Do you want better results, smarter savings and bigger thinking from an advertising agency? An advertising agency invoice is a bill or invoice which is handed over by an advertising agency to a client or customer who has availed some of the services. An advertising agency invoice template is a ready to use document which can be customized and changed into an advertising agency invoice by anyone. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book.
PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. DonorsChoose.org helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. Advertising is in trouble only if you think of the narrow box advertising has traditionally been in, which is getting on TV or in print.
Define the various types of advertising and promotion agencies employ in todaya€™s marketplace. Hammers and screwdrivers did the trick for years, but today marketing communications professionals have a whole new box of power tools. Agencies and their clients sorted madly through the box for the past decade as they tried to find the most effective tools for the job. Fifteen years ago, we defined advertising agencies by the essential tools they used: television commercials, radio spots, billboards, print ads. Before we see how things are changing, leta€™s back up and start with a traditional definition: AdvertisingNonpersonal communication from an identified sponsor intended to inform consumers or persuade or remind them to buy a certain product or service. Advertising is nonpersonal communication: The message gets delivered through one or more forms of paid mass media such as television or billboards.
Advertising comes from an identified sponsor: Whether or not we pay attention to the message, we know who sent it. Advertising informs: Some messages try to make consumers aware of a product, service, or specific brand. Advertising persuades: Some messages try to change our opinion or motivate us to take action.
Advertising reminds: Some messages try to encourage us to keep buying what we already like and use.
Later wea€™ll talk about other kinds of marketing communication (such as sales promotions) and see how they differ from advertising. In addition, ita€™s no longer necessarily crystal clear just who (if anyone) is the sponsor of a message.
However, these innovative (and sort of scary) techniques remain in the minority of advertising effortsa€”at least for now.
Despite conventional definitions and expectations, we need to understand that advertising isna€™t just about ads. There is a fundamental change in the advertising vehicles themselves as media and technology converge.
It didna€™t take long for some forward-thinking marketers to ask how they could use blogs for their own purposes. Like many marketers now, they battle twin fears: being late to the game and lacking the proper skills required to play. A word of caution: in a business like advertising that prides itself on cultural currency, there is always a temptation to choose interactive solutions solely because you can. Ita€™s time to take a step back and first learn a bit about where advertising came from and how many organizations still do it today. Advertising has been with us since the days of ancient Greece, when announcements were etched on stone tablets or shouted by town criers. Technologies enabled mass production of consumer goods, which meant that companies could grow to a larger size and make many more products efficiently.
Railroads linked the nation and provided a way to get newspapers and mass-produced products into towns across America. Early examples of mass media include the New York Times, which published its first issue in 1851 (it was then called the New-York Daily Times). Capitalism also fueled advertising as it created a growing middle class that could afford to buy an array of consumer products.
In addition to holograms, take a look at all the media channels available to advertisers today.
Print advertisingPlacement of ads in newspapers, magazines, the Yellow Pages, and classified columns. Direct mailAdvertising sent directly to peoplea€™s homes through brochures, letters, and catalogs. We subdivide television (TV)Communications medium that allows viewers to see and hear a program; television became widely available in the 1940s and now includes major networks, independent stations, cable, broadband, and satellite.
RadioThe first broadcast medium, bringing free advertising to American homes from the 1920s onward, which transmits sound through airwaves. Also known as out-of-home advertising, outdoor advertisingAlso known as out-of-home advertising, outdoor advertising includes billboards on roadsides and posters on transit (buses, subways, rail, airports, trucks, and taxis), at gas pumps, and on park benches. Point-of-purchase (POP) displaysDisplays next to cash registers or elsewhere in retail environmentsa€”we often find them at the point where customers are ready to buy. Pop-ups, pop-unders, banners, and text ads associated with Web pages provide targeted online advertisingPop-ups, pop-unders, banners, and text ads associated with Web pages. Check out some online ads for packaged goods companies like General Mills and Kraft to see how theya€™re making this transition from traditional media.
