In this section, the term logic model is used as a generic label for the many ways of displaying how change unfolds.
Each mapping or modeling technique uses a slightly different approach, but they all rest on a foundation of logic - specifically, the logic of how change happens. There is, however, another meaning that lies closer to heart of community change: the logic of how things work. Logic in this sense refers to "the relationship between elements and between an element and the whole." All of us have a great capacity to see patterns in complex phenomena.
The challenge for a logic modeler is to find and accurately represent the wisdom of those who know best how community change happens. Like a road map, a logic model shows the route traveled (or steps taken) to reach a certain destination. The form that a logic model takes is flexible and does not have to be linear (unless your program's logic is itself linear). Whatever form you choose, a logic model ought to provide direction and clarity by presenting the big picture of change along with certain important details.
Putting these elements together graphically gives the following basic structure for a logic model. Using this generic model as a template, let's fill in the details with another example of a logic model, one that describes a community health effort to prevent tuberculosis.
Remember, although this example uses boxes and arrows, you and your partners in change can use any format or imagery that communicates more effectively with your stakeholders. The linear model better guided discussions of cause and effect and how far down the chain of effects a particular program was successful.
When exploring the results of an intervention, remember that there can be long delays between actions and their effects. One of the greatest rewards for the extra effort is the ability to spot potential problems and redesign an initiative (and its logic model) before the unintended effects get out of hand, so that the model truly depicts activities that will plausibly produce the intended effects.
Even though it leaves out information, a good model represents those aspects of an initiative that, in the view of your stakeholders, are most important for understanding how the effort works. Should the information become overly complex, it is possible to create a family of related models, or nested models, each capturing a different level of detail.
Imagine "zooming-in" on the inner workings of a specific component and creating another, more detailed model just for that part. In the Examples section, the idea of nested models is illustrated in the Tobacco Control family of models.
The Comprehensive Cancer model illustrates a generic logic model accompanied by a zoom-in on the activities to give program staff the specific details they need. Planners, program managers, trainers, evaluators, advocates and other stakeholders can use a logic model in several ways throughout an initiative. Remember that your logic model is a living document, one that tells the story of your efforts in the community. At first, you may not agree with the answers that certain stakeholders give for these questions. By now you have probably guessed that there is not a rigid step-by-step process for developing a logic model.
The HOME initiative, for instance, created different models to address the unique needs of their financial partners, program managers, and community educators. Here are the plot points common in most community change initiatives, presented with their "storytelling" names.
An advantage of the graphic model is that it can display both the sequence and the interactions of effects. Dramatic actions in the HOME initiative include offering educational sessions and forming business alliances, homeowner support groups, and a neighborhood organizing council.
Stakeholders working on the HOME campaign understood that they were challenging a history of racial discrimination and economic injustice. Draft the logic model using both sides of your brain and all the talents of your stakeholders. Link components by drawing arrows or using other visual methods that communicate the order of activities and effects. Make sure it passes the "laugh test." That is, be sure that the image you create isn't so complex that it provokes an immediate laugh from stakeholders. Use PowerPoint or other computer software to animate the model, building it step-by-step so that when you present it to people in an audience, they can follow the logic behind every connection. Also, when things are changing rapidly, it's easy for collaborators to lose sight of their common goals.
As you improve, modify or realign your model, take stock of emerging activities and effects.
The more complete your model, the better your chances of reaching "the promised land" of the story. In the HOME model, for instance, low home ownership persists when there is a vicious cycle of discrimination, bad credit, and hopelessness preventing neighborhood-wide organizing and social change.
You can discover forces of change in your situation using multiple assessment strategies, including forward logic and reverse logic as described above. After you've mapped out the structure of a program strategy, there is still another crucial step to take before taking action: some kind of simulation. Simulation is one of the most practical ways to find out if a seemingly sensible plan will actually play out as you hope.
Though simulation is a powerful tool, it can be conducted in ways ranging from the simple to the sophisticated.
Simulation can be as straightforward as an unstructured role-playing game, in which you talk the model through to its logical conclusions. In a more structured simulation, you could develop a tabletop exercise in which you proceed step by step through a given scenario with pre-defined roles and responsibilities for the participants. Ultimately, you could create a computer-based mathematical simulation by using any number of available software tools. The key point to remember is that creating logical models and simulating how those models will behave involve two different sets of skills, both of which are essential for discovering which change strategies will be effective in your community. You can probably envision a variety of ways in which you might use the logic model you've developed or that logic modeling would benefit your work.
In a coalition or collaborative partnership, the logic model makes it clear which effects each partner creates and how all those effects converge to a common goal. First, no matter how logical your model seems, there is always a danger that it will not be correct. At the other extreme, it would be ridiculous and unproductive to map all the simultaneous forces of change that affect health and community development.
On a purely practical level, logic modeling can also be time consuming, requiring much energy in the beginning and continued attention throughout the life of an initiative.
Indeed, logic models can be very difficult to create, but the process of creating them, as well as the product, will yield many benefits over the course of an initiative. As a means to communicate a program visually, within your coalition or work group and to external audiences, a logic model provides a common language and reference point for everyone involved in the initiative. You will probably revise the model periodically, and that is precisely one advantage to using a logic model. The Community Builder’s Approach to Theory of Change: A Practical Guide to Theory Development, from The Aspen Institute’s Roundtable on Community Change. The CDC Evaluation Working Group provides a linked section on logic models in its resources for project evaluation. Logic Model Magic Tutorial from the CDC - this tutorial will provide you with information and resources to assist you as you plan and develop a logic model to describe your program and help guide program evaluation. Tara Gregory on Using Storytelling to Help Organizations Develop Logic Models discusses techniques to facilitate creative discussion while still attending to the elements in a traditional logic model. Theory of Change: A Practical Tool for Action, Results and Learning, prepared by Organizational Research Services. Theories of Change and Logic Models: Telling Them Apart is a helpful PowerPoint presentation saved as a PDF. University of Wisconsin’s Program Development and Evaluation provides a comprehensive template for a logic model and elaborates on creating and developing logic models. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License. Surely the fairest, most democratic way is for parties to be required to spell out to voters in advance of a local election exactly what it's council tax proposals are, and then be legally required to stick to them if they are elected.
Friends of the Shelter volunteers work hard to make the shelter a warm, inviting place to build relationships between adopters and the cats.
Despite the widespread protests that erupted last year, the rate at which people are killed by the police in the US has accelerated.
It’s perhaps portentous that a poll to find Britain’s national bird had last week been decided in overwhelming favour of the robin.
Chief executive David Harker said: “First Class Futures really will bring huge benefits to the North East if it is able to realise its vision of raising £100,000.
Yorkshire travel to Durham looking for their third successive North Division win after beating Derbyshire at Headingley and, last Friday, Nottinghamshire at Trent Bridge.
Kaag says the UN is also looking into recent reports of chlorine gas attacks in the country. Although the research has been pretty clear that there are health benefits to not sitting, we are just starting to understand that standing alone may be a good alternative, said Dr. The researchers then lumped the data in with nine other studies that measured chocolate consumption and heart disease. It was his second injury of the season and he didn't appear again, but while he has been troubled only by the odd niggle this year he has been unable to regain his form. We can do this for him and dance for him, make him well, make him strong, put him on the front, and all his team, dancer Timmy Galalingu said. The cooking zone features a cooktop with oils, seasonings, pots and pans and perhaps a sink nearby.
Zielke noted that Punta Cana, Dominican Republic is becoming a big destination for weddings, as are cruises. He also won the FIFA Club World Cup and European Super Cup two times each and the Spanish Super Cup six times. However, Rob Youhill suffered a dislocated elbow on Saturday which will sideline him for two to three weeks. Disciplined, well organised and extremely hard to break down, Newcastle have rarely looked like conceding throughout their six-game winning run, and aside from tipping over a Richard Dunne header, Tim Krul was barely tested against QPR.
In return, Wijnaldum has been quick to praise McClaren’s input throughout pre-season, with the Yorkshireman’s experience of the continental game enabling him to establish a strong rapport with his club’s overseas contingent. The actual story is one of trying to find somewhere safe to live for some poor INNOCENT young children, not whether some "concerned " residents feel slighted.
An agent in the 1970s had also suggested a name change – “he said Tony Peters was too clubby” – and came up with Septimus Shildon. ECHO Elder Cottage Housing Opportunities (ECHO) units are temporary, movable, self-contained houses designed to enable older persons to live near family members or caregivers. Under normal driving conditions, 100 per cent of the engine’s torque is delivered to the front wheels so that the car runs with optimised fuel efficiency.
