Board Computer (SBC) based embedded systems, as used in varied Airborne, Vehicular and Naval applications. Our latest research report has been released - The 2016 BSA Global Cloud Computing Scorecard (a joint research effort with Galexia) ranks the cloud computing readiness of 24 countries that account for 80 percent of the world s IT markets. Our latest research report has been released - The 2016 BSA Global Cloud Computing Scorecard (a joint research effort with Galexia) ranks the cloud computing readiness of 24 countries that account for 80 percent of the world’s IT markets. The 2016 BSA Global Cloud Computing Scorecard ranks the cloud computing readiness of 24 countries that account for 80 percent of the world’s IT markets.
In terms of overall ranking, the biggest improvers were South Africa (moving up six places) and Canada (moving up five places).
The BSA Global Cloud Scorecard analyzes the legal and regulatory framework and broadband infrastructure of 24 countries that together make up 80 percent of the global ICT market.
The study includes a detailed country-by-country analysis of legislation, regulations, case law, government policy and standards. The study includes detailed country-by-country analysis of legislation, regulations, case law, government policy and standards.
Galexia director Chris Connolly will be assisting in the presentation of a two day expert meeting on Data Protection and Privacy: Implications for Trade and Development on 19-20 April in Geneva. A highlight of the E-Commerce Week is the Ad Hoc Expert Meeting on Data Protection and Privacy: Implications for Trade and Development (19-20 April).
This ad hoc expert meeting will contribute to ensure global communication on the subject to understand emerging topics in data protection and privacy, new challenges and opportunities, as it relates to unlocking the potential for cross-border trade. The Ad Hoc expert meeting will commence with the presentation of the UNCTAD Study on Data Protection and International Data Flows. Galexia has published an article on the proposed EU-US Privacy Shield, which is set to replace the former Safe Harbor as the key mechanism for the transfer of personal data from the European Union to the United States.
The draft Privacy Shield adequacy decision by the European Commission is yet to be formalised - the commission must first seek the opinion of the influential Article 29 Working party.
The former Safe Harbor framework was the subject of extensive research and analysis by Galexia, including a major report in 2008 followed by ongoing monitoring and the submission of evidence and reports to the EU and US authorities. The European Union Network and Information Security Directive (the NIS Directive) has moved a step closer to implementation after the EU's Internal Market Committee voted to support the Directive on 16 January 2016.
The European Union Network and Information Security Directive (the NIS Directive) has moved a step closer to implementation after the EU's Internal Market Committee voted to support the Directive on 16 January 2016.
Galexia has been at the forefront of studying the potential impact of the NIS Directive, both in Europe and beyond. The subsequent Asia Pacific CyberSecurity Maturity Dashboard (including 10 country reports and case studies considers the maturity of APAC countries through the lens of the NIS directive.
Galexia Director Chris Connolly will deliver a special presentation at the Privacy Laws and Business Conference at Cambridge University on July 7. The presentation will mark the fifteenth anniversary of the launch of the EU-US Safe Harbor, and is titled: 'The Safe Harbor at Fifteen' - A brief history of enforcement and reform. The presentation will be followed by a panel discussion including Commissioner Julie Brill (US Federal Trade Commission) and Bruno Gencarelli (Head of Data Protection at the European Commission Directorate General for Justice). The report assesses each country against criteria deemed essential for effective cybersecurity protection.
The full country reports are available for download and give an overview of the cybersecurity landscape, highlighting key cybersecurity legislation and policy, as well as the main entities currently operating within each jurisdiction. It is with great sadness that we report the loss of Galexia Associate and close friend Claro Parlade, who has died in the Philippines after a period of illness.
Claro was a well known IT lawyer in the Philippines who played a key role in the development of cyberlaws in the Asia Pacific region. In June 2015 Galexia completed a Privacy Review of the National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS) for Diabetes Australia.
