In our latest guide for all the readers who are aspiring to act, write and direct for the film industry, we focus our efforts on tips, training and schools for the emerging film editor. In fact, Tom received three Academy Awards nominations for his performances  (Jerry Maguire, Born on the Fourth of July and Magnolia) and in two of those films, the editors either won (Joe Hutshing and David Brenner for Born On The Fourth July) or were nominated (Joe Hutshing for Jerry Maguire) for Oscars as well! Hutshing has collaborated with Tom, Cameron Crowe and Oliver Stone as well as Steven Spielberg on several other film projects. While the process of editing has evolved from physically cutting film to manipulating it nonlinearly on a computer, the philosophy to storytelling hasn’t changed a bit. Like many professions, film editors have established a vocabulary specific to their industry.
Avid – A digital editing system frequently used by full-featured offline, film and online editors. Continuity editing – Maintains the storyline by editing shots and scenes together to create smooth flowing transitions while eliminating visual inconsistencies. Cross-cutting – Used to show a relationship between different sets of action or to build suspense by quickly cutting back and forth between two or more sequences of actions, suggesting the actions are occurring simultaneously but in different locations. Cut – Splicing two shots together during the editing process to create a visual transition in which one shot instantly replaces another shot on screen. Cutaway – An individual shot inserted into a sequence, momentarily interrupting the flow of action. Dissolve – A gradual scene transition in which an editor seamlessly overlaps the end of one shot with the beginning of the next one. Eyeline match – Part of continuity editing, the term refers to the practice of matching the eyelines (gazes) between two or more characters. Fade – A visual transition between scenes where a shot is gradually replaced by a dark area with no images. Final cut – The completed edit of a film that has been approved by the director and producer as the version and will be shown to audiences.
Intercutting –Related shots are inserted into a series of other shots, usually to create contrast. Master shot (Cover shot) – A long shot of an entire scene that an editor can use to facilitate the components of closer shots or assemble a sequence.
Rough cut – An early effort by the post-production team to assemble the footage into the final version of the film.
Post-production – Refers to all of the processes that occur after the principle filming has been completed, including editing, visual effects and sound effects. Sequence shot – An extended shot including an entire scene or sequence without any editing. Shot – A single image that is generally described in terms of the distance of the camera in relation to the object in the frame.
Unlike many other fields in the entertainment industry, such as actors and stunt performers, a professional film editor can establish a life-long career if he is willing to work his way up and maintain positive working relationships within the industry. Apprentice Editor – An entry-level union position that supports the assistant editor and the film editor. Editor (Film Editor, Picture Editor) – A supervisory position responsible for assembling the film or video footage into a cohesive sequence while establishing continuity and maintaining the director’s vision. First Assistant Editor (Assistant Editor, Associate Editor) – A mid-level position responsible for supporting the film editor and supervising the daily operations of the editing department, including overseeing the second assistant and apprentice editors. Second Assistant Editor – The primary responsibility of this role is to support the first assistant editor. A film editor must know how to be a good listener and successfully collaborate with others, even though he will also work many hours alone. As we mentioned earlier, the same way some directors cast certain actors that they enjoy working with over and over again, some directors may also repeatedly hire the same film editors once they have established a good collaborative relationship. A good way to find out more about a filmmaking discipline is with some research from authorities online, and editing is no different. American Cinema Editors Tech Blog – Part of the American Cinema Editors (ACE) official website, the technical blog provides answers to a wide range of questions involved in making a feature-length movie. Creative COW – Founded by the wife and husband team, Kathlyn and Ron Lindeboom, the comprehensive online resource features tutorials, training, podcasts and a newsletter as well as a detailed blog for professional film editors. HOLLYN-wood – University of Southern California Professor of Cinematic Arts and Editing Track Head, Norman Hollyn, combines his teaching abilities with his years of experience as a professional film editor and author to present complex editing techniques in a straightforward manner. The EditBlog on Pro Video Coalition – The creation of professional commercial editor Scott Simmons, the EditBlog provides both in-depth and general information for the aspiring or established editor. Splice Now (Steven Cohen) – Written by noted Hollywood editor and AVID Editing System master Steven Cohen, this blog ranges from industry news for the working editor to notes on his own Avid tutorials and items of general interest to editors.
