The internet increasingly pervades our lives, delivering information to us no matter where we are. ARPANET, the precursor to the modern internet, was an academic research project funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency, a branch of the military known for funding ambitious research projects without immediate commercial or military applications. By the end of 1970, ARPANET had grown to 13 nodes, including East Coast schools like Harvard and MIT. In 1973, the ARPANET became international, with a satellite link connecting Norway and London to the other nodes in the United States.
As the ARPANET entered its second decade, it was still largely confined to the United States. During the 1980s, the National Science Network funded several supercomputing centers around the United States. In 1993, the internet was still dominated by the United States but it was becoming a truly global network. By 2000, almost half of Americans were on the internet, but ordinary people in most other countries had not yet joined the network.
There are two basic ways people can log onto the internet: through a fixed broadband connection at home or in an office and via a wireless connection on a cell phone or tablet. This map shows the percentage of consumers around the world who have mobile internet access (note that the colors on this map are not directly comparable to the previous map).
Today the fastest way to transmit information over long distances is with fiber optics — long, thin strands of glass that carry information as pulses of light. In April 2013, Syria's largest city, Aleppo, disappeared from the internet for several hours, one of several outages that have occurred during the civil war there.
When Superstorm Sandy hit New Jersey in October 2012, it knocked a number of computers off the internet. In most Western countries, the internet is a free-speech zone where ordinary people can express themselves without fear of censorship. The social media sites Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter are frequent targets for censorious governments. The privatization of the internet transformed what had been an obscure academic network into a hotbed of commercial innovation. We use "Silicon Valley" as a shorthand for the technology companies in the San Francisco Bay Area, but the moniker is becoming increasingly out of date. For the first decade of the 21st century, the internet was dominated by Microsoft Internet Explorer. Right now, three companies dominate the global market for mobile phones, and they've largely divided the market by income. In 2009, Facebook was already one of the most popular social networks in the world, but over the last five years it has become totally dominant.
If you've entrusted your data to Google, Facebook, Yahoo, or Microsoft, there's a good chance it's stored at a location marked by one of these pins. The biggest internet companies have data centers around the world, but a disproportionate share of their data centers are located in the United States. One reason for the low levels of broadband subscription in some parts of the United States is availability.
Internet access in the United States is dominated by two big telephone companies — AT&T and Verizon — and two big cable companies — Comcast and Time Warner Cable. For the most part, the broadband market is dominated by the same phone and cable companies that have dominated telecommunications for decades. Frustrated with poor service offered by incumbent broadband providers, about 400 municipalities across the country have built their own government-owned broadband networks. Incumbent broadband providers have reacted to the municipal broadband trend by arguing that it's not fair for governments to compete with the private sector. Social media sites like Twitter enable a lot of public discussion of the important issues of the day. One of the amazing things about the internet is the way it permits the collection and aggregation of large-scale data about human behavior. Wikipedia is a global online encyclopedia that anyone can edit, and it has editions in more than 280 languages. Communications Technology IP Address Four numbers that identify a node on the Internet e.g. 12 Sample XML Document Data XML data involves elements and attributes defined in the schema, and is analogous to inserting a record into a database.
23 Web Services XML-based standards that define protocols for automatic communication between applications over the Web.
About the Presentations The presentations cover the objectives found in the opening of each chapter. 14 Chapter 14 Databases and The Internet Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management 4th Edition Peter Rob & Carlos Coronel. Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management Eighth Edition Chapter 14 Database Connectivity and Web Technologies. Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management Tenth Edition Chapter 14 Database Connectivity and Web Technologies. Database-Driven Web Sites, Second Edition1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO WEB DATABASE PROGRAMMING.
Overview of Web Services, Programming Environments, Software Applications and Programming Languages Used for Ecommerce Virginia Franke Kleist, Ph.D.
It takes a complex system of cables, servers, towers, and other infrastructure, developed over decades, to allow us to stay in touch with our friends and family so effortlessly.


