UPDATE: The 2015 edition of my marketing technology landscape is now available, charting 1,876 different companies and open source projects. One of the things that I was less than happy about with the previous version was its lack of underlying structure. The breakthrough occurred in discussions around my post in October on the emerging third-party era of marketing automation. An exchange in the comments with David Raab also led me to his insightful thinking about customer data platforms (CDPs).
Internet services such as Facebook, Google, and Twitter that underlie today’s marketing environment. Infrastructure such as databases, big data management, cloud computing, and software development tools.
Marketing Backbone Platforms such as CRM, marketing automation, WCM, and e-commerce engines. Marketing Middleware such as DMPs, CDPs, tag management, cloud connectors, user management, and API services. But before we explore these classes further, let’s talk about categorization for a moment. To start, let’s agree that any attempt at categorizing a field this large will be imperfect.
The situation is further complicated by the fact that categories can always be divided into subcategories, the labels and definition of categories vary depending on who you ask, many products cross multiple categories, and vendors are constantly acquiring and pivoting their way into different categories. Out of those infinite possibilities, this is merely one: my humble opinion, at this moment in time, about which categories might be most useful to a marketer surveying this landscape. For the most part, I avoided duplicating companies across categories, with very few exceptions. However, while categories are useful to illustrate clusters of related marketing technologies, many innovative products out there are being designed outside the boundaries of these categories.
Combined, these platforms and marketing middleware make it increasingly manageable to orchestrate diverse marketing software products into a cohesive stack. This nascent category contains products that were once considered unrelated to each other — polls and surveys, social contests and sweepstakes, and app-like web and mobile experiences such as wizards, configurators, calculators, etc. The perfect storm of cheap cloud computing, open source software, rich web development frameworks, a global talent pool, and the accessibility of customers through content marketing makes it easier than ever for new ventures to enter this space with imaginative new ideas and sheer entrepreneurial gumption. Even if the ratio is off by a factor of 2X or 3X, there’s still no denying that the vast majority of marketing technology innovation is happening outside the context of advertising.
This is indicative of — and directly enabling — the seismic shift of marketing away from advertising to experience-driven marketing.
The evolution of many demand-side platforms (DSPs) to data management platforms (DMPs) is another sign of the times.
To be sure, there are many amazing advertising technology vendors out there, and new ones will continue to arise. More generally, the growth and innovation with these products speaks to the increasing traction that agile and lean management philosophies are gaining across more and more organizations.
Because while all the incredible marketing technologies illustrated in this landscape are dramatically changing what’s technically possible for businesses to achieve, the bottlenecks that still hold teams back are more likely to be the remnants of management approaches from the last century.
The continued rise of agile methods and culture, however, is helping to reinvent marketing management for this century — so the human parts of our marketing, which will always be the most important parts, can harness the full potential that all this technology has to offer us.
The growth of the marketing PaaS and Middleware categories demonstrates the maturation of the entire marketing technology industry as martec programs are formalized into a unified technology stack. Especially in the marketing automation scene, everyone claims their technology covers everything but in reality or sometimes you simply encounter a glorified email marketing tool with a couple of add ons. However, the upside that you point out is that, overall, this will drive innovation up and drive costs down.
And it’s worth remembering that all these tools are ultimately just a means to an end. Scott: would you consider Marketing Apps as a category that covers what was formerly known as point solutions?
Scott – I applaud you for taking the endless hours to demonstrate just how vast the technology marketing enterprise landscape has become in such a short period of time.
The previous version of this graphic was frequently used to frighten people — “boo! Scott, this is incredibly well done–I cannot imagine the time and energy it took to assemble! Keep up the amazing work at HubSpot — making all us Boston marketing technology types look good.
Scott, awesome job and I am excited that you had this break through about middleware and the need for a centralized customer data platform. Scott, first of all, let me wish you a Happy New Year 2014 and then let me thank you for this great gift. Looking at it, and thinking as a marketing technologist I had a digital dream: What if instead of a picture, you could provide this Excellent and Incredible work in an HTML 5 landing page, with a clickable map, and a crowd sourcing app on top of it letting all people working for companies add new companies, and more valuable select and share the tools they use in each stack and how well the integrate in their marketing usage of them? Stellar update Scott – very very helpful for highlighting how the landscape is changing depressingly fast!
