Intercultural marketing as an applied science is still in its early stages of development and implementation in Southeast Asia like in Europe. It was also a sociologist who, with his analysis, started the field of research into cultural studies in whose tradition intercultural marketing is steeped: Max Weber. Many definitions, mostly vague and abstract, have been formulated for culture (Kroeber and Kluckhohn 1952).
Hall, who offers significant descriptions of culture, traces the difficulties of a definition of culture not back to its complexity, but to the limits of language to describe culture.
Culture in the framework of this thesis, is understood as an explanatory construct which is operationalized and thus comprehensively comparable. Hofstede distinguishes four manifestations of culture: symbols, rituals, heroes, and values. Symbols are words, gestures, pictures, or objects that carry a particular meaning recognized only by those who share a culture.
Heroes are persons - alive or dead, real or imaginary - who possess characteristics that are highly prized in a society, and who thus serve as role models for behaviour (Hofstede 2005: 7).
79 singer and performance artist who rose to national fame after a televised January 2003 concert in Jakarta, is one such cultural hero. Based on this structuralist definition, culture has to be operationalized firstly to be able to compare countries and secondly to contrast social groups and their culture within a country (in the case of a multiethnic country).
Taking Hofstede’s structuralist definition of culture as a starting point, the underlying analytical diagram of this thesis will now be explained.
The advantages of these dimension-analytical approaches are (1) they can be linked to culture comparative advertising research, (2) for the purpose that one could expect selected interviewees to be acquainted with the theories owing to their international education and high position within the corporate organization, (3) that the model’s simplicity made it easily accessible to the interviewees and (4) that these approaches have come forward with empirical data for Southeast Asia.
The theoretical basis of the research framework on which the research in Southeast Asia was carried out, will now be presented. For every individual there is a unique interaction between genetic makeup and environmental influences. Hofstede’s suggestion on how to operationalize culture is the most comprehensive till now. Hofstede proceeded to evaluate the data collected correlation-statistically in order to reduce it to four dimensions by using factor analysis. These so-called culture dimensions have been defined by the author as collective mental programming of a population.
The countries with which Hofstede did not deal in his investigations were assigned a culture-index by Weidmann (1995: 53) among others. Following the tradition of debate, quantitative versus qualitative methods (Müller 1999), others doubted on principle the capability of survey (question) methods to mirror social reality (Lamnek 1993).
The suspected reason for Hofstede’s insistence on the assumption of country score stability (the empirical basis of which was created by him from 1967 to 1973) is still germane.
Between 1980 and 1992 Hofstede’s study was replicated 61 times and tended to have mostly similar results.
Besides Hofstede’s dimension-analytical model, that of Trompenaars (a student of Hofstede) and Hampden-Turner is also applied to intercultural research.
A comparison of Hofstede’s dimensions with those of Trompenaars reveals the following.
Trompenaars’ dimension-analytical approach is likewise based on empirical preliminary investigations.
The scientific value of this work was considered by many to be more limited in scope than Hofstede’s, and is not considered to be in the same league as his study. Like Hofstede, Trompenaars is able to refer to an impressive database - 15,000 managers from 47 countries. In spite of the documented conceptual and methodological criticism, the underlying significance of this dimension-analytical approach is undisputable for both works and complies with the requirements of intercultural marketing with regard to (1) high information demand, which increases with the internationalization of the company (the number of regions, countries, cultures) targeted, (2) general practical orientation of marketing (3) intercultural marketing’s general necessity to work in a culture comparative manner. The above mentioned complex constructs which determine human behaviour correspond to the core of culture, or the values in the layer model which, as already mentioned, form the basis of Hofstede’s research. The retort of critics of a structuralist definition of culture, (which is the starting point of this thesis and serves as a research framework for a dimension-analytical model), is that intercultural marketing ought to be freed of its standardization strategies. An integration of both models is justifiable on the grounds that the models originally developed for intercultural management (not for intercultural marketing) were only intended to reflect the internal corporate sphere.
The ability to use the analytical diagram for cross-country research (or cross-ethnic [in case the analytical diagram is implemented below the country level]) was another reason why a dimension-analytical approach was selected.
The fundamental idea behind the work’s underlying research approach is the following. The list or order of the orientations in the figure and that of the individual orientations in their discussion does not reflect specific importance or ranking.
The following figure (C-4) presents the experimental standard deviation of each orientation score (by country) from the mean score of the respective orientation of all eight countries. A discussion of theoretical premises of culture and the different concepts and definitions of culture operationalization will precede the work’s underlying research framework and its application in the Indonesian context.