Sales promotionsA basic tool in the promotional mix; any activity intended to produce short-term change in behavior, including limited-time incentives for consumers and for trade partners. Specialty advertisingGiving away merchandise to promote awareness of a company at trade shows or conferences or in mail campaigns. These days, many advertisers strive to get consumers to help get the word out about a product or service. Ad agencies are well aware that many consumers watch TV with their TiVo firmly in hand, ready to skip through their wonderful ads. Ad-supported contentContent that advertisers explicitly create or modify to feature products or services. Wea€™ve seen that advertisers have many, many more weapons in their arsenal than they used to.
It is said that the true rise of advertising coincided with the Industrial Revolution for three reasons. Marketing: Typically when people hear the word marketing they think it means either advertising or selling. According to the American Marketing Association, a€?MarketingThe processes involved in creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value.
And the process is in many ways the same regardless of what the transaction is abouta€”whether ita€™s a can of peas, a reggae concert, a blood drive, or a political campaign. ProductA good, service, or idea that can be marketed., broadly defined, is a good, service, or idea. Ita€™s important to remember that the product you sell is a lot more than the physical item the company manufactures. CREDO Mobile, an SS+K client, includes a distinctive logo and design on its phones as part of its product strategy.
PackagingAn augmented product that provides value in terms of storing a product and allowing it to be transported safely and that makes a product visually distinctive to customers. Every product requires a channel of distributionA series of firms or individuals that facilitate the movement of the product from the producer to the final consumer.a€”a series of firms or individuals that facilitate the movement of the product from the producer to the final consumer. An indirect channelA channel of distribution that includes one or more intermediaries, such as wholesalers, agents, brokers, or retailers., by contrast, includes one or more intermediariesa€”such as wholesalers, agents, brokers, or retailersa€”who help move the product from the manufacturer to the consumer.
Today, news is ubiquitous, and most peoplea€™s preferred mode of delivery no longer includes a bicycle and a strong throwing arm. In addition to the list price, producers may offer discounts and allowances to its channel partnersa€”the firms or individuals in its channel of distribution. CREDO Mobile pricing chart allows consumers to easily compare their offerings to competitors.
Last but definitely not least, the final P is for promotionAll the activities that inform and encourage consumers to buy a given product., which refers to all the activities that inform and encourage consumers to buy a given product.
We call a promotional effort aimed at the final customer a promotional pull strategyPromotional effort aimed at the final customer..
A sales promotion is a time-based strategy to stimulate consumer demand for a product or service. Marketers look not only at each of the four Ps individually, but also at the interaction of product, price, promotion, and place. A new experiment Microsoft Corporation is running illustrates how different elements of the marketing mix can work together. The marketing process attempts to create value for all parties involved to satisfy everyonea€™s needs.
Demonstrate the differences between a a€?needa€? and a a€?benefit.a€? How are these concepts used to build the marketing concept?
Identify three types of advertising agencies and discuss when each type of advertising agency might be appropriate for an advertising client. Some agencies focus on one aspect of the creative process, such as creative production work or media buying.
Some companies prefer to retain control over advertising and set up in-house agenciesAgencies set up within the corporation, typically run by an advertising director who chooses which services to buy and which to perform internally. There are a few holding companies that own a number of agencies to create a network of agencies that can work together in the network.
In addition to the types of agencies, there is also the role that the agency plays in the clienta€™s business.
The traditional approach to farm out different functions may change if some big clients get their way.
P&G reacted to this problem when it shifted all its ad and marketing duties for its Oral B brand to a newly created team at Publicis Groupe that will not work on any other brands. Historically, an agency receives a commission or percentage of the cost of the media it buys for the client.
Here is an example of how agency compensation works for a single commercial during the Super Bowl. The straight 15 percent commission is still used in some cases, but some agencies charge less than 15 percent, or have sliding scales based on how much the client spends (the more money spent, the lower the percentage fee).
Government and social organizationsLocal, state, and federal governments and their specialized offices like tourism boards, and social organizations from national groups like the United Way to local hiking clubs. Account managersAgency executives who work with clients to develop the complete promotion plan. On the market research side, account plannersAgency employees who work with clients to obtain or conduct market research that will help clients understand their markets and audiences.