Hollywood Reinvented – While not a video editing or movie editor blog specifically, Hollywood Reinvented focuses much of its energy on the digital tools editors now use to shape films, along with conversations with professional editors. The Art of the Guillotine – Professional film editor and Ryerson University professor, Gordon A.
Another step many emerging film and video editors will take on their path to cutting room enlightenment is perusing publications and periodicals specific to the discipline.
Cinema Editor: ACE Magazine – Since May 1951, the industry publication has been providing an insightful base of knowledge from some of the most respected editors in the field.
Once comfortable with the lexicon and feel of the editing landscape, many aspiring editors will be inspired to seek out even more information about the craft. Selected Takes: Film Editors On Film Editing by Vincent LoBrutto – One of the most important lessons illustrated in this book is that experienced editors are able to maintain the larger vision while shaping a film from raw footage. In The Blink Of An Eye by Walter Murch – Written by one of the most respected film editors in the business, Walter Murch (Julia, Apocalypse Now, The English Patient and Cold Mountain) covers a range of editing elements, including digital editing, continuity vs. The Conversations: Walter Murch And The Art Of Editing Film by Michael Ondaatje – Presented in a question-and-answer format, the author delves into “the invisible art of filmmaking” through his conversations with renowned film editor, Walter Murch. Nonlinear4 – A Field Guide To Digital Video And Film Editing by Michael Rubin – For the practical student of film editing, Rubin’s book outlining the principles of non-linear editing may be right up your alley. The Lean Forward Moment: Create Compelling Stories for Film, TV, and the Web by Norman Hollyn – As a professional film editor as well as the Editing Track Head and Professor of Cinematic Arts at the University of Southern California, Hollyn describes how his Lean Forward Moment Method of storytelling engages an audience and provides real world examples to illustrate the concept. The Technique of Film Editing, 2nd Edition by Karel Reisz and Gavin Millar One of the most comprehensive books on the art of film editing, authors Karel Reisz and Gavin Millar introduce readers to the techniques of film editing.
Armed with knowledge about the abstract nature, philosophy and principles of movie and video editing, you are now ready to get your hands on the tools to actually make the magic happen. We have provided descriptions of three popular non-linear digital editing systems available for use on most computers.
Avid Media Composer – Among the first digital editing systems wildly available, Media Composer by Avid has long been established as one of the most dominant digital editing software used by professional film editors.
Apple Final Cut Studio Pro – Once an upstart product meant for the less-serious editor, Final Cut Pro has evolved as a serious contender to Avid’s title as the editing software of choice for Hollywood’s editing icons.
Adobe Premiere CS5 – While not an industry standard, many emerging filmmakers familiar with Adobe’s still imaging software may feel comfortable using their non-linear video editing software as well. Once you have your hands on the tools to edit a movie, you will need to learn how to use them. New York University (NYU) School of Continuing and Professional Studies – Professional Certificate in Editing – Affiliated with the renowned NYU film school, the Certificate in Editing program leads an ambitious aspiring film editor through intense hands-on instruction in the art and science of editing. The Edit Center, NYC – Based in New York City, the unique program offers students the chance to learn the editing process while actually working on feature length films heading to production. Apple Training and Certification Programs – Many of Apple’s professional applications have become an industry standard for photographers, editors, sound designers, visual effects and multimedia artists.
Introduction to Final Cut Pro – The introductory class provides an overview of Final Cut Pro, outlining all the basic features of the program and the meaning of the interface.
Comprehensive Study of Final Cut Pro – The next level of the hands-on training program includes working with clips, cue points and final output for printing. Final Cut Pro Advanced Editing – A multi-day course offers comprehensive training of the Final Cut system combining both the overview and advanced editing courses. The team behind Avid also offers a comprehensive list of authorized training opportunities through their training partners and training centers. American Film Institute (AFI) Conservatory – Graduates of the two-year conservatory program receive an MFA and advanced training in six disciplines, cinematography, directing, editing, producing, production design and screenwriting. University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) School of Theater, Film & Television – The beautifully landscaped campus features a multi-cultural environment and a different vibe from its nearby rival, USC. University of Southern California (USC) School of Cinema Arts – Located in Los Angeles, students are exposed to multiple elements of film, television and interactive media production and have the opportunity to enroll in a wide range of cross-disciplinary classes, regardless of their chosen area of specialization.