Professor Walton said she had heard of many cases of discrimination against junior females, but the culture was to never complain to supervisors. Mike Abbott, general group manager at The Co-operative Childcare, says: “With men under-represented in the childcare industry, we think they should be championed. The group has found, and cherishes, the 100-year-old Bishop Auckland National Union of Ralwaymen’s banner, plans a railway memorial garden near the station – “real railway seats everything,” he says – has designed LNER-style posters showing the old station in all its improbable glory.
Durham City MP Roberta Blackman-Woods demanded that the city council explains how it did not have spare detectors. I’ve been lucky on the job front, mostly down to working with fantastic people and having a positive approach to life. Marquette went three-and-out on three pass plays and, on its own 26, elected to punt and rest its hopes of defending its state title on defense.
The Brewers followed a Game 5 stinker in the National League Championship Series with a Game 6 clunker. China should work out a comprehensive income distribution reform package as soon as possible to promote sustainable, fairer and more balanced development of its economy and society. A home win against the same opponents and a victory away to bottom club Sunderland are Darlington's only wins in their last 14 games, having started with four wins from the first seven. He and Chris Rushworth quickly removed the home openers and it became 49 for three when replaced Arshad and struck with his fifth ball.
The game was notable for the second-half appearance of Downing, with the England international kicking off his second spell at his hometown club in an attacking central-midfield role. With the rest of the Boro squad currently on a training break in Marbella, it remains to be seen whether Downing heads straight out to Spain or remains at Rockliffe Park ahead of his new team-mates’ return next week.
On Sunday, the forecast calls for a high temperature in the low 20s in Milwaukee, with blustery northeast wind gusts as high as 30 miles per hour. Monroe mentioned Parker's return from injury next season as one of the factors that led him to choose the Bucks over offers from the New York Knicks, Los Angeles Lakers and Portland Trail Blazers. Nepal's major political parties on Tuesday agreed to reconsider the delineation of states in the wake of countrywide protests against the move in which three people have been killed.
Other completed work on the Port Clarence scheme includes flood embankments to the east and west of the Wilton Engineering site. Despite their success, Stuart says they have no intention of expanding their operation and is proud of their role in the burgeoning small-scale food and drink sector in the county.
The problem for Brentford, however, is whether their soon-to-be departing manager, Mark Warburton, can motivate his team through the final throes of the campaign knowing that he will not be there to reap the rewards next season. Council leader Councillor Bob Cook said: “Local residents and businesses had to endure the eyesore that was Billingham House for several years.
While the West Nile virus is not new to Maryland, health officials warn people to take precautions when heading outside to parks or to the beach, especially areas where there might be standing water. However, even though the opportunity to return to Teesside after a two-year spell in London was a powerful attraction, Downing insists he would not have rejoined Boro if he did not believe they had a realistic chance of promotion.
Dad, Ian, is director at the family-owned Barkers Furnishing Store in Yafforth Road, Northallerton, where earlier this year Hannah, along with brothers William and Thomas, cut the turf to get a £3m expansion of the business underway. The same night (Saturday), Darlington’s Neil Hepper also took a chance on the road when he travelled to Doncaster and faced the experienced Kevin Hooper over six rounds. The government has declared their strike illegal although GMA members continued services to their inpatients. The opportunity to meet with many leaders in Israel face to face has impressed on me even more the significance of the vote I will cast in the US Congress. The lifetime Falls resident had worked other jobs, but working for the schools he once attended is special, and not just because it s home. Linzi Nicolls leads the way with a sponsored Mile of Hope.  Many people turned out to do the mile either by walking, running, skipping, and someone even hula hooped it around to raise funds for Lifeline Community Action. The recently launched group is run by YMCA working with Council’s Sport and Physical Activity Team and Hartlepool College of Further Education.
Highly commendable but you have to admit Britain has some of the most bone idle, pig ignorant litter louts in (wider) Europe. This is especially heartening, because it fits the theory that those people in our society who work really hard are the ones who get rewarded with a bit extra. Congressman Keith Rothfus (R-Pennsylvania), who is on his first visit to Israel, said he would share with his colleagues and constituency what he learned on the trip about the need for America to stand with Israel in her defense, the 'Post reported.
With the last two months of a lost season amounting to something of a tryout for many players on the Milwaukee Brewers' roster, Khris Davis has put a solid foot forward in recent days.
It is LVMH’s second-largest fashion and leather-goods brand and, according to analysts at HSBC, this sector of LVMH is doing very well indeed.
A southern spokesman said Greville's death had been referred to the coroner, but police were continuing to investigate on behalf of the coroner and WorkSafe.
MISSOULA — A line of thunderstorms grinding up the Bitterroot Valley converged over Missoula on Monday evening, spawning gusts up to 74 mph that toppled century-old trees and flipped pole barns off their foundations. Bahraini authorities have suspended the country's main opposition newspaper, accusing it of threatening national unity and relations with other states, the official news agency BNA reported late on Thursday. If your staff can attend the tables with the professionalism and service that they provide in most US restaurants it will do two things!
Sometimes there are postings on intranet discussion forums where people say “I’ve been asked to write an intranet strategy and was hoping I could have a look at somebody else’s”. To me that’s a little like saying “I’m planning to have a really enjoyable holiday and was hoping I could come on yours”.
So while I can’t give you a template for an intranet strategy, there are certain questions that a good strategy should answer. This innocuous question can be hard to answer, but if you can get all your stakeholders to agree on this, then it stops an intranet programme being pulled in multiple directions. Many strategies seem to state the blandly obvious, such as “To help Anyco communicate, collaborate, and work more effectively”. Some goals may be more inward-looking, such as ensuring 99% of employees can access the intranet. A great part of creating a successful intranet is making it a place for people to get the work that matters done, and to streamline daily admin.
Take control of your intranet, with Sam Marshall’s Intranet Success full-day masterclasses. Keith Brown served with the Royal Marines before pursuing a career in local government administration, where he was also an active trade union representative with UNISON.
David Gibson BSc, CEng, MIMMM, FICE is a Manager with BAM Ritchies and has experience in both the construction and extractive industries. Gordon Hanning is Head of Concessionary Travel and Integrated Ticketing, with direct responsibility for the managemement and operation of Scotland's National Concessionary Travel Schemes, the Bus Service Operator Grant, implementation of the national Smart and Integrated Ticketing Strategy, as well as a role in delivery of a range of other bus related activities. He is also a director of ITSO, which is a UK government-sponsored standard for the use of smartcards, and which is vital to the successful operation of our Concessionary Travel Scheme.
Dr Hazel has extensive experience in all aspects of transport and communications, both urban and rural.
He has worked in the public, private and academic sectors at a senior level and has acted as advisor to the European Union, the Academy of Sustainable Communities, the Commission for Integrated Transport, Transport for London, the Queensland State Government, the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Region, the City of San Diego and many Government agencies around the UK.
He is currently advising Scottish Enterprise on Smart Mobility as their Smart Mobility Network Integrator and has worked on the development of this programme for the past two years.
I started my career in health and safety regulation in 1979, when I joined the Health and Safety Executive in Scotland. I joined HM Railway Inspectorate in 2002 as a team manager, with responsibility for health and safety regulation of the railway industry in Scotland, including Network Rail and its contactors. Significant progress has already been made with the programme which includes the delivery of key infrastructure improvements at Haymarket tunnel and new services on the Edinburgh Glasgow via Shotts Line.
Rodger was born in Glasgow and gained an MSc in Project Management from Heriot-Watt University. Sara is Director for the Institution of Civil Engineers in Scotland with responsibility for influencing the infrastructure debate, growing membership, and working with members to deliver a knowledge transfer programme. Prior to joining local government she was international manager for Community Learning Scotland, where she helped establish the Eurodesk youth information project subsequently adopted by the European Commission and replicated across Europe. Professor Peter Woodward has a PhD in the field of numerical geotechnics from the University of Manchester. He was appointed to the post of Lecturer in Geotechnical Engineering in 1994 at Heriot-Watt University and to the post of Reader in Railways and Geotechnical Engineering in 2007. Since 2001 he has been seconded to industry for 1 day per week working on the application of polyurethane geocomposites to railway track stabilisation and reinforcement. He has won multiple awards for his developed technologies, including the Highly Commended Award at the 2005 National Rail Awards, in the Innovation of the Year category.
He has acted as Principal Investigator on many research grants, most recently on EPSRC funded research on high-speed train track interactions at critical track velocities. In his current role Nigel is responsible for strategic planning developing the medium to long term strategy forScotland’s railway infrastructure. He has lived in Cambuslang with his wife for the last 16 years and as such travels to work by train on a daily basis. This toolkit provides supports for developing core components of a community intervention and adapting them to fit the context. Indicate how you will obtain clients' input, identifying and analyzing problems and goals to be addressed by the intervention. Interviews - What questions will you ask of whom about the problem or goal and possible interventions? Community forums - What public situations would present an opportunity for you to discuss the problem or goal, and how will you use the opportunity?