This is owing not least to the fact that several scientific disciplines and intellectual traditions of thought used this term in a subject-specific and therefore often different manner.
Some say that no definition of such a complex construct as culture is possible (post-structuralism). Culture, it seems, is usually transmitted from parents to children, but social organizations, interest groups, the government, schools and religious institutions also come into play. Basically the methodological structure of culture comparative management research (Redding 1994: 332) can be differentiated from nomothetic and ideographic research strategies. Since an appropriate initial definition of culture needs to be made, culture, for the purpose of this thesis, is understood as a binding orientation system for society or group members (for example members of an ethnic group). In the culture onion, the visible symbols, heroes and rituals form the first cultural layer.
In the above figure (C-1) these are depicted like the layers of an onion, indicating that symbols represent the most superficial, and values, the deepest manifestations of culture, with heroes and rituals falling somewhere in between. The words of language or a particular kind of jargon belong in this category, as do dress, hairstyles, flags, status symbols, brands like Coca-Cola. Even fantasy or cartoon figures, like Batman in the United States and Astérix in France, can serve as cultural heroes. Examples include ways of greeting, ways of paying respect to others, and social and religious ceremonies. If young Indonesians drink Coca-Cola or eat at McDonald’s, this does not necessarily affect their attitudes toward authority.
The empirical based culture theories (Hofstede 1997; Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner 1997) used in culture comparative advertising research (de Mooij 1997, 2003, 2004, 2005) offer the following advantages. The latter prescribes standards of behaviour and directly and indirectly influences the preferences, decisions and rationalizations of a particular group’s member. This interaction causes every individual’s uniqueness to be visible as surface characteristics in his or her personality. The decisive factor is that in the initial phase of the study he had a data bank to fall back on, in which the results of a survey with IBM employees from 72 branches in 40 countries were recorded. In a further step, Hofstede defined idiosyncrasies which co-vary with the poles of the culture dimensions.
This is partly based on considerations of plausibility or was considered on the basis of other empirical investigations’ findings.
This monograph had been listed over a thousand times in leading scientific journals by September 1983.
It fulfils the criterion of methodological and scientific rigour due to the competitive methods of analysis being used, the pursuit of comparability of sample surveys, the securing of equivalence as well as further development of the culture concept (Neghandi 1974). Yoo and Donthu (2002) reviewed the second edition of Hofstede’s work which was published in 2001 with some chapters completely unaltered and others completely reworked. While Hoppe (1990), Shackleton and Ali (1990) and Punnet and Withaney (1988), confirmed the four-dimensional structure of the culture model completely, others reported only partial accord (for example, Chew and Putti 1993; Fidalgo 1993). Trompenaars investigates cultural differences primarily from a practical management viewpoint.
In the latest research carried out by Trompenaars, the following two constructs also appear: (6) short-time versus long-time and (7) inner-control versus outer-control orientation (Trompenaars and Woolliams 2004). Of the seven value dimensions, two reflect closely the Hofstede dimensions of collectivism versus individualism and to a lesser extent power distance. In manager workshops, Trompenaars questioned 15,000 participants from 47 countries (approximately 75 of whom were executive and 25 percent were administrative staff).
This can only be achieved however, if empirically verifiable and dimension-analytical quantifiable differences between cultures, whether on a macro (country) level or micro (social groups within a country) level are included in culture comparative studies. Employees from different cultural backgrounds collaborate in this corporate sphere and are therefore possibly faced with culturally based conflicts and not with those existing outside the corporate sphere, i.e. Thus it appears that the respective deviations are high already for the case presented here where only Asian countries have been selected and their scores compared. After the content and objective of international marketing have been introduced theoretically and practically (Part B), the ethnocentric perspective of international marketing will be augmented in a cultural sense.
On the whole, with few exceptions, business studies deals with the phenomenon of culture in a principally descriptive and anecdotal way. Weber justified his cultural concept anthropologically, and from the perspective of marketing research it could be said that he rejected the naïve unstructured empiricisms and he postulated that hermeneutics is the most important method. Deconstructing culture and its elements is, in their view, objectionable as it suppresses historical and diachronic analyses, a method described as reductionistic.
The second invisible inner layer, therefore the invisible core of culture, is formed by culture specific values. New symbols are easily developed and old ones quickly disappear; symbols from one cultural group are regularly copied by others.