Scott, great job in framing the emerging marketing stack, and for putting so many companies into meaningful segments. Great infographic Scott – the categories you used to define this highly competitive landscape really helps to clarify and segment the various parts of the larger marketing techology puzzle. I agree that there’s tremendous opportunity for products that help with influencer and advocate marketing.
I have a small question: Did you consider dividing the marketing automation category into B2B and B2C? I’m sure you’ve heard of Big Data before, but besides looking up its meaning on Wikipedia, how far did you go to understand why it’s actually really important for you and your business? It doesn’t matter what industry you work in, if it’s a small business or a big corporation, or even what your position is. Big Data is probably a tender way to call the unmeasurable amount of data we are generating. But imagine how you could improve your product or service with negative customer feedback from a competitor’s customers on Twitter.
The advantage of Big Data is not related to the data itself, but to all business benefits you can possibly get from using the data strategically across the organization. To get more insights about your customer behavior and needs, consider monitoring the social media networks where your current customers are.
Email marketing is a useful tool to acquire new customers, but Big Data definitely took it to another level. Your website should be designed to convert prospects into customers, specially if you are an e-commerce. Regardless of its business benefits, Big Data is actually becoming a competitive advantage for those companies that know how to wisely use available and relevant data. To get the most of a Big Marketing strategy, start small, focused on your business needs and take one step at a time. The stimulation of innovation in the pharmaceutical industry through outsourcing of research and development (R&D) activities within the drug discovery and development process is analysed.
IntroductionIncreasing pressure on the pharmaceutical industryGlobal competitiveness is becoming increasingly important for the pharmaceutical industry. Leading edge equipment and know-how of the provider while adhering to the highest possible technical standards. Clear competence profile of the chemical provider focused on specific segments while be-ing unique and innovative. Highly standardised co-operation model covered by general agreements with precise defi-nition of the ownership of intellectual property. Compared to traditional companies, the outsourcing level of emerging pharmaceutical com-panies is generally rather high and in some categories 100% due to low or missing internal resources.
Lean and flexible development capacities on the side of the providers, easily adaptable to smaller demands. Full service range and know-how around chemical synthesis with capabilities for the sup-port of project management.
Transparent and flexible cost structures, similar or equivalent to own in-house structures to avoid additional administrative resource burdens.
Project selection: Selection of service providers on a project-by-project basis from a core list of preselected service providers.
Price competition: Long list of service providers systematically put into competition in order to secure lowest purchasing prices. Joint venture: If the results depend on both parties, but contribution cannot be easily attrib-uted, a 50-50 joint venture is a good choice.
The pharmaceutical industry invests high management capacity in choosing appropriate service providers and to commit them to the company to achieve goal congruence. Complexity and efficiency: definition of highly standardised and transparent processes and contracts. Flexibility and quality: high flexibility regarding project execution with stringent quality control.
Exclusivity and secrecy: clear and transparent rules regarding the engagement in projects of direct competitors. Intellectual property: cooperation agreement leaving all critical IP at the pharmaceutical company.


If these aspects are handled properly, the professional market for highly specialised services and the flexible structures within the services networks make pharmaceutical research more efficient. European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA) (2008): The Pharmaceutical Industry in Figures, 2008 Edition, Brussels. It represents a whopping 947 different companies that provide software for marketers, organized into 43 categories across 6 major classes. It is just a sample, albeit a large one, of the many different kinds of software available to marketers today.
Terry Kawaja of LUMA Partners had added a terrific marketing technology LUMAscape — his original display advertising LUMAscape was my inspiration for my first landscape.
First, the number of people who kept using earlier versions of my graphic and expressing their appreciation for it — while also nudging me to, um, kindly update it — meant a lot to me. It struck me that these CDPs, along with some other technologies such as tag management and cloud connector services such as Zapier, were coalescing as marketing middleware — software to help all the other software in marketing work better together. So if a vendor’s products spanned multiple categories — which many of them do — I usually just picked one, whichever one I thought was best. To do it justice, I’ll do a series of in-depth, follow-up articles over the next few months. Instead of each product needing to explicitly integrate with each other product out there — an impossible n2 integration points — middleware can serve as a common highway system for data between them. Each business will be better able to tailor a marketing technology portfolio that best serves their mission. But I believe they share a common DNA of letting marketers build interactive experiences to better acquire and nurture customers — without expensive, custom programming. One prediction is that some of the first generation marketing automation players will likely acquire several of these second generation players — to achieve further reach and hedge their bets on product design choices. Content marketing, social media marketing, interactive experiences, and the analytical capabilities to optimize those efforts with continuous experimentation are where the largest flood of innovation is occurring. But the momentum of the burgeoning marketing technology field clearly has a different center of gravity. The clear visualization of the six categories provides a meaningful hierarchy to help in educating others about the marketing technology structure, unlike anything I have seen thus far.