Creative services staffAgency employees such as art directors or copywriters who work with clients to develop concepts and messages. Art studios and design firmsAncillary companies that support ad agencies by creating a clienta€™s logo, stationery, business cards, and packaging design for products. Web designersAncillary companies that support ad agencies by creating Internet media for advertising.
PrintersAncillary companies that support ad agencies by producing printed material for a variety of media channels.
Sales promotion agenciesAncillary companies that support ad agencies by handling sales promotions such as price discounts, sampling, rebates, premiums, trade shows, in-store merchandising, and point-of-purchase displays. Research companiesAncillary companies that support ad agencies by assessing channel viewership, ad response, consumer attitudes, and trends.


If youa€™re interested in advertising, you can work at an ad agency, at an advertising client (manufacturer, trade reseller or service firm), or in the media. Account managersAgency employees who act as the clienta€™s representative, getting the best work from the agency while still generating a profit for the agency. Media planners gather information about peoplea€™s viewing or reading habits and combine it with information about specific media vehicles (such as a specific magazinea€™s target audience, circulation size, and advertising space costs) in order to find the best placement for the advertising. Market researchersEmployees who learn all they can about the target customer by using focus groups and interviews, test reactions to campaigns, and secondary information. Advertising jobs in the media include the advertising directorEmployee in a media company who heads the advertising sales department and oversees advertising rate policies, promotion, and the sales staff, including sales planners and sales reps., who heads the advertising sales department and oversees advertising rate policies, promotion, and the sales staff, including sales planners and sales reps.
Within a company, the jobs of the advertising department typically parallel those in ad agencies, but there is an additional category: brand manager. The advertising industry is complex, and many different types of skills are required to create a successful ad campaign.
What type of advertising agency would a marketer be most likely to choose if that marketer wanted to introduce a new product on a nationwide scale? Pick one of the careers mentioned in the chapter and describe how you could get more information on the career, find potential employers, and secure an interview. AnswerFar be it from me to say that there is a right or wrong way of doing it but what I see from your sample it is very much the same as what we do.
The retainer invoice goes out mid month - (in your example June 1 - I trust to allow for 30 day terms). We like to maintain a running total at the end of the BCR to indicate what is left in the annual budget. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms.
However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. They understand that advertising is a key driver of popular culture in addition to just reflecting what is going on in our world. But today traditional advertising approaches, even in the hands of our most skilled and lauded practitioners, are no longer good enough. You wona€™t choose a specific MP3 player until you know what it is and believe ita€™s better than listening to music on a CD player. You might decide to buy a Toyota Scion after you see a cool ad for it while youa€™re watching American Idol.
For now, suffice it to say that the lines are blurring and the tried and true is no longer so true.
For example, wea€™ll learn later about some guerrilla marketingA tool in the promotional mix in which public relations professionals stage an event to a€?ambusha€? consumers with messages in places theya€™re not expecting to encounter them. The reality is that most advertising agencies (and their clients) have been sleeping with their eyes open.
They no longer have the luxury of telling you only what they want you to know about their brand. However, as recently as 2006 a poll showed just how far most Fortune 1000 executives have to go to catch up with the consumers with whom they hope to engage in dialogue. The danger is in choosing nontraditional routes uncritically because they have the cachet of being on the a€?bleeding edge.a€? According to Marc Schiller, chief executive of the digital-marketing shop Electric Artists, a€?There is always this pressure of saying we werena€™t early enough on MySpace. Sometimes, however, the best answer to a marketing problem is as low-tech and simple as the vivid yellow LIVESTRONG bands on your friendsa€™ wrists. Colonial Americans saw ads on posters and in newspapersa€”the first newspaper ad was for real estate and appeared in 1704.
The invention of the rotary press in 1859 and the process of making paper from wood pulp developed in 1866 enabled mass production of newspapers, which in turn provided the medium to distribute ads to more people.
Soon the proliferation of mass-distributed consumer goods sparked the rise of the advertising profession. Consider Targeta€™s recent ads that entertained passersby at New Yorka€™s Grand Central Station.
Radio can be local or network., which was the first broadcast medium (bringing free advertising to American homes from the 1920s onward), can be local or network.
