Cyclone separators and centrifugal separators utilize centrifugal, gravitational, and inertial forces to remove fine particles suspended in air or gas.
Conductivity electrodes are devices that measure the salinity and conductivity of water samples.
Industrial thermometers are basic bulb style thermometers designed for use in many industrial applications.
The uniform distribution is used to model the time of occurrence of events that are equally likely to occur at any time during an interval. This application provides a statistical representation for a shallow-water wave height distribution. Notice also that in the continuous case, the probability that the function is exactly equal to a specific value is zero, since a specific value has no area under the curve. A uniform distribution is a continuous distribution that assigns the same probability to any subinterval of the same length in a given fixed interval. Note that in the case of a uniform distribution the area is easy to calculate geometrically, since we know the area of a rectangle. Furthermore, for any $\mu$ and $\sigma$ that we choose we obtain different values for $f(x)$. If $\mu=0$ and $\sigma=1$, then we say that the random variable follows a standard normal distribution and then it is often denoted by Z, instead of X. As mentioned above, the area above the x-axis and under the curve has to be one, and the area under the curve represents the probability. If instead of looking for the probability, we look for the value of z for a given percentile or probability (or area), the problem is typically called finding the z-score.
Similarly, if we are looking for the value of z such that the area under the curve to the left of z is 0.10, then by analogy with the paragraph above we are looking for the critical value z10, indicating that 10% of the area is to the left of this value.
In most cases in which the normal distribution plays a role, the mean is not zero and the standard deviation is not 1. If instead of looking for the probability, we look for the value of x for a given percentile (= probability or area), the problem can be called finding the x-score.
Example: Suppose that for the example above we try to find the height corresponding to the 90th percentile. ELECTRIC SYSTEM GENERAL The electric systems in the United States and Canada are interconnected, forming a network of electric facilities all across the continent.
Energy product testing services test, evaluate, and analyze the safety, efficiency and performance of energy storage, power generation, and transmission systems that use conventional, renewable or alternative energy.
Microturbines are small fuel-burning turbines used in localized or mobile power generation and mechanical drive applications.
Energy production and exploration services specialize in electrical power generation, oil and gas exploration and extraction, fuel refining, and other utility-related services.
Turbine repair and maintenance services provide maintenance, overhauls and repairs to wind, gas, steam and water turbines. Alternating-current (ac) transmission is the movement of ac electrical energy from one location to another, such as from a terminal at a generating station to a substation near a load center. The conversion of energy to useful power constitutes a major portion of the endeavors of the Mechanical Engineering profession. TYPES OF CIRCUITS 1 A series circuit is one in which all components are connected in tandem as in Figs. The purpose of a distribution transformer is to reduce the primary voltage of the electric distribution system to the utilization voltage serving the customer.
Single-phase transformers output single-phase AC power, typically while stepping-up or stepping-down the voltage between two circuits. Board mount transformers are transformers designed to be embedded in or mounted on computer boards. Distribution transformers are pole-type transformers that supply relatively small amounts of power to residences. Power transformers convert power-level voltages from one level or phase configuration to another.
A transformer consists of two windings viz., primary and secondary coupled to a common magnetic core. System voltages fluctuate due to the ever-changing load consumption characteristics of customers. The redistribution of GST revenue that occurs as a result of differences between the proportion of Indigenous people in States' populations is referred to (in CGC parlance) as the effect of Indigeneity.
The CGC does not directly or separately measure the overall difference between spending on Indigenous and non-Indigenous people to determine its estimate of the redistribution due to Indigeneity.
It often appears that stakeholders have more interest in the CGC's tables showing the redistribution by disability (Table 7 in the 2012 Update report) than in the tables showing the redistributions by expenditure category. On average, States spend more on providing services per Indigenous person than per non-Indigenous person, especially in areas such as health, justice and welfare and housing, which are increasing as a proportion of State budgets. The Northern Territory is the main recipient of GST due to Indigeneity because the Northern Territory's proportion of Indigenous population, at around 30 per cent, is substantially greater than the average, at around 2.5 per cent.
Figure 7.1 below shows the proportion of each State's population represented by Indigenous people. Source: ABS Experimental Estimates and Projections, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 1991 to 2021, Cat. Indigeneity has the biggest influence on GST distribution on the expense side, and the second largest overall, after revenue from mining royalties.
Note: Figures from 2010 and onward are not directly comparable with earlier years due to method and presentational changes. Until the current year, the redistribution attributed to Indigeneity had been increasing, in line with the increase in the redistribution from all expenditure disabilities in recent years.
Although increases in average spending and growth in the GST pool increase the size of the redistribution of GST due to Indigeneity, the main driver of the redistribution is the diverse distribution of Indigenous people across States.


Over time, several perceptions have developed around the redistribution of GST attributed to Indigeneity that cast doubt over the 'fairness' of the HFE system. Some commentators have suggested that the level of Indigenous 'disability'4 should reduce over time, or at least not increase. In a robust methodology, cost disabilities should be used to make allowances for unavoidable factors that impact on state service delivery.