The solidification of such a vibrant set of platform and middleware vendors in this space is definitely the most exciting revelation I took from this project.
Yes, I agree the space in its totality is overwhelming — and as I disclaimed up front, this graphic is actually far from comprehensive. What matters is a great product, a great marketing strategy, and great marketing execution.
I think what Black Ink is doing at the intersection between marketing and finance is very exciting.
I found your blog to be the single most valuable resource in shaping my thinking of the architecture for this landscape.
Thank you for including HubSpot in the integrated marketing category, we are honored to be a part of the list. It was a little bit of time to assemble this, but everybody needs a hobby, and I don’t golf. I just wrote a blog to help to better define this category (but a lot more work on this is still needed and I welcome all discussion on the topic). Although it does provide connective tissues between multiple other different marketing technologies, it’s using that connectivity as a means to an end to deliver higher-level business value. On a more simplistic level, would you consider sharing a working database of categories and companies featured? I agree with William – following this is hard… to keep it current must be a labout of love!
It just helps to understand the competitive landscape faced as we continue to invest in companies.
We really pride ourselves in creating social marketing tools that will help brands get to market faster and smarter.
My apologies that I missed PromoJam in this version of the landscape, but thank you for sharing it with us. I am a big fan of Lumascape presentations but I do like how yours includes a comprehensive view of the marketing ecosystem. Will definitely consider those as their own categories in future versions of this landscape. I wrestled quite a bit with these categories, trying to decide what the best level of resolution should be. A whole infographic could be developed just around the marketing automation ecosystem that could do much more justice to the structure within it.
The web is crowded with articles that give you a technical point of view on what Big Data is, but content about marketers using Big Data to inform their strategies is rare, so that’s why I decided it was time to dive deep into this ocean of information. Every single individual in the company should understand how to turn Big Data into a Big Business. As individuals, every Google search we do, every website we visit, the music we listen to or the #hashtags we share on social media, and even the stuff we buy, leaves behind an online trail of valuable data about who we are. Too large, incredibly complex and scarily dynamic for any conventional tool to capture, store, manage and analyze. If you’re a results-driven marketer like me, you probably love your spreadsheet full of numbers and charts. How do you correlate data, what valuable insights you can extract, and of course, how do you creatively apply this knowledge to produce best in class products, deliver a unique customer experience and reach the right customers with the right marketing message? According to a McKinsey & Company report, it can help increase productivity, reduce costs and support better decisions. The secret of a successful Big Data strategy is to search for the missing piece, the one thing that will actually help your business to grow. But, a little benchmark can always work as inspiration to new and creative ways to generate positive results.
Intercontinental Hotel gathered data from its 71 million Rewards Program’s members, customized 1,552 marketing messages in a new campaign, and got a 35% higher rate of customer conversions, only by reaching the right prospects with the right message. T-Mobile used Big Data to combine customer transactions and social media interactions in order to better predict customer defections, which was cut in half in a single quarter. Companies that ignore this trend are wasting an opportunity to better understand customers behaviors, and to grow healthier and faster in the global market. Your customers don’t expect that you know everything about them, but they do expect you work to provide better experiences along the way. The empirical data were collected through interviews with experts of pharmaceutical companies and service providers between 2002 and 2005.
Companies are exploring options to enhance the efficiency of the resources they are using at all stages of the whole value chain from discovery research to production and logistics as well as sales and marketing. Pharmaceutical industry includes also the biotechnology industry which is strongly linked to the pharmaceutical industry. These companies see outsourcing as an effective method to capture capacity and expertise without investing much money in in-house resources. There is a simple correlation: the higher the goal congruence, the more trust between the two partners, and the higher the measurability of results, the closer the relationship comes to a traditional customer-supplier relationship (Figure 4). The service providers are engaged according to the fit of their core competence to the specific project requirements (e.g. This model is less strategically oriented, but rather serves to achieve the demand for the most cost-efficient fulfilment (e.g.