In the television age outward appearances have become more important in choosing heroes than they were before. In some respects, young Indonesians differ from senior Indonesians, just as young Germans differ from senior Germans. The empirical culture theories are based on dimension-analytical approaches; culture is objectively deduced from data with the help of a formalized calculation (factor analysis) and is reflected in the cultural dimension. The individual learns to cope with the complex environment of a society by adapting his or her role (for example as a consumer) whether consciously or unconsciously to the framework which dictates socially accepted values.
By connecting both models it is possible to make more comprehensive and concrete statements on how values and their impact on cultural behaviour (Kulturverhalten) influence consumer behaviour. All these affect the most diverse life and work spheres as is shown in his list of selected consequences of cultural programming.
These characteristics refer to societal norms, effect on the political regime, religion, philosophy, ideology and their consequences for companies and organizations.
According to the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), 80 percent of these quotations were taken in the second half of the 1980s. Despite the considerable justifiable criticism, the underlying implications of Hofstede’s approach are undisputed.
The Dutch social scientist interprets culture as a path along which human societies find solutions to problems (Trompenaars 1993: 18).
Basically, Trompenaars like Hofstede uses as a structuralist definition of culture as a starting point and works with a layer model of culture which corresponds to Hofstede’s. Trompenaars’ and Hampden-Turner's communitarianism versus individualism value orientation seems to be virtually identical to Hofstede's collectivism versus individualism. Among other things the reader lacks the customary exact documentation of the research design, procedure, details of the period of the investigation and sample survey composition or the validity and reliability of the findings.
As a result of integrating the initial models into a new research framework, the number of the dimensions increases.
Intercultural marketing attempts even more so than international marketing to overcome the descriptive and partly pre-scientific phase. Only their being combined in a new model allows graphic analysis, concrete description and an all-encompassing understanding of consumer behaviour and the effect of culture upon it.
The empirical culture theories (as presented by Hofstede and Trompenaars) are based on dimension-analytical approaches which facilitate to research culture with the help of a formalized calculation (factor analysis) (Table C-1).
This is novel since conventional international marketing literature is predominantly overly-economic and unequivocally quantifiable. The respective orientation’s score leads to different consumer behaviour, which must in turn be acknowledged by intercultural marketing, and be interpreted in the form of the adapted 4 Ps for market strategies. Only following the analysis of the individual orientations, will a ranking in order of importance of its impact on consumer behaviour in Indonesia be created. Furthermore, it weakened the belief prevalent in many companies that there is such a thing as universal Asian consumer behaviour.
That means culture and its influence on consumers and marketing will be given an appropriate role and an adequate position due to its importance as influencing factors on international marketing (which could then be called intercultural marketing).
In spite of recognizing cultural differences in consumer behaviour, these are often prone to failure due to weaknesses of measuring instruments (Winter 1986: 598). The development of collective mindsets and behaviours is intensified by social pressure (Czinkota and Ronkainen 1993: 154).
Intercultural marketing’s requirement profile deems the choice of a nomothetic research strategy necessary, since this thesis aims to develop an appropriate analytical diagram which will serve further research projects both in country-wide culture comparisons and on other comparison levels, that of ethnic groups, for example.
Hofstede’s definition of culture is particularly suitable for research into consumer behaviour since culture is hierarchically structured with the aid of the so-called layer model (or culture onion model).
Fantasy heroes can become known globally, but the stories in which they play a part are often local. Nevertheless, these changes mostly involve the relatively superficial spheres of symbols and heroes, and of fashion and consumption.
The deeper a culture layer is, the less obvious is its composition and are its consequences.
In the second phase of the survey study the investigation was extended to 50 countries and three regions (Hofstede 1991: 252).
Even if a presumably potential part of these are merely compulsory quotations, it can without doubt be considered a resounding success.
Kagitcibasi (1997) considered the research strategy to be untheorized and solely empirical. Hofstede was able to present via a paradigm the influence of culture on a concrete research object (for example cooperation of employees from different cultures). According to this observation, these problems are similar worldwide; there are always difficulties arising from the relationships with fellow humans as well as those arising from the attitude to time, work and nature.
Trompenaars’ achievement versus ascription value orientation, which describes how status is accorded, appears to be linked to Hofstede's power distance index, at least if one accepts that status is accorded by nature rather than achievement, and that this reflects a greater willingness to accept power distances. Hofstede, as well as Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner, derive their data from questionnaires that were distributed among professionals – in the case of Hofstede among employees of IBM, and in the case of Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner among a large number of executives from different organizations.