The Report evaluates national laws, rules and policies in all 28 EU Member States against 25 criteria deemed essential for effective cybersecurity protections. The full Member State reports give an overview of the cybersecurity landscape, based on the set of criteria outlined below, highlighting key cybersecurity legislation and policy, as well as the main entities currently operating within each jurisdiction. This work complements Galexia’s other research reports for BSA, including the soon to be Global Cloud Readiness Scorecard published in 2012, 2013 and in April 2015. Galexia Director Chris Connolly will present a paper on Global Issues in Cybersecurity and Privacy in Geneva on 25 March 2015. The Expert Meeting on Cyberlaws and Regulations for Enhancing E-Commerce has been organised by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The session will explore recent developments related to e-commerce in respect of data breaches and fraud.
Galexia has a long history of working with UNCTAD (and ASEAN and other regional groupings) on international cyberlaw issues. In August 2014 Galexia began work on an important research project for BSA - The Software Alliance. The study will include a detailed country-by-country analysis of legislation, regulations, case law, government policy and standards.
Galexia conducted a Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) for the Victorian Department of State Development, Business Innovation (DSDBI) on the proposed migration of the Resource Rights Allocation and Management (RRAM) Project to a commercial cloud provider. Galexia conducted a Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) for the Victorian Department of State Development, Business & Innovation (DSDBI) on the proposed migration of the Resource Rights Allocation and Management (RRAM) Project to a commercial cloud provider.
Galexia has particular experience in advising Government agencies in their successful migration to cloud and externally hosted services.
In July 2014 Galexia began work on an important research project for BSA - The Software Alliance.
The countries included in the study are Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. This work complements our earlier research reports for BSA, including the Global Cloud Readiness Scorecard published in 2012 and 2013. The new report will include a detailed country-by-country analysis of legislation, regulations, government policy, standards and infrastructure related to Cybersecurity. Galexia has been appointed to the Department of Communications Technology Advice Panel to provide specialised services to the Department. In June 2014 Galexia began work on an important research project for BSA - The Software Alliance. Galexia Director Chris Connolly presented a paper on The Future of the EU-US Safe Harbor at a major privacy research conference in Brussels on 1 June 2014. The presentation focused on enforcement issues, and follows previous Galexia research on compliance issues in the EU-US Safe Harbor. Galexia completed a Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) for the Victorian Department of State Development, Business Innovation (DSDBI) on the migration of Business Victoria Online (BVO) services to a commercial cloud services provider.
Galexia completed a Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) for the Victorian Department of State Development, Business & Innovation (DSDBI) on the migration of Business Victoria Online (BVO) services to a commercial cloud services provider. Galexia provided a range of cloud and privacy advice and developed a re-usable template and checklist driven approach for future PIAs.
In early 2014 Galexia completed a Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) for proposed changes to the customer due diligence requirements of Australia s Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorism Financing Framework (the CDD project).
In early 2014 Galexia completed a Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) for proposed changes to the customer due diligence requirements of Australia’s Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorism Financing Framework (the CDD project). The PIA was one of the first PIAs conducted in accordance with the new Australian Privacy Principles (APPs) that came into force in March 2014.
Galexia was able to advise AUSTRAC on how to incorporate important changes to customer due diligence requirements that form part of international commitments to tackle money laundering, while complying with Australia's revised privacy legislation. Galexia Director Chris Connolly appeared at the House of Lords EU Sub-Committee on Home Affairs, Health and Education in London on 12 March 2014. The Committee was investigating the potential reform of the EU US Safe Harbor Framework which allows some EU personal data to be transferred to the United States.
On 7 May 2014 the Committee issued a final report, calling for improvements to the Safe Harbor. Galexia Director Chris Connolly appeared at the Commonwealth Cybersecurity Forum in London on 5 March 2014.
Galexia has played a key role in assessing national, regional and global approaches to cloud computing privacy and security policies. In October 2013 Galexia and Doll Martin Associates strengthened their existing partnership and announced a closer strategic alliance.
