5, 2000 with Bill Scott of the College of Wooster, and updated in January 2003 by Doc Scribe. APA style is the style of writing used by journals published by the American Psychological Association (APA). Some of the more commonly used rules and reference formats from the manual are listed here. Explain what an abbreviation means the first time it occurs: American Psychological Association (APA). If an abbreviation is commonly used as a word, it does not require explanation (IQ, LSD, REM, ESP). In using standard abbreviations for measurements, like m for meter, do not add an s to make it plural (100 seconds is 100 s); when referring to several pages in a reference or citation, use the abbreviation pp.
Capitalize Black and White when the words are used as proper nouns to refer to social groups. The term Asian American is preferable to Oriental, and again the manual recommends being specific about country of origin, when this is known (for example, Chinese or Vietnamese). Inuit (plural) to "Eskimo." But some Alaska natives are non-Inuit people who prefer to be called Eskimo.
Capitalize names of conditions, groups, effects, and variables only when definite and specific.
Capitalize specific course and department titles (GSU Department of Psychology, Psych 150). Do not capitalize when referring to generalities (any department, any introductory course). Do not hyphenate common prefixes (posttest, prewar, multiphase, nonsignificant) unless needed for clarity (pre-existing).
Do not hyphenate foreign, letter, numeral terms (a priori hypothesis, Type A behavior) when the meaning is clear without it (least squares solution, heart rate scores). Do not hyphenate if a noun comes first (a therapy was client centered, results of t tests). Hyphenate adjectival phrases (role-playing technique, high-anxiety group, two-way analysis).
Hyphenate compound adjectives preceding nouns (client-centered therapy, t-test scores) unless the compound adjective involves a superlative (best written paper).
Hyphenate if the words could be misunderstood without a hyphen (re-pair, un-ionized, co-worker).


Use parentheses to introduce an abbreviation, for example, the galvanic skin response (GSR). Spell out numbers which are inexact, or below 10 and not grouped with numbers over 10 (one-tailed t test, eight items, nine pages, three-way interaction, five trials). Use numerals for numbers 10 and above, or lower numbers grouped with numbers 10 and above (for example, from 6 to 12 hours of sleep).
Use combinations of written and Arabic numerals for back-to-back modifiers (five 4-point scales). Use metric abbreviations with figures (4 km) but not when written out (many meters distant).
Add emphasis in a quotation with italics, immediately followed by the words [italics added] in brackets. For quotations over 40 words in length, indent and single space the whole block (double space in papers for review or publication). Use three dots with a space before, between, and after each (ellipsis points) when omitting material, four if the omitted material includes the end of a sentence (with no space before the first). Footnotes are rarely used in APA papers, except for author affiliation and contact information--the author note.
Indent paragraphs, block quotes, and hanging indents one-half inch (1.25 cm or five to seven spaces). Word processor features--such as bold and italic fonts and hanging indents--should be used as appropriate.
Place tables close to where they are first mentioned in your text, but do not split a table across pages.
Label each table beginning with the table number followed by a description of the contents.
For old works cite the translation or the original and modern copyright dates if both are known, for example: (Aristotle, trans. Disregard apostrophes, spaces, and capitals in alphabetizing; D'Arcy comes after Daagwood, Decker comes after de Chardin. Single-author citations precede multiple-author citations of the same year (Zev, 1990 then Zev et al., 1990). Many documents are now available online as exact facsimile copies of the print original (usually in Adobe's PDF format). Note: When directly quoting or citing a document, a page number or other means of identifying a specific passage is required.


Note: Occasionally a research journal may be paged by issue, that is, page numbering in each issue begins at page one. Sorry, we couldn't find any templates that matched your search.Try fewer filters, or you can Design Your Own Invitation. I have made every effort to keep this document accurate, but readers have occasionally pointed out errors and inconsistencies which required correction.
The manual itself contains all this information and more, organized and worded differently, indexed and illustrated.
Indent five more spaces (one-half inch, 1.25 cm) if there are paragraphs within the long quotation after the first. If there are errors, introduce the word sic italicized and bracketed--for exammple [sic]--immediately after the error to indicate it was part of the original source. In general, use letters after years to distinguish multiple publications by the same author in the same year.
Add the number in the volume (in parentheses in plain text) to these references immediately after the volume number, as in the example above. The manual specifies that hyphens should not be used in multiword names such as Asian American or African American. As a rule, use the phrase "people with _______" (for example, "people with AIDS," not "AIDS sufferers").
311), but she did not say which effect; Lopez found that "the effect disappeared within minutes" (p. For example: Several studies (Johnson, 1988, 1990a, 1990b, 1995 in press-a, 1995 in press-b) showed the same thing. Effect of Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) in major depressive disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Effect of Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) in major depressive disorder: A randomized controlled trial [Electronic version].



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