Thus the relevance and explanatory potential of the model in terms of its relation to the number of dimensions or orientations (the term assigned to dimensions in the integrative model) increases its explanatory capability in relation to consumer behaviour. In intercultural marketing, consumer research is the central variable and needs to be assigned research technically in an appropriate way. It is desirable to develop explanatory approaches, which, with the exception of isolated cases, allow the generalization of theoretically based statements which in turn allow the construction of prognosis, which allow checking their workability - in short - which allow one to work scientifically. The entire life sphere and the decisions to be made within it, is much more complex since it does not have the underlying corporate maxim of profit maximization (decisions made within the corporate world). Secondly, the model is application-oriented in the sense of allowing readers themselves to apply the model’s underlying structured approach.
In this way the social orientation is described as the conflict between collectivistic and individualistic cultures. Since this order of orientations can vary, owing to their differing importance from country to country (or social group - should a micro-level investigation take place), the orientations can only be put into their respective order upon completion of the analysis. Based on the assertion, that the orientations significantly affect consumer behaviour the suspicion is confirmed that due to the high deviations the existence of globally homogenous consumer behaviour must be doubted.
Following the chapter introduction, the definition of culture and the research methodology, the presentation of the ten orientations developed to facilitate intercultural marketing strategies will be presented. Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Marlboro and Nike are examples of brands that have become global symbols. Their cultural meaning is invisible however; it lies in the way the practices are interpreted by insiders of the culture. Theoretically Hofstede’s approach is based on the works of the social anthropologists Margaret Mead (2000, 2002) and Ruth Benedict (2006a, 2006b). In the same way in which the core of the onion can be exposed by removing the outer layers, the quintessence of a culture can be revealed, as can the perception of the world. Culture should be distinguished from human nature on the one hand and from an individual’s personality on the other. A total of 116,000 testimonials from 38 professional backgrounds took part in the first two study waves and the following studies from 1968 till 1992. Rather than developing the operationalization from a theoretical concept starting point, Hofstede had instead merely interpreted existing data theoretically at a later date. The reason that value and culture change is not a homogenous process but translates itself differently in the various social strata and groups of a country, offers a possible explanation for the previously described transformations.
It is, however, not a complete match, as Hofstede's power index does not only relate to how status is accorded, but also to the acceptable power distance within a society, an area that is not touched upon by Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner. Incidentally there is little more than the hypotheses that western countries are the heritage of the Christian West and that oriental countries are coloured by Confucianism and Buddhism, behind many statements. Hofstede’s work is based on a questionnaire originally designed to evaluate work values, and, not surprisingly, it is mostly focused towards that end. The intercultural starting point should most importantly enable knowledge to be generalized and concrete occurrences to be predicted.
Thirdly, it is applicable to different countries (macro-level), and simultaneously to sub-groups, for example certain ethnic groups.
Firstly, it offered the theoretical basis to put to the test whether or not a global consumer exists, and secondly it provided support for the investigation of other markets and their cultural peculiarities (model transferability and comparison enabling).
The individual orientation and the area of conflict in which they can move will be defined in the following sections which address the analysis of Indonesia. The presentation and definition of each orientation is followed by the analysis of cultural elements which are to explain Indonesian consumer behaviour.
According to structuralist theory in anthropology, meaning within a culture is produced and reproduced through various practices, phenomena and activities which serve as systems of signification. The collective system of meaning (kollektives System von Bedeutungen) (core of the layer model) derived from this model, differentiates several cultures from each other.
Thus, culture change can be fast for the outer, visible layers of culture (symbols, heroes and rituals, which are labelled as practices), but culture change is slow for values.
So it is necessary to connect concepta (explanatory part) and percepta (descriptive part) and to find an investigative model for the above explained research formation.
Furthermore the general awareness of scientific and practical meaning of the multicultural phenomenon was clearly focused. Yoo and Donthu (2002) criticize above all the fact that the author simply makes the effort to defend himself and his work against the criticism which has been raised since 1980 instead of rectifying the existing weaknesses. The special role with which Sondergaard (1994: 454) endows this work, results not least from the fact that a host of sciences (human resource management, organizational theory, marketing, intercultural psychology and social psychology) implement this culture concept.
Trompenaars’ universalism versus particularism value orientation, describing a preference for rules rather than trusting relationships, could be interpreted as part of Hofstede's uncertainty avoidance dimension on the one hand, and to some extent the collectivistic versus individualistic dimension. Furthermore, it is not entirely comprehensible which criteria or algorithm the author, in the 16 statements of his questionnaire, applies to the seven culture dimensions.