Disabilities that can be reduced through policy interventions should be handled through direct Commonwealth assistance — not through the HFE system.
As the current system of fiscal equalisation is based on average spending across all States, the CGC will give each State the average capacity to address disadvantages and make no assessment of what needs to be spent to tackle any particular disadvantage. Giving [the Northern Territory] the same fiscal capacity as other States to deliver services to its citizens means maintaining any pre-existing differentials. The averaging approach of the current system therefore does not provide sufficient funds to 'fix' any particular disadvantage. In summary, under the current system, as long as the Northern Territory (or any other State) has a disproportionately large share of its population being Indigenous, there will be a substantial effect on the GST distribution from Indigeneity.
Some commentators have said that 'excessive' spending by the Northern Territory on services to Indigenous people acts to maintain the size of the Indigenous disability and ensures that the Northern Territory continues to receive a large GST distribution.
In fact, because the CGC's assessments are based on a calculation of average spending by States on Indigenous people and States contribute to the average level of spending in proportion to their share of total Indigenous residents, the States with the most Indigenous people have the greatest effect on the average. The Northern Territory refutes this claim, based upon the findings from the 2010 Indigenous Expenditure Report (IER) released by the Indigenous Expenditure Report Steering Committee in February 2011.
Other States have not directly made claims regarding the expenditure of the Northern Territory on Indigenous people, however, a few States suggest that Indigenous influences should be treated as a 'special case' and removed from the HFE system. Table 7.2 below shows the spending per capita ratio on Indigenous to non-Indigenous people for each State and for the Commonwealth government. Source: Indigenous Expenditure Report Steering Committee, 2010 Indigenous Expenditure Report, tables 3 and 4.
Leaving aside the fact that the Northern Territory asserts that it does indeed spend its funding on Indigenous services, as the current system of fiscal equalisation is based on average spending across all States, it is not the appropriate vehicle to promote above average spending in a particular State or States. Older people (aged over 65 years) and people living in low socio-economic areas are also higher cost user groups for State services.
Notwithstanding that some of the perceptions of the need for change cited above may not be entirely well-founded, the Panel has considered several suggestions for how the treatment of Indigeneity might be improved.
Removing the Northern Territory (or the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory) from the equalisation pool completely, and treating them separately. Removing that part of the GST redistribution relating to Indigeneity from the equalisation process and funding it through other payments would change the mix of tied and untied funding, but not the total Commonwealth funds to each State. Table 7.3 below shows the change in the mix of tied and untied funding for each State of this approach for 2012-13. This approach would not strip out all Indigeneity costs from the HFE system — only those related to the difference between average costs and having above (or below) average costs to provide services to Indigenous people. Advantages of this approach might be increased certainty around the funding levels for Indigenous service delivery, without any change to the total level of funding received by all States.
While there is some support from States for removing Indigeneity from the HFE system, the support is usually conditional on extra funding being made available. Indigenous disadvantage should be addressed outside HFE as its inclusion introduces significant measurement difficulties for the assessments. The ACT suggests reviewing the Indigeneity assessment as it is a significant source of disparity in the relativities but is currently based on unreliable data.
Removing Indigenous influences from equalisation and funding Indigenous services separately would create significant complexity in intergovernmental relations and is unlikely to lead to any of the intended results such as improving outcomes for Indigenous Australians. In relation to the suggestion that indigenous influences be removed from the HFE system and addressed separately, it is not clear to Tasmania how this would actually result in greater simplification. Another approach, also based on the notion that HFE works best when States are relatively homogenous, could be to remove the Northern Territory (and, possibly, the Australian Capital Territory) from the HFE system in some way and treat the two territories separately.
In this way there may be some simplification gains in the CGC's calculations as, with the Northern Territory excluded, fewer data adjustments would meet the CGC's materiality thresholds.
A key question for such an approach would be at what level to fix the Northern Territory and Australian Capital Territory's relativity or GST payment.
Depending upon how frequently the Australian Capital Territory and Northern Territory's allocations of the pool were reviewed, this approach would not recognise changes in their fiscal circumstances in the same way as for the other States.
The Northern Territory opposes this approach, saying that it would have significant implications for the Territory's objectives of Statehood and 'impede' the Territory's sovereignty. Under the current equalisation framework, the [Northern] Territory is treated the same as every jurisdiction.
It has also been suggested that both territories could be taken outside of the CGC assessment process, with the Commonwealth assuming direct funding responsibility. In its submission, Western Australia says that its Indigeneity costs are not fully recognised due to population undercounts and insufficient recognition of higher costs. Western Australia considers that ABS population estimates undercount its Indigenous population and also argues that the CGC wrongly assumes that Indigenous persons are equally disadvantaged across the nation in comparable areas, whereas Western Australian Indigenous people in fact suffer higher disadvantage.