ACE Internship Program & Student Competition – Both programs offer the emerging and aspiring film editor the opportunity to prove their mettle to the best in the industry.
Amazon Studios Filmmakers Contest – Participation is free for the monthly contest and you have the opportunity to win cash prizes. The 48 Hour Film Project - Born out of a friendly competition between Mark Ruppert, Liz Langston and their filmmaking friends, a challenge to make a complete film within 48 hours has grown into an international competition.
Like many other unions and professional groups in the entertainment industry, film editors find fellowship and collective bargaining power by banding together when offering their services to producers and studios.
American Cinema Editors – While not a union, ACE is an important professional group that bands the best editors in the world together for mutual benefit through trade contact, sharing information through an in-house magazine and offering the highest form of credential – peer respect. Motion Picture Editors Guild – Founded in 1938, the trade union is a branch of the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees. Whether you have graduated from a film school or earned a certification in film editing, it will take some time to build a successful career in this competitive field. Apprenticeships and internships may be available at your local television stations, commercial production houses or postproduction facilities. As we mentioned earlier in the guide, many professional film editors stress the importance of people skills as well as technical skills in establishing and maintaining a successful career. With those final thoughts, we close the book on this chapter of the Aspiring to Act, Write and Direct series!
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G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c. The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph. Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea. Adafruit: The oldest street scene photos of New York City - Check out these incredible (and incredibly old) photos of NYC, via Ephemeral New York.
The oldest street scene photos of New York CityCheck out these incredible (and incredibly old) photos of NYC, via Ephemeral New York. I still remember reading about Louis Daguerre's invention, the daguerreotype, in high school.
The Making of the American Museum of Natural Historya€™s Wildlife DioramasFossil shark-jaw restoration, 1909. Very old portrait of three men identified as (from left to right) Henry, George, and Stephen Childs, November 25, 1842. In 1840, Hippolyte Bayard, a pioneer of early photography, created an image called Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man. 10 Times History Was Captured in Living ColorColor photographs go back to before you might think.
Often called the “invisible art”, every motion picture from the most humble web video to the plushest IMAX film is made whole by expert editing.


Award-winning directors Martin Scorsese and Steven Spielberg, who have worked with Tom Cruise (The Color of Money, Minority Report and War of the Worlds, respectively) weighed in on the important role an editor plays in making a film great. It should be becoming quiet clear that editing ranks as one of the most important aspects of the filmmaking process. It may not be the flashiest side of the industry, editing is easily among the most important and respected fields by other filmmakers. If you have experience in this field and can direct us to any additional information or resources, we’d love to hear from you so we can add them to our next update. Professional film editors may use many technical terms while performing their work, so we have selected several of the most common words and phrases to highlight in our glossary. The system offers a wide range of effects, including real-time 3D effects and multi-camera capability. For example, if character A gazes off screen to the right in shot A, the editor will cut to character B who will look to the left in shot B, returning the gaze and establishing a relationship between the two characters. An editor may gradually fade into a new scene to indicate a change in time or place or introduce the closing credits to signal the end of the film. The equivalent of a writer’s first draft, the director, producers and editors review the rough cut and suggest changes as part of the process of completing the film.
The good news is that there is a definite career path an aspiring film editor can follow, including earning a bachelor’s degree with a focus on film editing and then working your way up through the ranks. General duties involve logging film, helping to load film into an editing machine, such as an Avid, running materials between the production houses and tracking all the elements. Synchronizes the dailies with the sound track and may review the dailies with the director, noting the director’s preferences. Manages logging and tracking footage, maintains department paperwork, coordinates with the film lab and sound transfer facility as well as oversees the post production process until the final print is completed.
The daily assignments may vary and may include cataloging the shots and maintaining the daily reels. Generally, you must be prepared to constantly look for work because once a film is completed; a film editor’s job is done. There are plenty of blogs written by industry leaders introducing newbies to the basics of editing as well as covering the more technical aspects of the craft for experienced professionals.