In October 2013 Galexia and Doll Martin Associates strengthened their existing partnership and announced a closer strategic alliance.
The Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (the LIBE Committee) is holding an inquiry on electronic mass surveillance of EU citizens, and Chris will appear before the Committee in Strasbourg on Monday October 7.
Galexia and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) have released a major report, entitled Review of E-commerce Legislation Harmonization in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (2013). Galexia and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) have released a major report, entitled Review of E-commerce Legislation Harmonization in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (2013). This 2013 review documents the significant advances made by ASEAN countries in the area of e-commerce laws. Galexia’s extensive and detailed work with ASEAN has assisted ASEAN be the first region in the developing world to adopt a harmonized legal framework for e-commerce and it is the most advanced developing region in terms of implementing harmonized e-commerce laws. The review includes detailed regional and national analysis of e-commerce laws, privacy, cybercrime and cloud computing. Galexia provided the Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO) with options for implementing Single Sign-On (SSO) to external Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) applications. Galexia was engaged to undertake an independent review on the operations and effectiveness of the Queensland Personal Identification Information in Property Data (PIIPD) Code. Galexia has played an ongoing role in the development, implementation and review of a code-of-conduct for QVAS (Queensland Valuation and Sales System). This code-of-conduct is an excellent example of successful privacy self-regulation in the information broking sector.
The 2013 Global Cloud Computing Scorecard the first-ever report to track year-over-year change in the international policy landscape for cloud computing shows that cloud readiness is improving, if unevenly. These findings come against the backdrop of the massive and well-documented movement to cloud services by consumers, businesses, and governments.


Countries around the world are improving the legal environment for cloud computing — though at an uneven pace that risks undermining the full economic potential of cloud technologies. The new 2013 BSA Cloud Scorecard builds on an inaugural edition of the report released last year.
The study finds that policy improvements in many of the world’s biggest IT markets have stalled. The study evaluates countries in seven policy areas critical to the market for cloud computing services — data privacy, cybersecurity, cybercrime, intellectual property, technology interoperability and legal harmonization, free trade, and ICT infrastructure. Malaysia crossed the divide between mature and developing economies by bolstering cybercrime and IP laws and opening itself for increased digital trade. Canada, Russia, and India all moved up the rankings by implementing international IP agreements. Indonesia and Vietnam are among the countries tying up foreign cloud providers in red tape, imposing data-location requirements, or restricting the flow of data across borders. The 2nd Cloud Readiness Index (CRI) developed by the Asia Cloud Computing Association evaluates key attributes in order to identify the state of readiness for cloud computing in 14 markets across the Asia region. The Index is designed to look at the state of readiness for cloud computing in markets across the Asia Pacific region - especially how we see regulation and policy work by governments - to help advance cloud computing in Asia. The Index incorporates information from several sources, including the Global Cloud Computing Scorecard (2012) completed by Galexia for the Business Software Alliance (BSA) in February 2012. On 22 February 2012, the Business Software Alliance (BSA) launched the BSA Global Cloud Computing Readiness Scorecard (2012) developed by Galexia. The first-of-its-kind Scorecard analyses and ranks the legal and regulatory framework and broadband infrastructure of 24 countries based on seven policy categories that measure the countries’ preparedness to support the growth of cloud computing.
The Scorecard also includes a detailed country-by-country analysis of legislation, regulations, case law, government policy and standards. On 14 February 2012 Galexia presented the new Global Cloud Readiness Scorecard at the Cloud Connect conference in Santa Clara USA. In September 2011 the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) issued a completely revised and updated Code of Conduct for Electronic Transactions. In September 2011 the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) issued a completely revised and updated Code of Conduct for Electronic Transactions. Galexia Director Chris Connolly was a member of the expert working group revising the Code - a process that took two years to complete and involved three rounds of public consultation.