For example, General Mills spends about double on online advertising what it laid out just one or two years ago, while Kraft reports similar numbers. The reason is simple: people trust the recommendations of others more than they trust paid advertising.
Is buzz truly more effective than a glitzy ad with a highly paid celebrity who tells you to use a companya€™s product or service? With all of these exciting options available, ita€™s tempting to conclude that traditional methods like a TV commercial or a magazine space ad are history. Ita€™s true that fewer people may be watching TV, especially the major networks, but TV is still the medium that reaches the greatest number of people at the same time. As technologies develop and competition for consumersa€™ attention increases, advertisers need to keep alert to new media formats in addition to relying on the traditional platforms theya€™ve used for many years. We call this toolbox the marketing mixThe tools the organization uses to create a desired response among a set of predefined consumers., which consists of the tools the organization uses to create a desired response among a set of predefined consumers. Marketing strives to make an offering available at a time and location desirable to the customer.
The producer may offer each channel partner a different price if they buy in different quantities or if the deal includes cooperative advertisingStrategy in which two or more channel partners agree to promote a product jointly., where two or more channel partners agree to pitch in to promote a product. The key distinction is that CREDO Mobile and their customers donate part of their bills and profits to progressive causes of their choice. This allows consumers to purchase products, such as new cars, that they otherwise would be unable to afford.
This includes print and broadcast ads, coupons, billboards, personal sales, and online sales.
The goal is to convince the customers that they want a product, in order to create a a€?pulla€? demand in which the customer goes to a store and asks for the product by name. Manufacturers often develop programs designed to motivate channel members to stock certain products. SS+Ka€™s client CREDO Mobile sponsored a promotion to entice customers to give up their current phone service and switch to CREDO. They fine-tune and adjust each to meet the needs of the market and create the best outcome for the company. The company is testing a grocery carta€“mounted console that helps shoppers find products in the store, then scan and pay for their items without waiting in the checkout line. Each type has its advantages and disadvantages, depending on the clienta€™s needs and budget and the marketing problem the client is aiming to solve. They refer to themselves as specialized agenciesAgencies that focus on one aspect of the creative process, such as media or interactive.. The two main reasons are to save the company money and to give the company greater control over the entire process. Omnicom Group, WPP, Interpublic Group, MDC Partners are the biggest media holding companies. Johnson & Johnson and Dell are but two of several major advertisers that are dissatisfied with this strategy. Traditionally, mass media has paid advertising agencies a 15 percent commission on all business brought to them. Some agencies offer flat-fee arrangements that clients and the agency agree upon, while others charge on an hourly basis. Some even use performance feesA system of payment in which the agencya€™s fee depends on the success of the campaign., in which the agencya€™s fee depends on the success of the campaign.
Art directorsThe chief designer of the ad, responsible for using principles of design to create the ada€™s visuals and unify its elements and for deciding how the message will communicate the desired mood, product qualities, and psychological appeals. They use their judgment to balance reaching the greatest number of people in the target group versus keeping the clienta€™s costs to a minimum. Brand managersEmployees of a company that produces goods or services to be advertised, who are responsible for all the advertising and marketing for their product or brand. Career possibilities abound for people who are artistic, good at writing, analytical, and creative. At the end of each month we will provide the BCR report which shows the breakdown of what has bill invoiced and what work has been done on a monthly and annual basis. We offer an in-house creative department, production department, plus media strategy, media placement and monitoring with a dedicated analytics department. A sample of an advertising agency invoice template is given below and can be used for reference. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (8 MB) or just this chapter (683 KB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline).
Think about Burger King, for example: How does a company that sells dead meat sandwiches and strips of deep-fried potatoes dig its way deep into popular consciousness and (dare we say it?) actually become cool?
For example, while ita€™s mostly accurate to say that advertising comes from nonpersonal communications sources, today some companies recruit a€?brand ambassadorsa€? who literally become walking billboards for their brands.