Stringent inspec-tion of the supplier's facility, quality, best practices, trained staff and certified processes is crucial in the selection process (Findlay, 2007). The positive effects of outsourcing are enhanced if the supplier is used to supplement existing core competencies (i.e. In the future, highly specialised research service providers will play a more important role and integrative part of the processes in the pharma industry. There are many more companies — indeed, entire categories — that were not included, merely due to the constraints of time and space. I was expressing the magnitude of the marketing technology space, but I wasn’t bringing much order to the chaos. The main exceptions are the giants who have acquired across the whole space, such as Adobe, IBM, and Oracle.
These two classes of products are bringing some much needed structure to the marketing technology stack. You may get these pieces from one vendor or several, but they will serve as the foundation for your marketing technology stack. For instance, there are 66 vendors in just the social media marketing category alone (and many more that I couldn’t squeeze in). DMPs are increasingly able to leverage audience data across a much broader range of marketing initiatives.
Finally, I’m excited by the wonderful set of agile management tools that are available today. Great for choice but also in some cases overwhelmingly confusing at the stage of doing vendor review. But given the mushrooming scale of this landscape, you’re right, a crowdsourced approach makes a lot of sense. I predict that new categories of marketing (especially around the area of influencer marketing and advocate marketing) will emerge more prominently in the near future and maybe they will make it on your future list!


It can be the present for some companies, but Big Data is definitely the future for most companies.
Big Data is actually a simplistic term that refers to how the usage of technology can automatically track, gather and manage the relevant data to your business, on a large scale. You know how much traffic the website had, where visitors clicked, and what they purchased.
Technology is certainly an important factor in this process, but owning big data doesn’t necessarily mean Big Marketing success. Now it allows them to power data-driven messages, sending dynamic content and live offers to prospect customers. Etsy monitored traffic patterns in real time to uncover ongoing issues that were causing visitors to drop off pages, implemented an optimization strategy and increased the percentage of site visitors who end up buying products. Additionally, in 2008, the outsourcing behaviour of the already interviewed and additional companies was analysed through desk research. The discussion of outsourcing will use the example of chemical synthesis offered by specialised service providers within the drug discovery and development process. In particular, many start-ups lack experience and expertise around drug development, which consequently forces them to relay on external service providers. Assessment of the service provider's financial stability is imperative during the selection process.
Traditional outsourcing concepts within chemical synthesis are focused on single product or service. The result is that there has been an increase in drugs introduced to the market over the past years, after the number reached a low point shortly after the turn of the millenium. On the relative improvement potential in outsourcing manufacturing, Production Planning & Control, 19 (3), p. And by the time you read this, it will inevitably be out of date due to new launches, re-launches, expansions, exits, and mergers.
I was content to retire from the rearranging-little-logos business and leave it safely in their hands. What makes them platforms, rather than just products, is that they’re increasingly open — interoperable with other, more specialized marketing software. These products let marketers produce interactive experiences, rather than static content, to engage their audience. Many of these are new ventures or expansions of vendors from other categories (especially email marketing). Granted, this landscape is not comprehensive, and there are many advertising technology companies that are missing from it. Our solution easily organizes all of our customer’s disparate client data to publish to Marketing Execution Systems at 10X the speed of traditional IT integration methods. In the meantime, Happy New Year–wishing you and the other marketers included on this list a very happy and healthy 2014! I confess, it is very humbling to realize all the amazing companies that I inadvertently overlooked. Take a closer look at what people, just like you and me, have been doing in the digital world in a single minute.
A lot of companies lose focus, waste time and efforts collecting and analyzing data that will not have a big impact in their results. The results show that the outsourcing behaviour of traditional and emerging pharmaceutical companies is completely different. Rising costs of pharmaceutical R&D coupled with increasing pressure of stakeholders demanding steady growth lead to increasing pressure on the output of the innovation pipeline. This example is chosen as it covers an important part of the drug discovery and development process and represents the outsourcing mentality in pharmaceutical very well.The empirical data have been collected through desk research and interviews with managers and experts of 19 different pharmaceutical companies and 12 pharmaceutical service providers in different rounds between 2002 and 2005 (Figure 1). As these suppliers work with various projects from pharmaceutical companies, it becomes crucial to ensure there is no backlog of projects due to financial constraints. Besides limiting fixed costs, service providers can often provide the expertise and know-how in a more flexible and cost-effective way than internal resources.