Galexia assisted CHOICE with its submission regarding the 2007 review of the Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) Code of Conduct, as conducted by the Australian Securities and Investment Commission (ASIC). The paper recommends the introduction of private sector privacy legislation based on a mix of EU and APEC best practice. Singapore joins a growing list of countries with proposed and draft privacy legislation in the region. The Cloud Readiness Index developed by the Asia Cloud Computing Association evaluates key attributes in order to identify the state of readiness for cloud computing in 14 markets across the Asia region. The index incorporates information from several sources, including the Asia Pacific Digital Economy and Cloud Computing Scorecard completed by Galexia for the Business Software Alliance (BSA) in March 2011. Galexia director Chris Connolly is the joint author of two articles on privacy and health data. Regulation and Perception Concerning the Use of Health Data for Research in Australia, Christine M O'Keefe and Chris Connolly was published in the Electronic Journal of Health Informatics, Vol 6, No 2 (2011): Special Issue on Smart Healthcare Systems. The primary objective of this review is to provide an overview of the issues involved in balancing privacy and access in the context of health research.
The topic of our review is of current interest in the context of the Australian Government National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) investment in the Population Health Research Network (PHRN), which aims to provide improved accessibility to health-related data for the research sector. Although there is little evidence of privacy complaints or breaches in health research, it seems clear that privacy regulation and privacy perception are both key factors in the health research context, acting as potential restraints on some types of research that could deliver considerable public benefit. Recent Australian Law Reform Commission recommendations leave room for technical solutions to play an increased role in allowing personal information to be de-identified for research purposes.
An Overview of International CyberSecurity Awareness Raising and Educational Initiatives - a report for the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) by Galexia in partnership with the Cyberspace Law and Policy Centre, was launched in CyberSecurity Awareness week - 30 May 2011. The study included research and advice on 68 Cybersecurity initiatives (both government and private sector) in 11 jurisdictions.
Galexia Director Peter van Dijk and Galexia s Singapore based Associate Yee Fen Lim presented the Asia Pacific Digital Economy and Cloud Computing Scorecard at an industry workshop in Hong Kong in April 2011. Galexia Director Peter van Dijk and Galexia’s Singapore based Associate Yee Fen Lim presented the Asia Pacific Digital Economy and Cloud Computing Scorecard at an industry workshop in Hong Kong in April 2011. The Scorecard is a comparative analysis of major cyberlaw issues and digital infrastructure in 14 Asia-pacific countries. The workshop was attended by industry associations and business leaders from countries in the region, with strong representation from both developed and emerging economies.
Galexia has completed a comprehensive review of digital economy laws and infrastructure in 14 Asia Pacific countries - the Asia Pacific Digital Economy and Cloud Computing Scorecard. The 14 countries in the study are: Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam.
The Joint Standing Committee on Treaties has recommended that Australia accede to two important cyberlaw Conventions. The United Nations Convention on the Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracts (the Convention) is the first United Nations Convention to address legal issues arising from the digital economy.
The Convention contains a comprehensive framework for establishing contracts using electronic communications. The Committee noted that in practice, businesses with disputes relating to electronic contracts have not sought to use legal means to resolve their disputes. The Committee recommended that Australia take binding treaty action to join the United Nations Convention on the Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracts.
Over 30 European member states and one non-member, the United States, are party to the Convention.
The Treaties Committee drew considerable attention the role of the Convention in boosting international co-operation to deal with increasingly sophisticated and diverse forms of computer-related criminal activity. Establishment of a 24 hour, 7 days per week point of contact to receive requests and provide assistance for searching and accessing computer data.
Naturally, these aspects of the Convention have raised some community concerns about privacy and security.