Created and maintained by the leading professional motion picture editing association in the world, topics may involve advanced editing techniques and discussions about home computer equipment and software, along with troubleshooting tips and useful resources. Sponsored by Adobe (who we’ll discuss in a moment) this blog focuses on answering practical questions during the editing process. Thoughtfully written, Cohen offers no-nonsense insight into the industry through the eyes of an experienced craftsman. Again, this site is a bastion of practical knowledge for the amateur or professional editor to beef up their knowledge of non-linear editing techniques.
Burkell, founded the online publication and encourages visitors to interact and contribute to the comprehensive industry blog. Luckily, there are two strong industry groups (which we’ll discuss in detail later) who produce a pair of such specific magazines. Published by the American Cinema Editors, the magazine covers both artistic and technical discussions (the aesthetic side) as well as the professional relationships in the industry (the business side). While not an exhaustive list, these books provide a great introduction to the fundamental philosophy of editing along with some insights into the technical advancements in the field.
The Information is presented in a straightforward style and should be included on any aspiring video and film editors reading list. Murch worked on The English Patient, the Academy Award winning film based on Ondaatje’s novel. The instructional guide breaks down the aspects involved in successful computer editing, such as workflow, audio syncing and mastering the final print, rather than focusing on a specific editing system. His techniques can be applied to all aspects of the filmmaking process and can also be applied to multiple steps of the creative process, including preproduction, production and postproduction. If you are a student looking for editing knowledge or a professional just looking for some interesting reading material on editing, this is it.
While there are many more editing systems available on the market, two of these three systems are considered the industry standards. Used on several Oscar winning productions, Avid continues to evolve to meet the technical demands of a Hollywood clientele, such as handling integrated effects and audio capability as well as simple editing tools. In fact, Walter Murch himself earned an Oscar nomination for Cold Mountain in 2003 using the then-new system. While not as popular industry-wide, feature-length movies like Superman Returns were cut using Premiere to great effect. Fortunately, there are a number of opportunities to help you learn the basics or take you to the next level in your career. More detailed information about the two certificate options is provided on the official website. During a six-week Art of Editing Course, emerging film editors who need the opportunity to learn how to edit a feature film are paired with independent filmmakers who need their movies edited.
Most Apple owners are already familiar with the free in-person workshops and instructional podcasts to help you develop your software skills and maximize your equipment but you may not know that Apple has also created a series of certification levels. The list features a wide assortment of schools and facilities teaching all facets of editing, from straightforward Avid instruction to certificate and degree programs.
Members of the program usually have some experience in the field and have an undergraduate degree.
In addition, students have the opportunity to compete for a $200,000 prize for a feature film and if you are interested in studying abroad, the Tisch School of the Arts Asia in Singapore offers MFA degrees in animation and digital arts, dramatic writing and film production.
The film program focuses on storytelling and students will benefit from the renowned UCLA Film & Television Archive, whose collection is one of the largest in the world. Usually that means it is time to secure an internship and apprentice under the leadership of an experienced mentor but it could also involve entering student competitions to showcase your skills and gain the notice of industry leaders. The six-week ACE Internship Program invites an extremely limited number of aspiring editors who have attained a college degree in Film or Video to spend one week with three established editors to learn the professional standards of feature length, episodic and long-form television editing. Aspiring filmmakers, including editors, can share your work and interact with an international community.
Open to everyone with any type of video or film camera, participants and their team have 48 hours to write, shoot, edit and score their movie.
These labor unions and organizations set the industry standard rates for editors as well as add legitimacy to a professional editor’s credentials.
To join, potential members must have a minimum of five years professional experience as an editor and two current ACE members must sponsor their application. The union uses its collective bargaining power to negotiate union contracts, enforce existing agreements and secure better working conditions, which may include salary, health insurance and credit. You should be willing to start at the bottom and be prepared to pay your dues as an intern, production assistant or apprentice.
Gaining hands-on experience and industry contacts is more important than limiting yourself to feature films or television series when trying to land an internship.
Because film editing is a relationship-based business, it is incredibly important to have a reputation of someone who is easy to work with as well as a skilled editor. For all the cutting room geniuses set to emerge from the next generation of filmmakers, we hope this has been a helpful primer. This resource article DOES NOT constitute a solicitation for  story, concept, or idea submission. May I also humbly recommend the book I wrote on Walter Murch, BEHIND THE SEEN (Peachpit Press), which chronicles documentary-style his editing and mixing of the film COLD MOUNTAIN from start-to-finish.