By emphasizing the visual and experiential, todaya€™s advertising messages are difficult to analyze critically. Ivory Soap followed in 1879, and in 1888 Eastman began advertising the first hand-held Kodak cameras. As competing manufacturers grew and more products were available on the market, the need to distinguish onea€™s products from the rest of the pack created a need for professional advertising agents, and advertising grew from an emerging to a legitimate profession. Some media analysts believe the pattern of Web spending will mimic what they saw in earlier times with spending on broadcast and cable TVa€”both media benefited from huge growth once they reached a tipping point in terms of consumer adoption.
These activities range from coupons that we receive in our newspapers to contests and sweepstakes to sales competitions a company might host for its own employees. These include coffee mugs, pens, jackets, and many items that are usually imprinted with a companya€™s name, logo, or slogan and given away at trade shows or conferences or in mail campaigns.
Almost 90 percent of people say they trust recommendations from consumers compared to less than 50 percent who trust radio ads and less than 10 percent who say they trust online banner ads.Forrester Research Inc. Advertisers lose a lot of sleep worrying about how to get their clientsa€™ brands noticed in this ad-hostile environment.
The trend toward integrating advertising messages with program content continues to accelerate, and new variations appear all the time. Ita€™s just marketing.a€? In reality, marketing relates to both advertising and selling, but ita€™s not the same thing as either term. Thata€™s a pretty long-winded definitiona€”but when you boil it down, it basically means that marketing is about all parties to a transaction walking away with something of value. These tools include the product itself, the price of the product, the promotional activities that introduce it to consumers, and the places where it is available.
These augmented products include components like a warranty for a vacuum cleaner, the soft drinks an airline serves, and the instructions (maybe even written in English) that come with your new camera.
This short producer-to-consumer channel is called a direct channelA channel of distribution consisting of a producer and the customer.
Ita€™s easy and fast to find coverage of the same story from a variety of sources and to tailor news supply from providers for the types of information we want to see. For example, a candy company and a grocery store might agree to share the cost of a Halloween newspaper circular that includes an advertisement featuring party ideas and coupons for trick-or-treaters.
In some cases, a seller may offer credit incentives to encourage consumers to buy big-ticket items.
This P is so important that, believe it or not, entire textbooks have been written about it.
Stores that do not already carry the product may be motivated to carry it in order to satisfy customer demand.
Such a program is called a promotional push strategyPromotional programs designed to motivate channel members to stock certain products.. This includes planning, creating, producing, and placing the ads, as well as research before the campaign and evaluation after it to assess the campaigna€™s effectiveness.


Some examples will include a company that specializes in media planning and buying, such as The Media Kitchen or Greater Than One. An advertising director typically runs the in-house agency; she chooses which services to buy and which to perform internally. In addition, internal employees may have a deeper understanding of the company and its customers than would an outside agency. As clients may work with many different agencies for their various needs, the agency of recordAgency that has the closest relationship with the marketer in terms of strategy and spending. More specifically, they join Procter & Gamble and others to call for more collaboration between the people who do the consumer research and the people who actually create the ads. The commission covers the agencya€™s copywriting, art direction, and account service charges.
The client and the agency define what they mean by a€?successa€? at the start; they might measure this by looking at how well consumers recall the ads or might measure actual product sales.
Account managers must be good at working with people and acting as leaders or strategists to communicate the clienta€™s needs to the agency team. They use focus groups and one-on-one interviews, test reactions to campaigns, and purchase secondary information (such as the total market size in a given location).
We have produced award-winning, high-performance TV commercials and infomercials, print ads, radio advertising and web marketing for many industries.
As CEO John Chidsey (who refers to himself as Chief Whopper Flipper) explains, a€?We want to stay on the cutting edge of pop culture.a€? How cool is it to sell more than three million Burger Kinga€“branded Xbox video games in two months? They may get a tattoo of the companya€™s logo, or in some cases (wea€™re not making this up) name their children after a brand in exchange for some kind of payment. Still, the world of advertising is changing rapidlya€”and youa€™ll be in the forefront of that change.
They are multinational and multidimensional, providing any combination of information, identity, and entertainment.
