers. In some ways spam is even a potential threat to the entire email system, as operated in the past. For example, victims that use common anti-spam hardware, software or services provide opportunities for such tracking. Thompson granted a motion by plaintiff Robert Braver for a default judgment and permanent injunction against him.
This marked the first prosecution since the Unsolicited Electronic Messages Act (UEMA) was passed in September 2007. Put together, all of these contributed to a new way of thinking about what it meant to be a woman and a citizen in the United States. According to "2014 Internet Security Threat Report, Volume 19" published by Symantec Corporation, spam volume dropped to 66% of all email traffic.[19] Spammers take advantage of this fact,[clarification needed] and frequently outsource parts of their operations to countries where spamming will not get them into legal trouble. At the same time, it is becoming clear that malware authors, spammers, and phishers are learning from each other, and possibly forming various kinds of partnerships. If a website owner is found to have spammed the webpage to falsely increase its page rank, the website may be penalized by search engines. Accounts or IP addresses being used for VoIP spam can usually be identified by a large number of outgoing calls, low call completion and short call length. In a dilution claim, Hormel argued that SpamArrest's use of the term "spam" had endangered and damaged "substantial goodwill and good reputation" in connection with its trademarked lunch meat and related products. In some cases, they have used falsified or stolen credit card numbers to pay for these accounts. Since email is so cheap to send, a tiny number of spammers can saturate the Internet with junk mail. The FTC said it had received more than three million complaints about spam messages connected to this operation, and estimated that it may be responsible for sending billions of illegal spam messages.
The main purpose of these accounts is to draw people to the link in the home page section of their profile. Hormel also asserted that SpamArrest's name so closely resembles its luncheon meat that the public might become confused, or might think that Hormel endorses SpamArrest's products.
This allows them to quickly move from one account to the next as each one is discovered and shut down by the host ISPs.
Although only a tiny percentage of their targets are motivated to purchase their products (or fall victim to their scams), the low cost may provide a sufficient conversion rate to keep the spamming alive.
The trial, which began on June 5, was the first to include charges under the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, according to a release from the Department of Justice. Furthermore, even though spam appears not to be economically viable as a way for a reputable company to do business, it suffices for professional spammers to convince a tiny proportion of gullible advertisers that it is viable for those spammers to stay in business. In addition, YouTube has implemented a CAPTCHA system that makes rapid posting of repeated comments much more difficult than before, because of abuse in the past by mass spammers who would flood individuals' profiles with thousands of repetitive comments. Finally, new spammers go into business every day, and the low costs allow a single spammer to do a lot of harm before finally realizing that the business is not profitable.
Indeed, the law was supported by some spammers and organizations that support spamming, and opposed by many in the anti-spam community. Examples of effective anti-abuse laws that respect free speech rights include those in the U.S.

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