Concerns surveys - What questions of whom will you ask about the problem or goal and potential solutions? The negative (positive) consequences for those directly affected and the broader community. Identify and assess "best practices" or "evidence-based interventions" that could help address the problem or goal.
How strong is the evidence that each potential “best practice” caused the observed improvement? Burj El Barajneh is a Palestinian refugee camp (BBC) in Beirut, Lebanon, and the 6th largest of the 12 official campus established after 1948. The population of Palestinian refugees in Burj El Barajneh refugee camp has been greatly expanding since its establishment in 1948. The Burj el Barajneh camp, located in the southern suburbs of Beirut, is the 6th largest of the 12 official camps.
Though the survey was conducted with 13-19 year olds, a community coalition prioritized primary prevention.
The Qaderoon intervention was based on data gathered about unmarried young people aged 13-19 years in the BBC but led to the implementation of an intervention for 11-13 year olds.
The first was an exploratory phase, and the bulk of it was aimed at obtaining the input from the community. The exploratory phase also included conducting focus groups with mothers and teachers of youth in order to gain their perspective on youth health and social issues. Based on the acknowledgement that root social and political determinants were impossible to change in the short term, a decision was made to focus only on the proximal determinants (individual, interpersonal, and organizational).  Within this list, those perceived to be amenable to intervention were selected (see objectives below). Goals of the program included promoting mental health of refugee children and increase their attachment to school through social skill-building engaging sessions.
The outcome measure was related to mental health or positive youth development; the target age group was appropriate. Selected interventions were summarized based on the criteria described above, and placed on large sheets of paper and hung on the wall. Ten sessions were pilot-tested with youth of the same age group recruited from schools in another camp, and changes were made accordingly.
The skills-building sessions for youth were interactive and conducted during out-of-school hours but within school premises.
When the intervention was still being developed, cultural adaptation was required, because there were issues specific to Arab youth and refugee youth. When the intervention was being implemented, facilitators and mentors noted that the children would, at times, have short attention spans.
Parents were often a barrier, and interviews with them quickly concluded that it was either because they (parents) were not aware of when the sessions were being held, and also that they did not see a lot of educational value to ‘Qaderoon’ and preferred to have their children study at home. A thorough process evaluation was implemented during the intervention measuring reach, dose delivered and received, satisfaction and fidelity. Each flip chart paper on the wall describes one of the evidence-based interventions found in the literature.  The CYC members rotated to read ten of these sheets and discussed relevance to the context.
Contributed by Leah Soweid, American University of Beirut, Intern with the Community Tool Box. The Take Charge Challenge is a 10-week physical activity program in which participants determine their individual readiness for physical activity, set goals, and pursue activities that interest and challenge them. The Americans with Disabilities Act requires equal access to public facilities, systems, and recreation programs, but people with disabilities often face barriers that limit their ability to participate in recreational activities. People with disabilities themselves need to recognize the importance of physical activity and develop the motivation to lead active lives.
Needed environmental changes typically include increasing the accessibility of recreation facilities and outdoor spaces.
Physical inactivity among people with disabilities was observed directly and reported through data. Observation shows, too, that people with disabilities are often left out of health promotion programs and interventions. To achieve this, people with disabilities were involved in the development and implementation of the intervention.
The problem of physical inactivity can be attributed to these factors, many of which can be influenced by raising awareness and providing information. People with disabilities are not the only ones responsible for the problem of physical inactivity. Physical activity should be seen as important for and by people with disabilities, and they should have the same opportunities to be physically active as those without disabilities.
Before designing an intervention from scratch, consider existing programs that can be adapted for use in a different situation or with a different population. DETERMINE WHAT YOU CAN GENUINELY AFFORD TO DO FINANCIALLY, POLITICALLY, AND IN TERMS OF TIME AND RESOURCES.
While funding is limited to implement the intervention, the intervention costs are limited to only the provision of incentives, which can be determined on a case-by-case basis depending on available funds. Developed as a worksite intervention, the original Take Charge Challenge has benefits such as a captive audience and existing organizational structure provided by the work environment. The program’s core components include providing information, motivation, and an individualistic approach. DEVELOP AN ACTION PLAN TO CARRY OUT THE INTERVENTION. PILOTi-TES THE INTERVENTION ON A SMALL SCALE, IMPLEMENTIT, AND PLAN TO CONSISTENTLY MONITOR AND EVALUATE YOUR WORK.
The Take Charge Challenge can be implemented in any group setting, either already existing or developed specifically for the intervention, involving people with and without disabilities. When the program is implemented, participants receive information about the challenge, the importance of physical activity, and how they can increase their physical activity level. The program is implemented by a site coordinator, called a “champion,” and a team head, called “coach.” Champions help with marketing and recruitment and motivate the coaches, who, in turn, motivate the participants during the program. The New Mexico Office of Disability and Health provides resources and support in the initial stages.
Context: In 1992, when Rodrigo Guerrero was elected mayor of Cali, Colombia, his platform was built on the foundation that he would decrease the rising rates of violence during his term. The mayor and people shared a vision of a Cali community that was one of development, security, and peace.
To provide a solid basis for an effective intervention, Rodrigo Guerrero, mayor of Cali, brought together experts with different knowledge and experience to map out patterns of violence.
The mayor and the community members of Cali carefully analyzed the problems that the community was facing in regards to violence. Desepaz  was brought about to promote social development, provide education in pacifism values, and to foster democratic policing.
From the evidence gathered, the group decided that it was not possible to find a single cause that could explain the complete picture of the violence in the city, so they decided that it was necessary to come up with a comprehensive intervention to have a significant impact. They also decided that the intervention had to be based on scientific research.
In addition, a special training program on human rights was conducted for the police, based on the Colombian Constitution and specific skills related to their performance as police agents of peace and security. At the request of citizens and community and neighborhood leaders, special private meetings were organized with the local law enforcement agents to discuss specific safety-related issues and to plan local interventions. The first "House of Peace" was inaugurated in the largest poverty-stricken area of the city.
Alcohol production is a monopoly and the main source of revenue for the states in Colombia. A wide array of educational commercials about peaceful coexistence, civic education, tolerance, and responsible behavior were broadcast through the local television channel. The opening of seventeen youth houses proved to be an effective way of providing young people from the poorer areas with a safe place to use as their own for parties, meetings, dancing, aerobics, and cultural events.
With input from community members, Desepaz created programs and policies that fit the beliefs, traditions, and values of the people of Cali. After months of research and planning the group assembled by the mayor submitted DESEPAZ for formal approval. The girls then met with an advisory board and with the assistance of Omaha Healthy Kids Coalition, they planned and produced a Lead Poisoning Health Awareness Fair, which occurred June 29, 2007 at Girls Inc. Community participants included advisory board members representing the following community consumers: a parent, a Girls Inc. The ‘Qaderoon’ (Arabic for ‘we are capable’) intervention addressed improving the mental health of Palestinian youth in the Burj el Barajneh (BBC) Palestinian refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon.
Mental health was prioritized as the most pressing issue for youth to be addressed by the intervention. When the intervention was still being developed, the process of cultural adaptation was led by a graduate student studying psychology, who was a member of the Community Youth Coalition (CYC, a local coalition established for the Qaderoon project) with background experience in youth education in the camp. Including as many community members as possible in discussion and participation was particularly important during the project development phase, where issues arose. Barriers to participation in the intervention included cultural norms that exist in patriarchal societies in which youth cannot speak freely and vocally in front of adults, particularly if they disagree. Prior to the intervention phase, the issue of mixed gender groups (mentioned above) was discussed at length with the CYC. With sensitivity to the local culture and context, this intervention was able to be successfully adapted and implemented, with 94% of participants stating satisfaction with the intervention. Context: The child mortality rates in Kenya are as high as 126 males per 1000 and 120 females per 1000 live births.

Kenya is one of the 42 countries that account for 90% of all under-five deaths in the world. This intervention would be targeted towards mothers, infants, children, families, and the environments in which they live.
This initiative, however, only addresses the improvement of health services but does not address other social determinants of health such as income and education of guardians, early childhood development programs, food insecurity, and housing. In order to identify and analyze this problem, data was first collected on the current status of the health care system. In addition to the lack of proper health service facilities and professionals to care for sick children, factors such as lack of proper nutrition, access to clean water and food, access to childhood immunizations, and poverty contribute to infant and child mortality.
This intervention, however, also addresses the problem of lack of proper training of healthcare workers and lack of counseling of the caretakers of sick children. The aim of the UN Millennium Development Goal Number 4 is to reduce the under-five child mortality rate by two-thirds (from 32 to 21 or less per 1000 childbirths) between 1990 and 2015. IMCI is an evidence-based intervention that was developed by WHO and tested in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Nepal Tanzania. They energize and rally support for an initiative by declaring precisely what you're trying to accomplish and how.