By incorporating authentic experience and online collaboration, new marketing is very difficult to predict and control. Yet in an article on how advertisers seek less intrusive, more measurable ways to deliver online messages, the Wall Street Journal reports, a€?Many sites and advertisers remain in the throes of experimentation, with mixed or disappointing results to date. Some Create Own as Second Life Site Loses Some Luster,a€? Wall Street Journal, October 23, 2007, B9. The true rise of modern advertising, however, coincided with the Industrial RevolutionA period in the early nineteenth century when the economic system based on manual labor gave way to the modern system of producing goods in factories. Most big, traditional companies were very cautious about marketing online, but now theya€™re cranking up their efforts as this media channel continues to gain legitimacy. If you wanted to appeal to consumers who spend a lot of time browsing online, what changes might you make? Ask them to talk about how effective they think the ads are and why they do or dona€™t make it more likely that theya€™ll actually buy the advertised brand.
This means moving away from traditional advertising and the model of adding prepackaged ads to precreated content. For example, product placementNew media technique in which a showa€™s story line incorporates a branded product, typically in TV shows and movies. But the industry is shifting from the sell-and-tell mindset that traditionally prevailed in broadcast and print media. Thus, marketers ideally try to satisfy everyone involved in the process, including those who make a product or promote an idea, those who advertise it, and those who purchase it or endorse it.
It probably wona€™t surprise you to learn that a lot of advertising tries to show consumers just how a product, service, or idea will do a good job of satisfying a need as it informs, persuades, or reminds. A product may consist of a single item, such as a printer, or a portfolio of interrelated items such as a package that includes a printer, specialized software, and online photo-sharing services. A key to successful marketing is to make your offering available at a time and location that are desirable to the customer.
There are thousands of choices among online news sources, with hard copy newspapers competing against the online versions of themselves and losing. For example, furniture stores frequently offer customers up to ninety days of free credit (zero percent financing) when they make large purchases such as a sofa or bedroom suite.
Likewise, holding a special promotional event may affect place because the seller must supply stores with enough products to meet the demand that the promotion will stimulate. But it gets better: Before they leave home, customers with a ShopRite loyalty card log into a Web site and type in their grocery lists. Full-service agencies have expanded in recent years through consolidationa€”larger agencies buy them when they want to provide a one-stop shop for their global clients. Interactive agencies like BEAM, gaming agencies such as Fuel Games, and search agencies such as 360i will partner up with other agencies to provide services for the full campaign as determined by the client or the lead agency. For example, the in-house agency could retain creative services in house, create advertisements itself, and then purchase media-buying services from the outside.
Insiders can also coordinate the promotion better with the firma€™s overall marketing program and other functions, such as ensuring that enough products are made and delivered in advance of a promotion. These agencies have offices worldwide and specialize in clients whose audiences are worldwide, such as MasterCard (McCann Worldwide is the agency). The marketer determines their agency of record, and the majority of business and coordination is handled through them.
In most cases, separate companies carry out communications planning and creative functions, so coordination can be difficult, and self-serving biases may color some decisions. Today, this compensation model makes less sense because many advertising services no longer include a traditional media buy.
Interactive media currently charges the highest commission because it requires the most management time from agency personnel.
Agencies using performance-based models can earn much morea€”or much lessa€”than the standard 15 percent commission. They decide how best to allocate the clienta€™s budget to use the best media to most effectively reach the target audience. CopywritersMember of the creative team who composes memorable and motivating text that will be spoken or printed within the ad.
They must be good with numbers but also skilled negotiatorsa€”theya€™ll be working with budgets and responsible for spending their clienta€™s money wisely. Job titles include public opinion researcher, research supervisor, project director, associate research director, research director, and executive research director. This includes the marketing strategy, business planning, and market research associated with the brand.
Account activity through the month (in your example July) is invoiced at the end of the month and sent to the client along with the BCR. Our strengths include cost-effective advertising for consumer packaged goods, direct response campaigns, branding, Internet marketing, SEO, paid search and more. Or to get its creepy icon The King included in seventeen skits on Jay Leno in the same amount of time? Or, consider the growing use of human directionals, which is what the advertising industry calls people who twirl signs outside restaurants, barbershops, and new real estate subdivisions. Finally, as wea€™ll see, the Web is in some ways taking the a€?massa€? out of a€?mass media.a€? New technologies allow advertisers to customize messages so that (literally) each person who sees an ad actually gets a personalized communication that reflects his or her own unique interests and past purchases. Some say the industry hasna€™t yet figured out how to make video ads as interactive and effective as they can be.a€?Kevin J. Walter Thompson Company (the oldest continuously operating advertising agency in the United States) had billings totaling over $1 million (in those days, a million was still a lot of money!).