The CGC assumes that indigenous persons are equally disadvantaged across the nation in comparable areas (apart from an indirect socio-economic status measure for hospitals that may produce perverse results). In relation to the population dispersion assessments, Western Australia says that its costs relating to providing services in remote areas are higher than in most States.
While the Panel recognises Western Australia's interest in a more comprehensive assessment of Indigenous costs and cost weights, to do this would increase complexity, could lead to further claims of false precision and, if additional costs were found, would actually increase the amount redistributed because of Indigeneity. The Panel also encourages the CGC to explore whether assessments could be developed to more directly measure needs due to disabilities than the category of spending approach currently adopted. The Panel believes that Indigeneity (and, indeed, the Territories) should continue to remain in the HFE system, noting that the Terms of Reference state that GST revenue will continue to be distributed to the States as untied payments. The Panel considers that where additional measures to address disadvantage are required, these measures would best be undertaken outside the HFE system through other mechanisms.


1 As discussed in Chapter 2, page 26, historical needs are indexed by the growth in the GST pool between the assessment and application years. 3 As a result of presentational changes from the 2010 Review, the redistributions in 2010 and subsequent years have been rescaled for comparison with earlier years.
4 The CGC defines a 'disability' as an influence beyond a State's control that requires it to spend more (or less) per capita than the average to provide the average level of service. 12 The CGC has included in its 2012 Update report (page 71) that total assessed spending by States on Indigenous people in 2010-11 was around $15.4 billion. 15 Australian Capital Territory submission to the Review of GST Distribution, October 2011, pages 18-19. 18 Northern Territory submission to the Review of the GST Distribution, October 2011, page 64. 21 Northern Territory submission to the Review of GST Distribution, October 2011, pages 51-52.
23 Western Australian submission to the GST Distribution Review, October 2011, pages 65-66. Distribution is that system component which delivers the energy from the generators, or the transmission system, to the customers. Protective relays and monitoring relays detect or monitor for abnormal power system conditions. Electrical utility services are involved in the design, siting, construction, service, repair, and inspection of electrical utility facilities, substations, and transmission and distribution lines. Many transmission and distribution lines are built by contracting companies employing linemen and cablemen.
Electric distribution circuits have been installed underground in large cities for many years to serve the central business areas. Since the standard deviation is 1, this represents the probability that a normal distribution is between 2 standard deviations away from the mean, and we know from before that this is 0.95. That value that we find is called a critical value, and is sometimes denoted as z90, indicating that 90% of the area is to the left of that value. Since the height of women follows a normal distribution but not a standard normal, we need to standardize first. In other words we are trying to find the height that corresponds to being taller than 90 percent of the women (in this case).
That value is then called a critical value, and is sometimes denoted as z90, indicating that 90% of the area is to the left of that value. It is difficult to distinguish the electric system of one company from neighboring utilities.
A distribution transformer is a static device constructed with two or more windings used to transfer alternating-current electric power by electromagnetic induction from one circuit to another at the same frequency but with different values of voltage and current. Lightning flashes are currents of electricity flowing from one cloud to another or between the cloud and earth.
Most electric transmission and distribution circuits are three-phase and require three lines to show them schematically in detail. Is the Territory an Engine of Growth or a 'drag' on the Federation, paper presented to the Charles Darwin Symposium, Charles Darwin University, 2003.
It includes the substations that reduce the high voltage of the transmission system to a level suitable for distribution and the circuits that radiate from the substation to the customers (Fig. By the symmetry of the normal density curve, the area between 0 and z10 is the same as the area between 0 and z90, namely, 0.40. Figure 2.1 is a single-line diagram showing schematically a portion of an elementary electric system. Figure 15.1 shows distribution transformers in stock at an electric utility company service building. Caution should therefore be exercised before drawing more detailed conclusions from the report's figures.
Most electric utility companies will have many generating stations supplying a very large, complex, and intricate network of transmission and distribution circuits. The distribution transformers available for use for various applications, as shown, include pole-type (Figs.
The transformers may be pole-type or pad-mounted The distribution circuits that carry power from the substations to the local load areas are known as express feeders, distribution main feeders, or primary circuits and generally operate at voltages between 2400 and 34,500 volts.
The bulk of the electric energy in the United States is generated in fossil-fired steam turbine-driven generating stations using coal, natural gas, and oil fuel. The loading of distribution circuits varies with customer load density, type of load supplied, and conditions peculiar to the area served.
Hydroelectric generating stations using water pressure to turn a turbine have been constructed at most of the sites where there is sufficient waterfall to economically generate electricity. The nominal capacity of distribution circuits operating at different voltage levels is itemized in Table 5.1. Nuclear generating stations use the heat from an atomic chain reaction to generate steam to turn a turbine generator. The voltage is raised to transmission levels in a transmission substation located at the generating station. The unit is equipped with a surge arrester, a low-voltage circuit breaker, and an overload warning light.
Transmission circuits or lines operating at 138,000 to 765,000 volts deliver the energy to the load area.



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