By whatever name you call it, a logic model supports the work of health promotion and community development by charting the course of community transformation as it evolves. We see systems at work and find within them an inner logic, a set of rules or relationships that govern behavior. With an understanding of context and knowledge about cause and effect, we can construct logical theories of change, hypotheses about how things will unfold either on their own or under the influence of planned interventions.
It explains why the program ought to work, why it can succeed where other attempts have failed. Let's illustrate the typical components of a logic model, using as an example a mentoring program in a community where the high-school dropout rate is very high. The arrows between the boxes indicate that review and adjustment are an ongoing process - both in enacting the initiative and developing the model. The two formats helped communicate with different groups of stakeholders and made different points. The circular model more effectively depicted the interdependence of the components to produce the intended effects. Also, certain system changes can trigger feedback loops, which further complicate and delay our ability to see all the effects.
Many planners like to use the following three categories of effects (illustrated in the models above), although you may choose to have more or fewer depending on your situation. The main point is to clearly show connections between activities and effects over time, thus making explicit your initiative's assumptions about what kinds of change to expect and when. While the starting point for logic modeling is to identify the effects that correspond to stated goals, your intended effect are not the only effects to watch for. There is always a risk that our "cure" could be worse than the "disease" if we're not careful. Although it captures the big picture, it is not an exact representation of everything that's going on. In most cases, the developers will go through several drafts before producing at a version that the stakeholders agree accurately reflects their story.
One model could sketch out the broad pathways of change, whereas others could elaborate on separate components, revealing detailed information about how the program operates on a deeper level. For a complex initiative, you may choose to develop an entire family of such related models that display how each part of the effort works, as well as how all the parts fit together. This closer view focuses on a specific component or set of components, yet it is still broad enough to describe the infrastructure, activities, and full sequence of effects.
This view expands on a particular part of the sequence, such as the roles of different stakeholders, staff, or agencies in a coalition, and functions like a flow chart for someone's work plan. It includes a global model that encompasses three intermediate outcomes in tobacco control - environments without tobacco smoke, reduced smoking initiation among youth, and increased cessation among youth and adults. Notably, the intended effects on the zoom-in are identical to those on the global model and all major categories of activities are also apparent. One model may serve more than one purpose, or it may be necessary to create different versions tailored for different aims. This approach explores the rationale for activities that are proposed or currently under way. It does this through a combination of educating community residents, organizing the neighborhood, and building relationships with partners such as businesses. Collect narrative descriptions, justifications, grant applications, or overview documents that explain the basic idea behind the intervention effort.
Mortgage companies, grant makers, and other decision makers who decided whether to allocate resources for the effort found the global view from space most helpful for setting context.
For example, in the HOME model, credit counseling leads to better understanding of credit ratings, while loan assistance leads to more loan submissions, but the two together (plus other activities such as more new buyer programs) are needed for increased home ownership. At evaluation time, each of these actions is closely connected to output indicators that document whether the program is on track and how fast it is moving. And don't forget to include important feedback loops - after all, most actions provoke a reaction. Having a well-developed logic model can keep stakeholders focused on achieving outcomes while remaining open to finding the best means for accomplishing the work. In order to tell a complete story or present a complete picture in your model, make sure to consider all forces of change (root causes, trends, and system dynamics). When exploring forces of change, be sure to search for personal factors (knowledge, belief, skills) as well as environmental factors (barriers, opportunities, support, incentives) that keep the situation the same as well as ones that push for it to change.
As logical as the story you are telling seems to you, as a plan for intervention it runs the risk of failure if you haven't explored how things might turn out in the real world of feedback and resistance. Simulation is not the same as testing a model with stakeholders to see if it makes logical sense. As a detailed description of your initiative, from resources to results, the logic model is equally important for planning, implementing, and evaluating the project. Planners often summarize an effort by listing its vision, mission, objectives, strategies and action plans. The family or nesting approach works well in a collaborative partnership because a model can be developed for each objective along a sequence of effects, thereby showing layers of contributions and points of intersection. A comprehensive model will reveal where physical, financial, human, and other resources are needed. It is possible to design a documentation system that includes only beginning and end measurements.
Most initiatives are founded on assumptions about the behaviors and conditions that need to change, and how they are subject to intervention. The terms used in a model help to standardize the way people think and how they speak about community change. When you undertake the task of developing a logic model, be aware of the following challenges and limitations. The world sometimes works in surprising, counter-intuitive ways, which means we may not comprehend the logic of change until after the fact. In most cases, there is a tension between focusing on a specific program and situating that effort within its broader context.
A modeler's challenge is to include enough depth so the organizational context is clear, without losing sight of the reasons for developing a logic model in the first place.
The process can demand a high degree of specificity; it risks oversimplifying complex relationships and relies on the skills of graphic artists to convey complex thought processes.
The process of developing the model brings together stakeholders to articulate the goals of the program and the values that support it, and to identify strategies and desired outcomes of the initiative. It helps stakeholders agree on short-term as well as long-term objectives during the planning process, outline activities and actors, and establish clear criteria for evaluation during the effort. Working backwards, you begin with the desired outcomes and then identify the strategies and resources that will accomplish them. Because it relates program activities to their effect, it helps keep stakeholders focused on achieving outcomes, while it remains flexible and open to finding the best means to enact a unique story of change.
You will have opportunities to interact with the material, and you can proceed at your own pace, reviewing where you need to or skipping to sections of your choice.
Centers for Disease Control Evaluation Group provides links to a variety of logic model resources.
Kellogg Foundation Logic Model Development Guide is a comprehensive source for background information, examples and templates (Adobe Acrobat format). I've been thinking about it a lot recently - because my kids are going to go to school soon so we're trying to work that out - and realise how important that is, but I never had an inspirational teacher.
Not just be left free to increase taxes willy-nilly whenever they want, with the slight chance they may be held accountable for it once every 4 or 5 years. They get to know adopters as well as they ve gotten to know their four-legged charges: Liz and her team try to educate potential adopters and find the best match for everyone who walks through their doors. Since the beginning of this year, there have been 705 casualties in this internal war, 45 more than had been killed by the same date last year.
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Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, director of preventive cardiology at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester. They'll tell you what you need to know about whatever is going on in the world in five minutes or less.
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And after knocking each and every one down, Arrowhead is the Cinderella in the Division 1 field. ECHO units, which include efficiencies and one-bedroom cottages, enable older people to live independently and privately in their own homes, even while on the property of a family member or caregiver.
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He said: “The last two games have been very difficult against two teams in form, Manchester City and Liverpool, but at home we’ve got to do much better.
If you’re going to spend your time doing something, you should always do it with a smile. The income distribution reform, one that is closely related with China's overall social reform and development, is already receiving a great deal of attention. 2 in the final Wisconsin Volleyball Coaches Association Division 1 poll, was faced with arguably the toughest quarterfinal draw of the four area teams in the Division 1 state girls volleyball tournament but overcame a slow start to score a surprisingly one-sided, 3-1 victory over third-ranked Neenah at the Resch Center.
His family came from Yugoslavia on a trip sponsored by the Lutheran Church, and several times during his remarks, he mentioned his faith, as when he mentioned moving to North Carolina. Mallon was instrumental in demolishing good homes all over Middlesbrough particularly central Middlesbrough. Nicky Featherstone broke into the area and rolled the ball across goal and out of reach of Paynter. Nepal's four major political parties -- Nepali Congress (NC), Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist (CPN-UML), Unified Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist (UCPN-Maoist) and Madhesi Janadhikar Forum-Loktantrik (MJF-L) -- on Saturday night came up with a six-province model in the new federal set up, a key contentions issue of Nepal's constitution-making process that started in 2008 when the first Constituent Assembly was elected. He says while Waitrose already champions English wines and Marks Spencer is considering offering domestically-produced tipples, he has turned down offers to export his wines to far flung countries. The Midlands Area champion and former English title challenger in two weight divisions had too much, however, and claimed the win. A weaker yuan may counter a slump in exports, but prolonged depreciation would trigger capital flight, disturb the financial system and slash investors' confidence in the yuan.
If you want to be richer, instead of lying around teaching or nursing or driving trains, do some graft and sell short for an afternoon. The soft-feel grained plastics and sensible switchgear have trickled down from the larger (and no longer available in the UK) Laguna model.