Ita€™s fair to say that user-generated contentOnline venues such as blogs or Web sites where consumers review products they have bought or ask questions about a product. The word mix reminds us that no single marketing activity is sufficient to accomplish the organizationa€™s objectives; the key is to blend these together to create the desired impact.
That was nice last year, but I want the packaging to be refreshing.a€™a€? Unilevera€™s innovative packaging includes Axe shower gel bottles shaped like video-game joysticks.
Additionally, aggregators further commodify online news information, lumping together a€?name branda€? news and less pedigreed sources by topic. Products may be priced by the unit (a single TV or computer), by volume (gasoline), by time of use (monthly cable TV or Internet service), by amount of use (utilities or cell phone minutes), or by performance (overnight versus two-day package delivery). Finally, the promotion might affect the producta€™s packaging, such as bundling a shampoo with a free sample of conditioner. In the process, the types of services that agencies provide has expanded to include PR, design, and event planning.
The inside agency may buy services from a specialized service agency or buy services A  la carte from a full service agency.
For example, an advertising agency might be tempted to suggest a network television campaign because it would be involved in creating the ads (and billing more in the process). The career ladder of position titles in account services is assistant account executive, account executive, senior account executive, and accounts supervior or accounts manager. The brand manager works closely with account services and creative staff to develop and implement campaigns best suited for that brand. This demonstrates where the money has been spent with any overages or shortfalls indicated. Southern California in particular has become a mecca for this new a€?sporta€? as locals cook up new moves to out-style their competitors. Delaney and Emily Steel, a€?Are Skins, Bugs or Tickers the Holy Grail of Web Advertising?a€? Wall Street Journal, August 13, 2007, B1. But these consumer packaged goods (CPG) companiesProducers of food and beverages, cleaning products and paper goods, apparel, and other items that a typical consumer purchases on a regular and frequent basis. This perspective understands that advertising needs to show customers how a product will satisfy their needsa€”and do it better than the competition.
If you know that a poor child in a third world country goes without proper food and you believe she should have access to healthy meals, you also have a need. Similarly, when you buy a shirt from the Eddie Bauer catalog or Web site, youa€™re buying direct. There is an increasingly thin layer of audience spread across the rapidly proliferating URLs of major and start-up news providers.
In this case the manufacturer tries to a€?pusha€? its products through the channel down to the end consumer.
As they scan their purchases and put them in their cart, they get a running price tally, and their shopping list automatically checks off these items. Instead, advertisers prefer a media-agnostic approach, where the agency picks whatever medium works best for a specific campaign. As wea€™ll see later, the question of just howa€”and whethera€”we should quantify the effect of advertising is one of the burning issues the industry faces. Production staffEmployees who select photos, choose the print size and type, and oversee the actual printing, filming or audio recording of the campaign. Brand managers oversee the selection and work of any outside ad agencies used by the corporation.
These include the Helicopter, in which a spinner does a backbend on one hand while he twirls a sign above his head. This practice has become so commonplace and profitable now that ita€™s evolving into a new form of promotion we call branded entertainmentNew media technique in which advertisers showcase their products via longer-form narrative films instead of brief commercials., where advertisers showcase their products in longer-form narrative films instead of brief commercials. Broadcast media builds awareness of a brand, but, as SS+Ka€™s Rob Shepardson says, awareness is only a€?the first step of the process.a€? Advertising and promotion must now build the relationship, too. Promotional push strategies are often less expensive than pull strategies, so a firm with a smaller promotional budget will likely pursue a push strategy. Delaney, a€?Once-Wary Industry Giants Embrace Internet Advertising,a€? Wall Street Journal, April 17, 2006, A1.



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