Fourthly, the focus of the model is how and why a particular behavioural pattern transpires. The decision to act in a more or less differentiated way bears the following key question within the company’s decision-making-scope: in what way should a company customize? Culture, on the other hand, is that which is created by mankind, for example created by ploughing and sowing (processing nature). Structuralists study activities as diverse as food preparation and serving rituals, religious rites, games, literary and non-literary texts, and other forms of entertainment to discover the deep structures through which meaning is produced and reproduced within a culture. From a formal point of view it is irrelevant whether a country, sub- or corporate culture is being addressed.
Hofstede subsumes symbols, heroes and rituals under the term practices, as they are visible to an outside observer. A mere description of Indonesian consumer behaviour would not have allowed a comparison with other countries. The solutions to these problems with which different people have come up can, however, be extremely diverse.
Hofstede (2005: 5) writes that the personality of an individual is their personal set of mental programs that does not need to be shared with any other individual. Furthermore, the sample survey was criticized because it was limited to employees of a single company, thus lacking external validity.
From many colleagues’ point of view, Hofstede would simply reject that the phenomenon of a transformation of national culture would be comparable to a change of values even though numerous studies indicate the opposite. To sum up, according to reviewers, the book has dramatically facilitated culture comparative studies and continues to be the best available source for national culture analysis. The reader has also to ask how two or three questions per culture dimension are weighted, i.e. An integration of both models is therefore justifiable on the grounds that the models (originally developed for intercultural management and not for intercultural marketing) were only intended to reflect the internal corporate sphere. Upon presentation of the ten orientations, a summary of this analysis’ results will follow. While the room for decision-making is limited (for example when it is a question of the influence of legal factors) in other cases the advantages must be weighed up carefully against the disadvantages. It has been only since the end of the 18th century that the expression has been used in the context of comparing progress of mankind and various societies (for example, the European, Asian or African culture).
Nevertheless, values are not deeply changed, as there is the need to fit in, to behave in ways that are acceptable to the groups we belong to.
It is based on traits that are partly inherited from the individual’s unique set of genes and partly learned.
It was undoubtedly problematic, too, that country and culture could simply be interchanged. Human-Time relationship is closely related, if not identical, to Hall’s polychronic and monochronic time perceptions. Because it is largely unknown why culture developed in different ways and what differences signify, the concept has been criticized by some as random. Learned here, means modified by the influence of collective programming (culture) as well as by unique personal experiences.
To exchange the former as a proxy variable for the latter is often doomed to failure since the majority of countries is multicultural (Nassig et al. The Human-Nature relationship appears to be closely related to the Human-Nature relationship in Strodbeck and Kluckhohn's (1969) value orientations. To compound this, the individual countries were given a ranking according to the 16 questions but were not however given a ranking in the seven dimensions.
Yet at the same time, the underlying value claims are frequently the result of very little data, or are derived from a limited number of questions. The cultural environment is always an influential parameter in the decision-making process for marketing when culturally sensitive services in heterogeneous cultural environments need to be marketed. The life world of consumers is far more complex than the corporate sphere which was the object of study of Trompenaars and Hofstede (particularly intercultural communication). Therefore, a binding core definition would neither be available nor expected in the future. It may also conceal certain dimensions, or values may be wrongly derived because of certain situational influences on the respondents.
With regard to this complexity the analytical diagram with consumers as its research object had to fulfil the requirements of a higher information demand, general practical orientation of marketing and intercultural marketing’s general necessity to work in a culture comparative manner.
Various theories or currents can be differentiated according to whether they focus on the genesis of culture more or less statically (Sobrevilla 1971). Moreover, a differentiated culture model could presumably have been developed had they had a representative sample which included employees from other companies. In the first half of the 20th century a division between anthropology and sociology occurred which was equally the result and the expression of a then acute rivalry between both disciplines. In contrast to anthropologists who retained their original static conception and interpreted culture in terms of behavioural patterns (culture patterns), sociologists developed a comparatively dynamic perspective. Additionally, numerous following investigations have shown that the measuring approach, initially exclusively targeted at the work sphere, was valid when applied to other fields (e.g.
Both describe culture in a scientific language as a specific combination of (1) values, (2) basic underlying beliefs and (3) presumptions for a society (about humankind and the world). The effects of various cultural influences on several behavioural areas were systematically investigated in the course of the research discipline’s development. These included consumer behaviour, negotiation and conflict management, the former being the research subject of this thesis.



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