The Attorney-General’s Department submitted to the Treaties Committee that the capacity to access and preserve data is fundamental to the new mutual assistance arrangements. The Committee recommended that Australia should accede to the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime and update local laws as appropriate. Galexia provided detailed advice to the Victorian Department of Innovation, Industry and Regional Development (DIIRD) on cloud computing. In 2009 Galexia prepared an assessment for the Victorian Department of Innovation, Industry and Regional Development (DIIRD) on issues associated with cloud computing and issues concerning potential outsourcing and off-shoring of data.
The research for the report was a joint effort between Galexia and the Cyberspace Law and Policy Centre.
Galexia Director, Chris Connolly, presented at the Privacy Laws Business 23rd Annual International Conference in Cambridge, UK, from 5-7 July 2010.
Galexia Director, Chris Connolly, presented at the Privacy Laws & Business 23rd Annual International Conference in Cambridge, UK, from 5-7 July 2010. Galexia has previously conducted research into trustmark schemes and the Safe Harbor privacy framework. Malaysia’s lower house (Dewan Rakyat) has passed the Personal Data Protection Act 2009. Galexia and Qubit Consulting have implemented a major new identity management solution for the University of Western Sydney. Galexia and Qubit Consulting have conducted a major upgrade of identity systems for the University of Sydney.
On behalf of ACCAN, Galexia prepared a submission to the Expert Panel On Franchising And Unconscionable Conduct, established by the Government following a parliamentary inquiry into provisions of the Trade Practices Act 1974 that prohibit unconscionable conduct. The submission proposes to reform Australia’s consumer laws by inserting a new fairness test into Section 52 of the Trade Practices Act (and all legislation that mirrors that test).
Galexia Director, Chris Connolly spoke at Privacy in the Asia-Pacific: 2010 Update A comprehensive survey of privacy and data protection in the region on 2 March 2010. Chris discussed the overlap between regional privacy developments and global privacy standards. Galexia is preparing a report on interoperability for the Australian Communications Consumer Action Network (ACCAN), including a set of draft interoperability principles. ACCAN will present the report to COPOLCO, the Consumer Policy Committee of the International Standards Organisation (ISO).
Chris Connolly has been interviewed for the Privacy Laws and Business International newsletter, discussing the recent action taken by the US Federal Trade Commission against six organisations who falsely claimed membership of the US Safe Harbor. Prior to the FTC action, Galexia published a report highlighting the problem of false membership claims and data accuracy of the Safe Harbor list.
An outstanding opportunity to make a direct impact on the nation's defence by working on some of the most sophisticated radar equipment in Australia.
If you're a young woman who has completed the first year of a Bachelor of Aviation Degree at Griffith University and are currently in years two or three, you can apply for our Graduate Pilot Scheme (GPS). A once in a lifetime opportunity to perform maintenance on a range of helicopters in this large internationally renowned organisation. But the stratification between high-, middle- and lower-achieving country groups has widened, with the middle-ranking countries stagnating even as the high achievers continue to refine their policy environments.. These services in return open the door to unprecedented connectivity, productivity and competitiveness. For example, few countries are promoting policies of free trade or harmonization of cloud computing policies. The analysis is grouped under seven policy categories that are central to the growth and operation of cloud computing.
The assessments include an evaluation of enforcement and implementation of existing laws in each country, as well as an assessment of compliance with relevant treaties and global agreements where applicable. The week includes sessions on cybercrime readiness, consumer protection online, ICT policy reviews and the proposed Action Plan for Aid for eTrade.


Recent and expected regulatory changes in the field of data protection and privacy as well as diverging approaches in different parts of the world, call for renewed discussion on possible ways forward. Industry players and consumers, as well as governments and international organizations will present their perspectives and outline the latest developments, current practices and relevant frameworks. Representatives from public and private stakeholders will then take the floor to discuss thematic topics and present their experiences. However, it is almost certain that the Privacy Shield will be implemented in some form in the near future.