Particularly, I admire the enormous talent of the people that makes us enjoy our passion, film … Tom, I especially love all the despilegue of the art in U movies, no one like you! Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium. Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light.
Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop. Half of the Limburg province of Belgium is added to the Netherlands, giving rise to a Belgian Limburg and Dutch Limburg (the latter being from September 5 joined to the German Confederation).June 3 a€“ Destruction of opium at Humen begins, casus belli for Britain to open the 3-year First Opium War against Qing dynasty China. Bayard had just perfected the process of printing on to paper, which would come to define photography in the following century, but the French government had decided to invest instead in the daguerrotype, a process invented by his rival, Louis Daguerre.
The magic of transcending time and space in film is achieved by cutting film, creating something wholly new out of the disparate images.
Some of Tom’s most critically acclaimed performances involved working with the most respected editors in the industry. Please use the hashtag #aspiring2actwritedirect in all your social media responses about these guides. The term may also be used to establish the proximity and continuity between a character and an object. While it may take a few years, if you are willing to learn the ropes as an intern or apprentice film editor, you can refine your editing skills while establishing valuable contacts. However, the majority of the editor’s work occurs in post-production and will deliver an editor’s cut of the film as soon as possible after shooting has wrapped.
While an editor should be prepared to present knowledgeable suggestions to improve the quality of the film, he must remember that one of his main responsibilities is to facilitate the director’s vision for the film, not impose his own.
Forming professional relationships with directors and producers can help bring stability to the career of a professional film editor. While some of the posts may be beyond the knowledge base of a budding editor, the blog should hit the right note for an experienced film editor. The site features a detailed glossary of film editing terms, an active community section, a media section with informational blogs, articles and podcasts as well as a knowledge base of helpful editing techniques and tips.
Not available on newsstands, contact ACE for information about subscriptions and purchasing individual back issues.
Several articles are accessible online and the print version is available through subscription. Readers are provided with a thoughtful discourse on how and why editing can deliver a heightened emotional experience through film. The two explore the meaning of editing and how the alteration of the visual experience brings a film together and transcends the meaning of any one shot.
Ken Dancynger has written several subsequent editions of the book, most recently the fifth edition, The Technique of Film and Video Editing, Fifth Edition: History, Theory, and Practice.
The third is also widely available through a producer of the industry-leading imaging software. Produced by Apple, Final Cut is considered moderately priced in comparison to other film editing software. Among the most affordable pro-style software available on the market, Premiere is ported for use on both Macs and PCs.
Students have worked on critically acclaimed films, such as Winter’s Bone (Oscar nominee for Best Feature) and Frozen River (Grand Jury Prize, Sundance Film Festival 2008).
Certifications are available for Aperture, Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, and Motion and for the editor anxious to learn how to wield this powerful tool without the extras of theory, this may be the route for you.
If you are an emerging film editor excited about learning Avid and mastering a system you can use throughout your career, then carefully look through the choices on the Avid Learning Partner site and pick the one that’s right for you! In addition to the hands-on training taught by industry professionals for Conservatory Fellows and a seminar series for emerging filmmakers, the competitive program provides the opportunity to create a thesis film with access to Screen Actors Guild (SAG) members for their cast and some financing assistance.


Notable alumni include Thelma Schoonmaker (A film editing Oscar winner for Raging Bull, The Aviator and The Departed), Joel Coen (Oscar winner for writing, directing and Motion Picture of the Year for No Country for Old Men) and Charlie Kaufman (Best Original Screenplay Academy Award winner for Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind). Notable alumni include Francis Ford Coppola (Oscar winner for Patton, The Godfather, The Godfather: Part II and The Irving G. The next five weeks involve shadowing assistant editors in television, features and reality TV. Encouraging collaboration, awards are given to screenwriters and filmmakers but may also include any individuals who have contributed to the project through meaningful revision suggestions.