In 2014, LVMH’s leather and fashion brands grew by 10 percent year-on-year and in 2015 it estimates sales will grow by another 19 percent, with a forecast of 7 percent growth in 2016 and 2017. Although seeing what somebody else does can be useful to get ideas, it is unlikely to be a good fit to your particular requirements. The acid test is: given two otherwise equal options, does the vision guide you on which route to take? As with the whole strategy, return to your vision statement frequently and make sure that every stakeholder is aware that it’s directing your actions. Will you choose to try to get all your people using the intranet some of the time, or focus on core users directly involved with the goals? He is a graduate of Dundee University and studied at the University of Prince Edward Island.He has been a Member of the Scottish Parliament since 2007 and is currently the constituency MSP for Clackmannanshire and Dunblane. He is a Chartered Mining Engineer, a Civil Engineer and an UK Registered Ground Engineering Adviser. He has specific expertise from around the world in strategic planning and policy development, the integration of transport with other related areas, the prioritization of projects with respect to economic, environmental and social objectives and innovative funding of transport infrastructure. He has recently been re-appointed as Smart Mobility Network Integrator for a further 2 years with a focus on delivering the national smart mobility programme. Previously I had worked for a short time in the safety department at British Steel in Corby and as a project manager with Short Brothers in Belfast. In 2006, the Office of Rail Regulation (ORR) was created as the independent safety and economic regulator for Britain's railways. In my railway safety role, I lead ORR’s national team ensuring that Network Rail complies with health and safety law, through a programme of proactive inspection and investigation work. Redevelopment of Haymarket Station is well underway and the electrification of the Cumbernauld line has begun. He worked in both the private sector and Local Government and was Head of Project Management in Highland Council before joining Network Rail (then Railtrack) in 2001.
Before joining ICE in 2012, Sara held project management, policy and public affairs roles in economic development with a built environment, transport and planning focus in local government and Scottish Enterprise. Her early career in London was with PBD, business information and strategy consultants and the British Council. During his PhD he worked for WS Atkins in the field of earthquake engineering, analysis and design.
This patented technology was spun-out from Heriot-Watt University and is now widely used across the UK railways and increasingly internationally.
He has also been a previous winner of the ICE Webb Prize (2008) and the UK Young Engineers Award (2001) amongst others. This includes developing the bid for future funding of Network Rail inScotlandas part of the Periodic Review process as well as supporting the development of enhancements to the railway network. I really enjoyed meeting the other delegates and learning about new ideas that I can take forward in to my own position.
What behaviors of whom would need to change for the problem (or goal) to be eliminated (addressed).
According the data collected in 2008-2009, it is home to approximately 14,000-18,000 inhabitants over an area of 1.6 km squared, a number that has continued to increase significantly since then. After observing a high drop-out rate, and high levels of indicators of mental ill-ease among youth, an intervention called “Qaderoon” (Arabic for “We are capable”) was developed, implemented and evaluated in partnership with a community coalition. Palestinian refugees in Lebanon have the worst living circumstances of any of the Palestinian refugees in the Arab region (prior to the Syrian crisis that began in 2011), with state-imposed restrictions and very limited human rights. The prioritized groups to benefit were therefore children ages 11-14 years old who were attending UNRWA schools in 5th and 6th grade and living in the camp. It consisted of a needs assessment (conducted during the spring of 2003) with the objective of assessing youth social and health issues using several data collection methods. Parents stated that youth have no guarantees due to their difficult socio-economic circumstances, lack of financial opportunities, and disengagement with the school system.
Subsequently, locally specific determinants identified from the survey, from the focus groups, or from the experience of NGOs working in the camp were added to the problem analysis. Objectives included improving communication skills, problem-solving skills, conflict-resolution skills, improving self-esteem, and building relationships.
With respect to age group, mental health issues become especially relevant in this context at age 14, large numbers of Palestinian refugee children drop out of school. The pilot involved the implementation of 20% of the intervention, and the results suggested that procedures needed to be tweaked in order to allow for child privacy when assessing.
The process was carried out by a graduate student studying psychology, who was a member of the CYC with background experience in education in the camp with youth. Each session began by identifying the session objective, followed by a detailed description of activities to meet the objectives and time allocated to each.
It was concluded that, despite the conservative nature of the community, mixed gender groups were acceptable when the intent was educational and to serve the community. This was met with the creation of English reading sessions to increase the perceived educational value of the program. The process evaluation indicated that session objectives were successful and that speci?c session activities were applied accordingly. Originally developed as a worksite health promotion program, the New Mexico Office of Disability and Health modified the Take Charge Challenge to meet the needs of people with disabilities and to be an inclusive program where people of all abilities can participate. Surgeon General’s Report states adults should accumulate 30 minutes or more of moderate physical activity five or more days a week to reduce the risk of chronic disease.
To eliminate these barriers, communities should offer accessible environments that enable people with disabilities to engage in physical activity using public recreation facilities, transportation systems, parks, trails, and other outdoor spaces. However, the environment in most communities presents barriers to their increased physical activity. These changes include increased physical access, such as accessible parking, ramps, smooth surfaces, Braille signage, and accessible bathrooms that accommodate people with disabilities. Population-based surveys document the disparity that exists between physical activity levels of people with and without disabilities.
Though not purposeful, many program designs do not address the needs of people with disabilities or offer the flexibility that may be necessary to accommodate different abilities. Centers for independent living, which primarily serve people with disabilities, piloted the intervention and used feedback from participants to modify the program. Many physical activity programs are prescriptive (for example, walk three times a week) and do not take into account individual needs and abilities.
However, environmental factors can be more difficult to change, often requiring systems change and involvement at different levels of community government.
Professionals in the medical and public health fields, family members, and others who fail to promote the health of people with disabilities also contribute to the problem. For example, the original Take Charge Challenge was a worksite physical activity program discovered by a staff member at the New Mexico Office of Disability and Health and was then adapted for people with disabilities. Incentive examples include tangible items such as tote bags, gift certificates, and T-shirts. Lack of structure in some community groups, as well as recruitment difficulties, could be potential barriers to a community implementation of the program.  Other barriers might involve environmental factors such as inaccessible facilities that may limit where or how a participant can be physically active. The following table distinguishes the components or “strategies” from the elements or “tactics” of the intervention. A physical activity readiness scale is administered at the beginning and end of the program.
The intervention is designed to be replicated, and the Office of Disability and Health develops materials to support this process.
For those changes to occur, new programs had to be developed for police, the judicial system, and the local human rights offices. The mayor felt it was important to have a clearer idea of the actually rates of homicide in the city. The mayor of Cali worked to make educational information on tolerance available to the whole community.
This group included demobilized guerrillas, representatives of the labor unions, members of the Catholic Church, and leaders of the private sector. The availability of guns and the lack of gun control laws were found to be major contributing factors. Success of this program would mean lower rates of homicide for the community, a more educated and involved community and police force, and a community that encourages development, security, and peace. The income disparity would be addressed by the community as a whole, but specifically by the government.
At that time, there was significant disagreement among the different authorities on the number of homicides, since police data did not coincide with data from other sources. Television was used for messages about reducing violence since it was available to virtually all people, including many of the poor.
This house offered the opportunity to enhance personal contact among staff members of different institutions and proved to be effective in enhancing cooperation, coordination, and effectiveness in their work.
At the beginning of the mayor's tenure, there was a shortage of 25,000 primary school openings in the city. A mass media campaign was launched with collaboration of the private sector to educate Cali citizens on tolerance and respect. Two popular music orchestras, several theater groups, and sports teams grew from one of the youth houses. Ongoing evaluations use the weekly reports to access improvements in mortality and injuries due to violence.
Three of the four girls presented the findings from this project at the annual Public Health Association of Nebraska conference in Grand Island NE on September 23, 2007. However, the term “mental health” created some resistance from the BBC community, as the term for mental health in Arabic can be confused with mental illness. Interviews with parents quickly concluded that it was either because they were not aware of when t sessions were being held, or that they did not see educational value to ‘Qaderoon’ and preferred to have their children study at home. This is especially true in close-knit small communities where all inhabitants know one another.
In this context, that meant that men were the bread winners, which in turn meant they were often working more than one job to make ends meet. Process evaluation of a community-based mental health promotion intervention for refugee children.
The majority of children’s deaths are caused by diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, measles, malaria, dengue fever, and malnutrition. This involves addressing various factors associated with mortality rate including nutritional status, breastfeeding, maternal and child health status, environmental health factors, and socioeconomic factors (Rutstein, 2000), and developing appropriate interventions. Findings of the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) reveal that one in every nine children born dies before age five, mainly of acute respiratory infection, diarrhea, measles, malaria, and malnutrition. An improvement in child health services, one of the components of reducing infant and child mortality, would benefit the whole community because it would provide both preventative and tertiary care.
The World Health Organization (WHO) established the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) in 2005 to provide advice on how to reduce these inequities. An analysis of child health service provision was collected using facility inventory questionnaires, health worker interviews, observation of sick-child consultations, and an exit interview of the caretaker of a sick child.  The facility inventory questionnaire was intended to get information on departments, staff, and equipment at the healthcare facility.
Although this intervention does not directly address these issues, there are other programs that have currently been implemented in Kenya that address these other issues.