Initially, the network only connected the University of Utah with three research centers in California. Among the early nodes was Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN), an engineering consulting company that did the engineering work required to build ARPANET. Academic institutions depended on federal funding to join the network, so the number of nodes expanded slowly.
But network operators realized that a centralized network would eventually become unmanageable if it continued to grow. This is a map of information flow on Usenet, an bulletin board application that allowed users to swap recipes, jokes, programming tips, and more. Commercial firms took over the job of carrying long-distance internet traffic, allowing the government-funded NSFNET to be decommissioned. This data from the International Telecommunications Union shows how popular fixed internet access is around the world. In the developed world, people usually got fixed internet access first and obtained mobile internet devices later. To coordinate the distribution of these addresses, the internet is broken up into five zones.
Here's a close-up of the area around Australia and the many small island nations that have their own domain names.
Because a single fiber can transmit as much as 100 billion bits per second (100 Gbps, about ten thousand times faster than a typical home broadband connection) and a cable can contain hundreds of fibers, a single cable can have enough capacity for the communications of millions of users. In 2008, two fiber optic cables that connect Middle Eastern countries to India were cut, leading to disruptions for many internet users in Egypt and India. The southern parts of Syria receive internet access from undersea fiber optic cables, but Aleppo accesses the internet via a land connection to Turkey. A team of computer scientists at the University of Michigan had recently built ZMap, a tool that allowed them to scan every computer on the internet in less than an hour.
This map from Mother Jones shows which countries restrict their users from accessing these sites. In the late 1990s, hundreds of new companies sprouted up to take advantage of these opportunities. Since 2000, a growing share of internet startups are being formed not in suburbs like Mountain View or Palo Alto but in the heart of San Francisco.
In 2009, the software was the most popular way to browse the web in most countries, with Firefox popular in some parts of Eastern Europe and Asia.
For example, in 2009 Brazil was dominated by Orkut, a social network created by Google in 2004. Smaller web companies store their servers in data centers managed by third parties, but the internet's largest companies have their own dedicated data centers with hundreds of thousands of servers in them.
And American data centers are clustered in a few states, notably Oregon, Iowa, and the Carolinas. At the end of 2011, there were still significant parts of the country where fixed broadband service wasn't offered.
Together, those four companies account for more than two thirds of all residential internet subscriptions in the United States. But one big addition to the broadband market is Google, which launched a fiber optic network in Kansas City in 2012. In 19 states, state legislatures have responded with legislation restricting municipalities from building their own broadband networks. For example, this map shows where people are tweeting about sunrises over the course of a 24-hour period. Each dot on the map represents a cluster of tweets, and the color represents the language spoken in those tweets.
2 Objectives Explain the importance of attaching a database to a Web page Describe necessary environment. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1 Chapter 10: The Internet Database Environment Modern Database Management 9 th Edition. XML eXtensible implies that users define tag content Markup implies it is a coded document Language implies it is a metalanguage.
2 Introduction to Web Development In 1990 and 1991,Tim Berners-Lee created the World Wide Web at the European.
Here are 40 maps that will help you better understand the internet — where it came from, how it works, and how it's used by people around the world. Officials were careful to ensure that no single company controlled too much of the backbone, helping to create a competitive market for internet connectivity that still exists today. It shows internet access is widespread in most parts of the world, but is still fairly scarce in much of sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East.
But some developing countries are skipping the construction of fixed broadband networks altogether. Other high-speed countries include Japan, South Korea, Sweden, Romania, the Netherlands, and Switzerland. Some of these countries realized that they could make a lot of money if they opened their domains to foreigners. Some press reports suggested that the damage was caused by a ship's anchor being dragged along the bottom of the Mediterranean, but the Egyptian authorities have said no ships were in the area at the time the cables were damaged. For example, during the 2011 Tahrir Square protests, the Egyptian government cut off Egypt's connections to the rest of the internet. That allowed them to make this map, which shows locations where the number of web servers running the SSL encryption software declined by 30 percent or more, which turns out to be a good proxy for heavy storm damage.