This was the final major hurdle in the passage of the Directive, and the Directive is expected to be endorsed by parliament in the near future. One of our key reports on CyberSecurity is the 2015 EU CyberSecurity Maturity Dashboard (including 28 Country reports and case studies). Claro collaborated with Galexia on several regional projects, and was based in the Galexia offices in Sydney for a short period while he worked on the development of the Philippines privacy legislation, (the Data Privacy Act 2012). He was a global expert, having lived, worked and studied in the Philippines, Australia, Canada, the US and Singapore.
Claro’s gentle combination of wit, insight, friendship, intellect and cyber-law expertise will be missed by all of us. It is intended to provide EU Member States with an opportunity to evaluate their countries’ policies against key metrics and maps a way forward by outlining the key building blocks for a strong cybersecurity legal framework. It will discuss ways to ensure confidence and trust in the use of the Internet through the enactment of legal and regulatory frameworks for protecting personal data, privacy and combatting cybercrime.
Galexia has been commissioned to prepare the 3rd Global Cloud Computing Readiness Scorecard, following the success of the 2012 and 2013 scorecards.
We have assisted in the development of a staged privacy and security assessments and compliance framework for prior migrations.
Galexia has been commissioned to prepare a report on Cybersecurity in 10 Asia Pacific nations.
Galexia has been commissioned to prepare a report on Cybersecurity in 28 European Union nations. The Safe Harbor Framework is a mechanism for allowing some EU data to be transferred to US businesses while protecting the privacy of individuals. Mr Connolly was asked to provide evidence on the level of privacy protection provided under the Framework.
He discussed the balance between privacy and security in the emerging cloud computing environment. Galexia and Doll Martin Associates have worked on projects together since 2005 and both organisations have decided to leverage their particular strengths and synergies by working together.
Chris's task will be to comment on the effectiveness of the US Safe Harbor Privacy Framework, a topic that Galexia has covered in several previous research papers, articles and speeches. The report is a follow-up to Galexia's previous AusAID funded project to harmonise e-commerce legal infrastructure in ASEAN (2004-2009) and Galexia’s earlier study for the UNCTAD Information Economy Report on ASEAN cyberlaw harmonisation in 2008.
It also makes proposals for accelerating the process of regional integration and harmonization as outlined in the ASEAN ICT Masterplan 2015.
Our consultants performed an analysis of AEMO's authentication requirements, internal and external applications, and existing processes. The review considered the operation of the Code and encompass accountability, effectiveness, efficiency, accessibility, independence and fairness. The Scorecard also finds that policy fragmentation persists, as some countries, aiming to promote local cloud markets, adopt laws and regulations that inhibit cross-border data flows or skew international competition. The biggest mover in the rankings is Singapore, which vaulted to fifth from 10th place a year ago by adopting a new privacy law that builds user trust while also promoting business innovation.
Notably, all six European Union countries covered in the study have lost ground in the rankings. It also provides insight into how regulation and policy work address cloud computing issues.
It measures key attributes and conditions that will help companies and individuals determine which markets are currently best placed for wide adoption of cloud computing services. The new scorecard examines the legal, regulatory and infrastructure environments in 24 countries, including a detailed assessment of their readiness for cloud computing. The new ePayments Code replaces the long standing EFT Code of Conduct, and applies to a broader range of online payment systems.
A public consultation paper issued by the Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts was released on 13 September 2011, titled: Proposed Consumer Data Protection Regime For Singapore. Interestingly, the paper also proposes the establishment of a national Do Not Call Register to fight against the intrusion of telemarketing. Appropriate collection, management, linkage and interrogation of health data can play a vital role in improving individuals’ health and wellbeing.
This initiative is likely to attract new researchers to the field of population health, and the current review may assist them in taking account of privacy regulation and perceptions when designing study and consent processes.
In particular, significant concerns regarding consent and de-identification remain in the community. Recent advances in the techniques for de-identifying personal information provide some hope that de-identification can occur without a negative impact on data quality.
The presentation focussed on areas where the region is making good progress on developing consistent and harmonised laws and regulations that facilitate cloud computing.