Contestants receive a character, a prop, a line of dialogue and a genre on the first night of the competition, a Friday. Unions also provide film editors with safety requirements in their work environment and offer health benefits. Prospective members must be approved by the Board of Directors and then by current ACE members before membership is granted to the respected association. If you can prove you are willing to work hard, maintain a positive attitude and seek out opportunities to observe experienced editors, you can build a professional network to help further your career. Use this information to help you find the spark to ignite the fire of your passion to make movie magic! This was the first major motion picture on which Final Cut Pro was edited — the book also uncovers the surprising relationship Murch had with Apple when it came to using their software. Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre. As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt. It didna€™t take long for others to seize the new technology and create daguerreotypes of New York City street scenes.
Daguerreotypes are sharply defined, highly reflective, one-of-a-kind photographs on silver-coated copper plates, usually packaged behind glass and kept in protective cases. Editors David Brenner and Joe Hutshing work cutting together the story of Vietnam veteran, Ron Kovic, in Born On The Fourth July truly helped Tom’s portrayal to stand out!
Like our other aspiring guides for actors, directors, mobile filmmakers, producers, screenwriters, stuntmen and visual effects artists, this guide provides access to a wealth of knowledge and materials to help you familiarize yourself with the profession.
If you have both people skills and the technical skills, you should go a long way as a film editor.
In fact, Murch won two of the nine Oscars The English Patient was awarded, one for Editing and one for Sound (along with Mark Berger, David Parker and Chris Newman). While those are helpful books in their own right, many industry professionals still recommend the first two editions written by Reisz and Millar. As an added bonus, the software is compatible with many off-the-shelf components of Apple computers.
Students will not only develop their editing skills but can make valuable professional connections. Although no prior film editing experience is required for the program, at least working knowledge of computers is high recommended.
So, if you are ready to take your editing skills to the next level, consider becoming a Certified Associate, Certified-Pro Level One or Certified Pro – Level Two for Final Cut Pro. Notable AFI alumni include Darren Aronofsky (Oscar nominee for directing, Black Swan) and Victor Du Bois (The Last Samurai).
Renowned film editor, Walter Murch (Film Editing Academy Award winner for The English Patient and Best Sound Oscar winner for The English Patient and Apocalypse Now), is among the many notable USC alumni. The ACE Student Editing Competition challenges 50 aspiring film editors from around the world to edit an identical set of video dailies (clips) to create the most original story from the source material.
Amazon Studios is searching for projects that have the potential to make a major motion picture and the contest is based on allowing and rewarding different people bringing various viewpoints and skills to help make the story more compelling. The challenge is to incorporate all of those elements into your movie, producing the completed film 48 hours later. I did go to a performing arts school and learned so much about myself and everything around me.nIt is a tool you will use forever. A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene. The Government, which has been only too generous to Monsieur Daguerre, has said it can do nothing for Monsieur Bayard, and the poor wretch has drowned himself. All of these programs provide a combination of technical and aesthetic training along with a strong dose of industry know-how. The educational facility also offers a series of Apple-Certified courses, including An Introduction to Final Cut Pro and Final Cut Pro Advanced Editing. Three finalists will receive a plaque for their achievement at the annual ACE Eddie Awards. Filmmakers who have successfully completed the challenge will have their movie shown at a local theater. Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself. The full details of the contest are available on the official website and in the Development Agreement. Emphasizing hands-on experience, creativity and teamwork, participants also have the opportunity to interact with other filmmakers, acquiring valuable contacts and resources. It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot.
And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced. For over two weeks in the summer of 2002, scientists and conservators at this prestigious facility subjected the artifact, its frame, and support materials to extensive and rigorous non-destructive testing.
The result was a very complete scientific and technical analysis of the object, which in turn provided better criteria for its secure and permanent case design and presentation in the lobby of the newly-renovated Harry Ransom Center.The plate also received extensive attention from the photographic technicians at the Institute, who spent a day and a half with the original heliograph in their photographic studios in order to record photographically and digitally all aspects of the plate. The object was documented under all manner of scientific lights, including infrared and ultraviolet spectra. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c. Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694. The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed. A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide.
On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread. At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests. Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image. Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing.
The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative. This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face. Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers. He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated.
Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today.
Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce.
The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary. This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras.
Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight.
In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around. Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning. Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters. It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten.
Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii. Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907.
If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs. Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains.
Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector. The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable. Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made. A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image. Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory. The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory.
The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor.
Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.




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