No guarantees, but when I go to do another version of this landscape in the future, I’ll check here first. We are the glue that makes the 900+ other companies in your graphic more effective at what they do! Whereas the make-or-buy decisions of traditional companies are mainly competency or know-how driven, that of emerging companies are primarily capacity or cost driven. An interview guideline with a reference set of questions was developed to secure the comparability of the answers and to leave enough room for spontaneous answers, which gave a semi-structured nature to the interviews. Furthermore, the complementarity between in-house R&D and external know-how creates additional benefits regarding the quality of research and services. Second, many products would fit in both subdivisions, which seemed like it would make those subdivisions less useful.
Each interviewee was interviewed in sessions of approximately 60 minutes, whereby most of the interviews were conducted face-to-face and only a few by telephone.
Contracts have been rather complex in the past due to opposing views on intellectual property and rigid customer provider relations. I hope you and your readers will stop by and say hello to learn more about us and the value that we are delivering to some of the largest companies in the world. It is estimated that by the time a medicinal product is placed on the market, an average of 12-13 years will have elapsed since the synthesis of the new active substance. Additionally, in early 2008, the outsourcing behaviour in the field of chemical synthesis of the interviewed companies and 61 additional pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies was analysed through desk research using different public sources (e.g. Therefore, both partners are forced to think and act much more result-oriented than react within existing organisational boundaries.
Service providers should react to the concerns of pharmaceutical customers with a best practice ap-proach which includes the following aspects. Thereby, on average, out of every 10,000 sub-stances synthesised in laboratories, only one or two will successfully pass all the stages to become marketable medicines (EFPIA, 2008). Service offerings in outsourcing need to be adapted, while interfaces between customer and service provider, reduced and redefined.
Performance improvement by outsourcing The current pressure to increase the output of R&D has created new needs for specialised technologies with the potential to reduce lead times and streamline the drug discovery and development process. But there are some joint ventures between service providers, especially to cover emerging markets.
A good example is the formation of the joint venture Evotec-RSIL in India between Research Support International (RSIL) and Evotec to design, synthesise and manage compound libraries as a service. The joint venture combines Evotec's expertise in library design, synthesis, analysis, purification and project management with RSIL's synthesis expertise coupled with a low cost structure in India.
This represents a switch from isolated service offerings to an integrated platform of support within the customer’s processes and structures. Outsourcing, traditionally thought of as a short-term strategy for demand realisation, could be considered to lever the core competencies to increase performance in pharmaceutical R&D. The analysis and interviews showed that the differentiation between traditional and emerging pharmaceutical companies is of importance. This means that pharmaceutical companies hire in experts for a defined period and integrate them into their in-house R&D structure. Hired experts use either their own in-house infrastructure or facilities inside the customer’s organisation.
For example, Arora and Gambardella examined the complementarity among sourcing strategies of large companies in the biotechnology industry.
A project management team for which the customer is responsible guarantees success of the development project as well as the intensive know-how and expertise transfer. In contrast, emerging pharmaceutical companies are focused on selected stages of the pharmaceutical value chain (Van Arnum, 2008). An important task in innovation management, therefore, is to integrate internal and external knowledge within the innovation process, in order to benefit from positive effects each activity has on the other.
Most of the biotechnology start-up companies or other technology driven companies with their roots in R&D are part of this group. This addresses pharmaceutical industry concerns of minimising third party activities for critical path activities through highly standardised processes. But outsourcing R&D also bears potential risks due to project complexity und loss of flexibility. Studies to clarify the comparative effect of outsourcing in relation to internal improvements within manufacturing processes showed that internal enhancement of manufacturing capability made it much easier to predict improvements in operating performance than outsourcing (Dabhilkar et al., 2008). Generally, outsourcing leads to negative effects when used only as a cost reducing strategy to improve short-term performance.
The consequence may be the loss of internal know-how and expertise as well as higher total costs in the long-term. There are numerous examples where insourcing prevented the negative effects caused by bad outsourcing decisions (The Economist, 1996).



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