This important comparative analysis was commissioned by the Business Software Alliance (BSA).
The United Nations Convention on the Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracts (Electronic Contracts Convention) and the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime (Cybercrime Convention).
The Convention covers a range of criminal activity involving use of computers or computer networks, such as in unlawfully accessing computer data or interfering with computer systems, or where computer use is integral to the offence, such as for the distribution of child pornography via the Internet. Seventeen other nations have signed the Convention, including non-members Canada, Japan and South Africa. However, they also advised that Australia would lodge a Reservation to requirements for foreign investigation of real-time data to ensure they matched Australian thresholds - in particular, Australian law limits disclosure of real-time traffic data to investigations relating to a criminal offence punishable by at least three years’ imprisonment.
Communications privacy complaints: in search of the right path was launched by the Australian Communications Consumer Action Network (ACCAN). The Act introduces protections for personal information, including requirements of and restrictions on private sector data users and rights of data subjects. Galexia assisted with the design, development and implementation of automated provisioning, password synchronisation and data cleansing for University staff and students.
Galexia assisted with the development and implementation of a security and provisioning solution for University staff and students.
The seminar was part of the Continuing Legal Education seminar series run by the Faculty of Law at the University of New South Wales. Tang, Professor Colin Bennett, Professor Abu Bakar Munir, Ms Katrine Evans, Mr Iwan Setiawan, Mr Nigel Waters, Assistant Professor Pirongrong Ramasoota, Mr Chris Connolly, Mr Claro Parlade, Mr Edward Santow, Professor Roger Clarke, Mr David Vaile, Ms Robin Bayley, Professor Graham Greenleaf. Interoperability, in many systems, can provide a number of benefits for consumers, including reduced cost, increased functionality, and increased competition. The report was published in Privacy Laws and Business International, and is available from Galexia’s website.
Russia and China, in particular, have imposed new policies that will hinder cloud computing by limiting the ability of cloud computing service providers to adequately move data across borders. The Scorecard analysis is based upon a combination of published information and statistics and evaluation by independent experts at Galexia. The week concludes with the launch of the UNCTAD B2C E-Commerce Index 2016 (Measuring Cross-Border E-Commerce). It will explore the complexity of cross-border enforcement and ways in which governments and businesses can work together in these areas. Mr Connolly provided an overview of national approaches to cloud computing policy and regulation, with a special emphasis on the issues facing developing countries.
We used our expert knowledge of cloud-based SSO technology vendors and solutions to select and cost the best approach, based on proven cloud identity design principles and best practices. The 2013 study finds that Japan continues to lead the global rankings with a comprehensive suite of laws supporting digital commerce. Others are effectively unplugging themselves from the global market — with especially counterproductive policies in Korea, Indonesia and Vietnam. Connolly, Privacy and the use of health data for research, Med J Australia 193 (2010), 537-541.
However, the assembly and use of linked population, clinical and genetic health databases in the research and policy analysis environments raises privacy, confidentiality and ethical concerns.
Some regional gaps and challenges were also identified in areas such as data protection law, cybercrime legislation and ICT infrastructure. The Act will also create a Personal Data Protection Commissioner, an advisory committee, and an appeals tribunal. Each group of questions is weighted to reflect its importance to cloud computing and each individual question is also weighted to reflect its importance within the group. It will also discuss measures by companies, in particular small and medium-sized enterprises, to keep consumer information secure. Australia remains in second place, and the US has edged into third, pushing Germany down to fourth. To help with the scoring and usability of the study, the assessments are based on a  series of questions that are framed so that a "yes" response reflects a favorable policy setting for global cloud computing. To help with the scoring and usability of the study, the assessments are based on a series of questions that are framed so that a "yes" response reflects a favourable policy setting for global cloud computing.
The weights are shown in the table below and the results are available in the downloadable report.



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