This map from Freedom House details which countries respect freedom of speech and which countries flout it. And many of them were clustered in Silicon Valley, a strip of land on the peninsula south of San Francisco.
In middle-income countries, especially in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East, Samsung devices have the lead. The West, Northeast, and upper midwest have the highest broadband adoption, while high-speed internet access is less common in the south. Satellite internet service is available almost everyone in the United States, but it tends to be a lot more expensive than fixed broadband connections. Cable companies account for almost 60 percent of subscriptions, with telephone companies accounting for most of the remainder. The largest, Chattanooga, TN, only has about 170,000 residents, and some have as few as 200. That has taken some of the wind out of the sails of the municipal broadband movement, but new municipal networks keep popping up in states where the law allows them. There's a yellow flash of sunrise tweets whenever the sun rises above the horizon in a part of the world.
The data suggest that liberal states such as Illinois and Massachusetts are the heaviest pornography consumers, while conservative states such as Idaho and South Dakota consume the least pornography. Researchers at the Oxford Internet Institute plotted these points on a map, providing a beautiful map of the locations that are subjects of Wikipedia articles. English is ubiquitous online, so Fischer chose a neutral grey color for it so it wouldn't overpower the other colors.
This is cost-effective because a single cell phone tower can provide service to hundreds of customers.
This was possible because Egypt's links to the outside world were controlled by a handful of large companies.
And the long delays in satellite communications make it unsuitable for interactive applications such as video games and voice calls.
And Google is considering expanding into about 10 other metro areas in the American south and west. The average Massachusetts resident is responsible for almost twice as many pageviews per capita as the average Idaho resident. Fischer didn't explicitly label the countries on the map, but it's still easy to see national borders. It also had a more practical goal: allowing more efficient use of expensive computing resources. These standards specified the basic format of data packets transmitted across the internet.
Computer scientists sometimes used ARPA money to buy computers, and the agency hoped that ARPANET would allow universities to share these expensive resources more efficiently.
Long before Facebook and Twitter, ARPANET allowed computer scientists who had access to the network to stay in touch. It's the best data we have available, but it's based on self-reported data from ISPs that isn't always accurate. For example, if you click the link for the full map, you can see where people speak French in Canada.
One of the first ARPANET applications was Telnet, which allowed a researcher at one ARPANET site to log into a computer at another site. This is probably because many people in these countries access the internet using their cell phones, and Opera offers a mobile browser that works well on low-end smartphones. Usenet was organized by topic, allowing users to swap programming tips, recipes, jokes, opinions about science fiction, and much more.
In Russia, for example, the government has engaged in more aggressive internet censorship since Vladimir Putin returned to power in 2012.
The station provides easy access to the venture capitalists and established companies at the other end of the Caltrain line in Silicon Valley.
By this time, there were 6,000 networks connected to NSFNET, with a third of them located overseas. Today, Verizon operates one of the world's largest internet backbones, in competition with AT&T, Sprint, Level 3 and many other companies. Farmers can use mobile phones to learn about recent market developments, increasing the amount they can get for their crops.
Wikipedia has articles about almost every part of the Earth that's inhabited by human beings, and this map would likely be even denser if it included other major languages such as Spanish, Russian, and Chinese. That meant that students and faculty at a growing number of universities had access to email, Usenet, and even a recently-invented application called the World Wide Web. Some mobile phone operators also offer sophisticated payment capabilities, allowing people who don't have access to the conventional banking system to make electronic payments. All of these companies are secretive about their operational details, and so some of the companies' data center locations haven't been publicly disclosed. And although the NSFNET was officially restricted to non-commercial use, for-profit companies were increasingly connecting to the network as well, setting the stage for the commercialization of the internet that followed.
But with few IPv4 addresses left, people joining the internet in the future will have little choice but to use IPv6.



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