In Kenya, success of this intervention would be evident in an increased number of children receiving immunizations, improvement in maternal healthcare system, an increase in the number of women receiving prenatal care, and an increase in the knowledge of the caretakers as evidenced by the improved care given to the children.
Effective logic models make an explicit, often visual, statement of the activities that will bring about change and the results you expect to see for the community and its people. It is also possible to use a network, concept map, or web to describe the relationships among more complex program components. This can also be expressed as the problems or opportunities that the program is addressing. If you understand the basic elements of a logic model, any labels can be meaningful provided stakeholders agree to them. Try to define essential concepts at the design stage and then be consistent in your use of terms. Any intervention capable of changing problem behaviors or altering conditions in communities can also generate unintended effects. Part of the added value of logic modeling is that the process creates a forum for scrutinizing big leaps of faith, a way to searching for unintended effects. Individually, each model conveys only essential information, and together they provide a more complete overview of how the program or initiative functions. This view answers questions such s: Do the activities follow a single pathway, or are there separate pathways that converge down the line? This view answers the same questions as the view from outer space, but with respect to just the selected component(s). But the zoom in unpacks these activities into their detailed components and, more important, indicates that the activities achieve their effects by influencing intermediaries who then move gatekeepers to take action. Alternatively, if your program is already under way, a model can help you describe, modify or enhance it.
The same people who will use the model - planners, program managers, trainers, evaluators, advocates and other stakeholders - can help create it. On the other hand, while developing the model you might see new pathways that are worth exploring in real life. It starts with a clearly identified value, a change that you and your colleagues would definitely like to see occur, and asks a series of "But how?" questions: But how do we overcome fear and stigma? If your venture involves a coalition of several organizations, be sure to get descriptions from each agency's point of view. As you iteratively refine the model, ask yourself and others if it captures the full story. Does it contain big leaps of faith or does it show change through a logical sequence of effects? These outputs could be the number of educational sessions held, their average attendance, the size of the business alliance, etc.
If you need to take a detour or make a longer stop, the model serves as a framework for incorporating the change.
Does your model reveal assumptions and hypotheses about the root causes and feedback loops that contribute to problems and their solutions?
Building a model on one pathway to address only one force would limit the program's effectiveness. The point of a simulation is to see how things will change - how the system will behave - through time and under different conditions. Kellogg Foundation notes (see Internet Resources below), refining a logic model is an iterative or repeating process that allows participants to "make changes based on consensus-building and a logical process rather than on personalities, politics, or ideology.
When planners are discussing options and setting priorities, a logic model can help them make resource-related decisions in light of how the program's activities and outcomes will be affected. It gets everyone rowing in the same direction, and enhances communication with external audiences, such as the media or potential funders.
With this in mind, modelers will appreciate the fact that the real effects of intervention actions could differ from the intended effects.
Many models seem to suggest that the only forces of change come from within the program in question, as if there is only one child in the sandbox. When the initiative ends, it provides a framework for assessing overall effectiveness of the initiative, as well as the activities, resources, and external factors that played a role in the outcome. Combining this with forward logic, you will choose certain steps to produce the desired effects.
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Overtime would be paid only after an employee had worked more than his allocated annual hours. It put the Bears in front, to stay, at 48-46, and clearly saved the day in the win-or-go-home scenario.
The winner will forfeit any prize or prize certificate not claimed within thirty 1 day of winning. Pardew adhered to it more often than not and, overall, has done a decent enough job during his four years in charge. Scott Walker's administration could hold demonstrators at the Capitol liable for the cost of extra police or cleanup and repairs after protests, under a new policy unveiled Thursday.
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Of the more than two-thirds of exchange enrollees reporting dissatisfaction with their plans, paying too much was cited as the top reason. The technology also works perfectly to give a smooth and safe departure when driving away from a standstill on a steep slope, while a lock mode distributes power equally between the front and rear wheels at speeds below 25mph to optimise traction. Then there is my husband (French billionaire Francois-Henri Pinault) also who takes me to many places.
On Tuesday, the authorities repeated their earlier statement that the results would be released soon . Whether or not some breakthroughs will be achieved in this area will produce decisive influences on the country's consumption-based economic transformation, which is now in an important period of historical opportunities.
The Red, Orange and Light Green subway lines converge in Chistiye Prudy, and buses, trams and marshrutki (gypsy vans) run frequently along the neighborhood's traffic arteries. The town centre needs investment people need to be encouraged to live there not on the outskirts. 6 when Iowa City Officer Ben Hektoen noticed "an odor of ingested alcohol" coming from the vehicle,the Iowa City Press-Citizen reported.
If the issue of state restructuring will resolve the ossue, Nepal will ensure a new constitution and there will be a new president, vice president, prime minister and other major political posts, sources said. To be honest, it hasn't sunk in yet,” said Lowry who held off the challenges of overnight leaders Justin Rose and Jim Furyk, as well as Watson – all three of them Major champions – to become the first non-PGA Tour member to win the prestigious event since Martin Kaymer in 2011.
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But if you're going to give quarterback Matthew Stafford the help he needs and a guy to take heat off of budding star defensive tackle Ndamakong Suh, the Lions did it.

Repeat offenders , guarded and supervised by Military Police should be cleaning up grot spots like this instead of sitting on their butts for hours in the nick some playing on Pool tables and Game Boys for hours on end.. Tzipi Hotovely a charg l ambassadeur d Isra l en Suisse de pr senter une demande officielle au Conseil f d ral et la municipalit de Z rich de retirer leur soutien financier la conf rence de l ONG Breaking the Silence dans la capitale.
The game, which is inspired by ancient apocryphal biblical texts, tasks you as an agent of God to track down several fallen angels. In February, hundreds of children were forcibly conscripted in the northeastern town of Malakal by a government-aligned militia.
A spokeswoman for the commission says the plan limits participation in the Jonah crab fishery to fishermen who hold an American lobster permit or can prove previous participation in the crab fishery. He has studied all forms of transport policy in many countries, both the successful and the unsuccessful and has gained a detailed insight into the key issues and influences. He has published a book on Making Cities Work and has presented at a large number of conferences around the world.
I have significant experience of health and regulation in a wide range of industries, including major hazard industries, such as the chemical industry. In my Scotland role, I ensure that ORR’s approach to economic regulation is consistent with the requirements of ministers as set out in the HLOS and Scottish Ministers Advice to the ORR, by leading a cross-office Scotland team, with a focus on value for money and service to customers. High profile Project Management positions in Network Rail include leading the team on the successful £150 million Waverley Project. These include the Glasgow Edinburgh Collaboration Initiative, Edinburgh City Centre development partnership and EU funded transnational knowledge transfer projects on open innovation, waterfront regeneration and citizen participation.
The dire social and environmental conditions faced by Palestinian refugees in Lebanon are recurrently stated to be the most severe in the region, especially due to limitations in economic resources, employment opportunities and basic health services. The aim of the year-long social skills building intervention was to promote positive mental health of the refugee children and increase attachment to school.
Although education is provided by the United Nations Works Agency, lack of access to work opportunities, as well as crowded classrooms due to underfunding and an expanding population results in many children dropping out of school around 14 years of age.
The implementation team consisted of a master trainer, 6 facilitators, and 23 youth mentors.
The choice was made to focus on positive mental health defined as “a person’s ability to cope with adversity, and avoid breakdown or diverse health problems when confronted with adverse experiences” (Korkeila 2000). These determinants spanned various ecologic level from individual, to interpersonal (peers, families) to organization (schools), and to those relevant to the larger environment (context of Lebanon and the camp). Subsequently, a long discussion took place to assess the fit of each with the context based on the experience of the CYC members. The pilot session also provided strong feedback in regards to the session length and cognitive level of activities.
Several issues related to the unique culture and context arose and had to be dealt with such as seating arrangements of girls and boys and speci?c topics for role plays.
Monthly schedules were also sent home with children so that the parents could know when the sessions were taking place.
Presently, people with disabilities are less likely to engage in regular physical activity compared to people without disabilities.
And, then, people with disabilities could have the same opportunities to be physically active as those without disabilities. Therefore recreation providers and community leaders also need to recognize the rights and needs of people with disabilities for physical activity and do what they can to eliminate barriers for people with disabilities.
It also includes access to programs such as recreation classes and access to adaptive equipment. Programs specifically for people with disabilities, though sometimes beneficial, are not always necessary and often do not allow people to be active with family and friends. In a less direct way, the intervention can benefit community members by setting an example of how simple adaptations can create a program that includes everyone. In addition, environmental barriers often result from decisions made by government leaders, developers, and planners. Various organizations successfully have used this individualistic and non-prescriptive approach that also often works well for people with disabilities.
The intervention’s low cost contributed to its potential replication in a variety of settings, thus its practicality, simplicity and effectiveness.
Using existing community groups can help, but efforts need to be made to reach those outside of structured groups.
An additional short health survey is administered at the beginning and end of the program and three months post-program for evaluation purposes. In the future, any person or group should be able to access these materials on-line and implement the program with minimal funding for incentives. Everyone seemed to know someone who had been a victim of some kind of violence.  An overview of the steps taken to develop an intervention to prevent violence follows.
Programs were also developed to improve the lives of community members, including programs to meet the basic needs of the poor.
Epidemiological studies were conducted to identify the principal risk factors for violence and to shape the priorities for action. Television advertisements, scheduled to show at peak watching times, highlighted the importance of tolerance of others and self-control. They all came together to design a policy and strategy to deal with the problem of violence. Educational and cultural programs would be in place to give people alternatives to occupy their time.
There was no information about the simplest descriptive aspects of violence in the city, such as the profiles of the victims and perpetrators and the specific circumstances in which crimes took place.
Led by an epidemiologist, a Committee was created that included representatives of the Police, Judiciary, Forensic Medicine, Health, and Human Rights sectors. In these meetings, statistical information about the violent deaths of the past week was analyzed and plans were coordinated for law enforcement action.
To address alcohol abuse the city government established the "ley semi seca" (semi-dry law) that ordered bars and discotheques to close at 1 a.m.
40,000 new schools were opened so that 100% coverage for public primary education was insured for the next few years. After a year of preparation, a six month long Olympic Event took place, including many different sports and involving more than 100,000 participants of all sexes and ages.
One girl wrote and choreographed a rap about lead poisoning, which was performed by six girls from Girls Inc. Future “Girls Take Charge” projects will focus on other child health issues in North Omaha. The end decision was to keep the term, as it allowed for a chance to raise awareness within the community. This barrier was addressed by the creation of English reading sessions to increase perceived educational value of the program by parents.
In order to move past this barrier, the youth created their own committee where they could talk freely, going so far as to empower two representatives to attend the CYC (Community Youth Coalition) meetings to take part in development phase discussions.
Therefore, there was some difficulty engaging them, as their time off was limited and justifiably spent seeing their families.
Infants deaths, however, are mostly caused by congenital phenomenon exacerbated by low birth weight, poor sanitation and water supply, poverty, inadequate food supplies, lack of education and information to mothers on how to take care of their infants, and inadequate healthcare, including lack of proper pre-natal care for the mother. According to reports from the Central Bureau of Statistics and the National Coordinating Agency for Population and Development (NCAPD) in Kenya, the infant mortality rate increased from about 60 per 1,000 in 1990 to 74 in 1998 and 77 in 2003, while under-five mortality continued to increase from about 90 per 1,000 in 1990 to 112 in 1998 and 115 in 2003.
The government of Kenya’s Ministry of Health has developed and implemented new approaches to child survival efforts. They compiled and launched a report in August 2008 with three overarching recommendations that include improving daily living conditions, tackling the inequitable distribution of power, money, and resources, and measuring and understanding the problem, and assessing the impact of action.
The healthcare worker interviews surveyed training (pre and in-service) and supervision of the healthcare workers. For example, the Gender Equality Action Plan implemented by the Department for International Development (DFID) works in Kenya to reduce levels of morbidity and mortality in children by providing equipment and training in obstetrics care within health institutions and also social marketing of family planning.
A logic model keeps participants in the effort moving in the same direction by providing a common language and point of reference.
In the world of machines, the only language a computer understands is the logic of its programmer.
And by working in teams, persistently over time if necessary, there is hardly any system past or present whose logic we can't decipher. Magical assumptions, poor reasoning, and fuzzy thinking increase the chances that despite our efforts, the future will turn out differently than we expect or hope. By defining the problem or opportunity and showing how intervention activities will respond to it, a logic model makes the program planners' assumptions explicit. Models can even be built around cultural symbols that describe transformation, such as the Native American medicine wheel, if the stakeholders feel it is appropriate.
One cannot study the link between X and Y and, independently, the link between Y and X and predict how the system will behave.
The process of developing a logic model supports this important dialogue and will bring potential misunderstandings into the open.
This level of detail is necessary for program staff, but it may be too much for discussions with funders and stakeholders. For practical reasons, though, you will probably start with a core group, and then take the working draft to others for continued refinement. By making each stakeholder's thinking visible on paper, you can decide as a group whether the logic driving your initiative seems reasonable. For the HOME campaign, we collected documents from planners who proposed the idea, as well as mortgage companies, homeowner associations, and other neighborhood organizations.
Those resources may be financial, but they may also include people, space, information, technology, equipment, and other assets. None of these facts are included in the model per se, but a shaded box labeled History and Context was added to serve as a visual reminder that these things are in the background. By connecting activities and effects, a logic model helps avoid proposing activities with no intended effect, or anticipating effects with no supporting activities.
The clarity of thinking that occurs from the process of building the model becomes an important part of the overall success of the program." With a well-specified logic model, it is possible to note where the baton should be passed from one person or agency to another.
An alternative approach calls for tracking changes at each step along the planned sequence of effects. For example, some of the links in a logic model may have been tested and proved to be sound through previous research. Even stakeholders who are skeptical or antagonistic toward your work can be drawn into the discussion and development of a logic model.
Certain actions might even make problems worse, so it's important to keep one eye on the plan and another focused on the real-life experiences of community members. This places a high burden on modelers to pay attention to detail and refine their own thinking to great degree. The crisp, hard edges of the building, which takes on a tire tread-like texture, show deference to the supple shapes and sheen of the bikes that park along the open-air streets, meant to re-create the feel of annual bike rallies in places like Sturgis, S.D. That tragedy led to the country s first Disaster Management Act, followed eight months later by the establishment of the Disaster Management Centre. Prize or prize certificates will not be mailed to the winner without the winner s prior written consent in which the winner shall agree to assume its risk of loss. The caller told authorities that one person had made it out, but two people were still inside the residence. Tensions between Egypt and Iran heightened when the Islamic Republic named a street after Khalid Islambouli, who assassinated Egyptian President Anwar Al-Sadat in October 1981.
Last week, it widened thecorridor by5 kopeks andsaid that it will continue toadd 5 kopeks tothe corridor foreach $600 million ofintervention money it spends onkeeping theruble inthe corridor.
22, 2013, the Philippines unilaterally initiated compulsory arbitration proceedings with respect to the relevant issues between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea. While both treatments relieved the hot flashes these drugs are designed to treat, in neither case did the scientists find any changes in cognition or thinking, for better or worse. Thehouse's chef serves fine grilled meat, boiled sprats, andFrench fries, among many other treats.
Phelps admitted to smoking marijuana before driving his car and agreed to take a breath test and evaluation for marijuana intoxication.
At a press conference in Kathmandu on Tuesday afternoon, the political parties appealed for calm after violent protests erupted in the western region of the country against the proposed six-state federal set-up. Tel Aviv defines such goods as dual use - meaning that while they are needed for the civilian population, they could also potentially be used by militant groups in attacks. Le but de cet v nement, qui est aussi celui de ce groupe financ par des capitaux trangers, tant de diaboliser et de diffamer l arm e isra lienne.Il semble donc que le gouvernement ait finalement d cid de r pondre aux provocations. The game is striking in both its anime-style art style and its attitude, which includes God checking in on your progress by calling your guardian angel over a mobile phone.
All his 12 children are to be beneficiaries, but the deciding votes will be held by his wife and one of his children. There is still no official number of dead since the fighting started, but officials estimate in the tens of thousands, while an additional 1.5 million people have been internally displaced and 500,000 have fled abroad. It has two other LNG developments on its books a 5-mtpa plant at Vladivostok that could be on line by 2018 and could expand to 10 mtpa in the 2020s; and the 10 mtpa Baltic LNG project that could be producing in 2018. He is currently working on the development of future mobility systems based on integrating the principles of transport planning, retailing, product design, energy and ICT systems. Rodger spent more than two years Transport Scotland developing EGIP before returning to Network Rail in 2012 as Programme Director for EGIP. The United Nations Refugee and Works Agency (UNRWA) is one of the organizations that provide health and educational services to the refugee population.
In order to reach these goals, practitioners developed an evidence-informed intervention that included activities for children, parents and teachers and focused on skills such as improving communication skills, problem-solving skills, and relationships. A household survey conducted in 2003, among 13-19 year old unmarried youth living in the camp indicated that 45% were out of school, ands over a quarter (27%) were working. Teachers also discussed their own personal situations of being underpaid and having to work double-shifts, as they come from the same very difficult environments that the children come from.
This interface of evidence with lived experience resulted in the selection of three evidence-based interventions as most appropriate to the context: Stress Inoculation Training, Improving Social Awareness and Social Problem Solving, and Positive Youth Development Programme. The use of qualitative methods during this phase was crucial to understanding the intricacies of implementation to achieve objectives and impact youth health. It began in the summer, with an intensive 2-week intervention (summer phase), and continued on during the academic year, taking place on Fridays and during school holidays until May 2009 (fall phase).
Therefore, the issue needs to be addressed on multiple levels including the individual, family, professional, community state, and federal levels. Participants set individual goals for physical activity at the program start, and report on progress at a midpoint and at the end of 10 weeks. He also collaborated with nongovernmental agencies to organize a variety of cultural and educational projects for schools and families to promote discussions on violence and help to resolve interpersonal conflicts. Economic instability and extreme poverty were recognized as contributors to violence as well. The community as a whole would feel as though combating violence was a part of their job, not something just to be handled by the police and judicial system. The contribution of drug traffic and organized crime to the city's violence was completely unknown.
This group held weekly meetings to analyze and reach consensus on the occurrences of crime in the previous week and to prepare a report for the Municipal Security Council that met weekly as well. There was improvement in the quality of education through the creation of six "Didactic Centers" in poor neighborhoods. Following comprehensive implement action in 1992, desepaz was associated with a 30% reduction of homicides over a 5 year period.
Based on resources from the Community Tool Box, the curriculum was adapted for adolescents. Additionally, monthly schedules were sent home with children so that parents would know when the sessions were taking place.
One of the ideas the CYC came up with in order to get information from fathers was to have the working fathers speak to other fathers who were already involved in the project input.
The fourth United Nations Millennium Development Goal (MDG) is to reduce the under-five child mortality rate by two-thirds by 2015. This is a reversal in trend after global initiatives to improve child health caused a decline in infant and child mortality in Kenya in the 1970s and 1980s. One of these strategies is Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI), a program developed by WHO. For the sick-child consultations, the health provider’s interaction with the caretaker and sick child was observed. In order to improve maternal health and reduce infant mortality specifically, DFID has funded a motorbike ambulance to take women who are in labor to hospital, therefore cutting down on the number of expectant mothers who have to walk for several hours to receive medical attention.
Yet, through experience and awareness of recurrent patterns, we comprehend it, and, in many cases, can successfully avoid its problems (by carpooling, taking alternative routes, etc.). On the other hand, some events that seem unexpected to the uninitiated will not be a surprise to long-time residents and careful observers.
At various points on the map, you may need to stop and review your progress and make any necessary adjustments. It is also common to hear people talk about effects that are "upstream" or "proximal" (near to the activities) versus "downstream" or "distal" (distant from the activities). You can talk about it, clarify misinterpretations, ask for other opinions, check the assumptions, compare them with research findings, and in the end develop a solid system of program logic. The important thing to remember is that these are not three different programs, but different ways of understanding how the same program works. The HOME campaign runs because of the input from volunteer educators, support from schools and faith institutions in the neighborhood, discounts provided by lenders and local businesses, revenue from neighborhood revitalization, and increasing social capital among community residents. Although it is impossible to represent all of those factors in a model, you can strive to include features that remind users those conditions exist and will affect how change unfolds.
All programs evolve and change through time, if only to keep up with changing conditions in the community.
And for those who implement, the modeling answers practical questions about how the work will be organized and managed. The ability to spot such mismatches easily is perhaps the main reason why so many logic models use a flow chart format. With a logic model, program planners can identify intermediate effects and define measurable indicators for them.
Other linkages, by contrast, may never have been researched, indeed may never have been tried or thought of before.
Once you've got them talking about the logical connections between activities and effects, they're no longer criticizing from the sidelines. Panicker submitted that it was mandatory for units with more than 10 workers and engaged in continuous processing, manufacturing, and distribution of any product to come within the ambit of the Act. The Promoter, its sponsor, or promotional partner are not responsible for the safe arrival of a prize or prize certificate.
The next day, while inaugurating a road while Scioli stood at her side, she said: "We could have saved so much time if (the opposition) had realized just a little sooner" the value of the policies. Inother words, theCentral Bank is revving up tomanage acontrolled, slow-moving devaluation ofthe ruble that will soften theblow ofan external crisis andpreserve Russia's hard currency reserves: If Greece has acontrolled default, Russia will respond with acontrolled devaluation. Since then, the Philippines has obstinately pushed for the above-mentioned arbitration proceedings despite repeated objections of China.
Here's an idea for MBC, start collecting the rates from those that don't pay rather than hammering the ones that do pay. Phelps then asked Hektoen if he would take a Snapchat selfie, according to the criminal complaint.
A Republican rewrite without Democratic input will not inspire broad confidence that elected representatives will put the public's interest over their own or those of special interests financing their campaigns. In addition, 16 of the 33 Senate seats are up in the November election under the new legislative districts more favorable for Republicans, meaning their party could pick up enough seats to regain the majority.
In May-June last year, a Chinese naval task force held military exercises with Cameroon and Nigeria, the first time that the Chinese navy appeared in the west coast of Africa. The world of El Shaddai ' is mesmerizing and beautiful and an amazing place to escape for hours.
Another product is an antibiotic foam for treatment of Impetigo, an infectious disease, which is due to begin a Phase III trial after talks with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Despite the severe increase in the populace since its founding, the number of schools remains at a standstill, and the effects of this lack of educational support is evident, particularly among the youth.
Indicators of mental ill-ease included the occurrence of stressful life events, such as a death in the family over the course of the past year (42%) having a family member in the hospital (67%) and having a parent who had to repay a loan (48%).
In that sense, they were a very important part of the implementation team in that they acted as the liaison between the facilitators and the children while they assisted the former in all aspects of the intervention sessions and evaluation process. Focus group discussions were also conducted with male and female younger and older youth to explore the survey results in greater depth and to help prioritize youth issues. Training workshops that they attended were often not applicable to their classroom circumstances, and the relationships between them and the students were not strong.
The youth convened in classes set up either with round tables, or in semi circles or on the floor to create an atmosphere of trust, to facilitate sharing and to eliminate sense of hierarchy.
A reward system (stars) was created to make sure ground rules were followed by the children.
These discussions indicated great community support for the ‘Qaderoon’ intervention and perceived impact on social skills of participating children.
As for ?delity (defined as sessions where all activities were implemented as planned), the results show that overall 78% of the activities were fully applied. Changes to improve access to public transportation, sidewalks, and other public systems and infrastructure also facilitate behavior changes. Progress is tracked by the individual using a re-useable calendar provided at the beginning of the intervention.
The rates of homicide had risen from 23 in 100,000 in 1983, to 85 per 100,000 in 1991.  The study also found that 30% of homicide victims were intoxicated. The approach recognized that effective violence prevention cannot be imposed from above, but must really be supported by the community. There also was a lack of accurate information about homicides and violence since records reflected only bodies found, not people who later died from violence in hospitals. People also would have a greater knowledge of actual crime rates, an improved reporting system, and new ways to combat violence. One of the first tasks of the group was to agree upon an operational definition for each of the different factors of crime.
In the project, the girls identified a community concern and chose a project to address that concern. An overview of the steps taken by a joint initiative of the World Health Organization and UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) to develop an intervention specific to Kenya and the African context in general is as follows. IMCI is an integrated approach to child health that focuses on the well-being of the whole child. Information on the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of the sick child, as well as the counseling of the caretaker, was also collected. This is part of DFID’s Essential Health Services program that also provides care and support for women through pregnancy and childbirth, and immunization and treatment for their babies. Because disciplines have their own jargon, stakeholders from two different fields might define the same word in different ways. This product then becomes a powerful tool for planning, implementation, orientation, evaluation, and advocacy, as described above. Verbs such as teach, inform, support, or refer are often connected to descriptions of program activities. The explicit form of a logic model means that you can combine evidence-based practices from prior research with innovative ideas that veteran practitioners believe will make a difference.
They'll be engaged in problem-solving and they'll be doing so in an open forum, where everyone can see their resistance to change or lack of logic if that's the case. You'll have to decide on the basis of stakeholders' uses what level of precision is required.
He alleged that the unit processes used syringes and gloves and transports them to Coimbatore to be sold to medical equipment manufacturing units without proper licence from the DFB. The decision to federate the country into six provinces with tentative demarcation of borders sparked protests in various parts of the country. It's a quiet performance yet so assured that it takes you mere seconds to learn to read his silences. Reid Ribble, a Wisconsin Republican, and his Democratic colleague in the House, Jim Cooper of Tennessee, unveiled a pair of bills back in March that got little notice but could go a long way to making the nation's reapportionment process less partisan. Shapcott is one of the world’s leading researchers on how to effectively market to, and teach, women the game of golf.
67% of youth worked more than 40 hours a week, and 90% earned less than 75,000 LL a week (1$=1500 LL). The master trainer was responsible for supporting the adaptation of the intervention to the context, conducting the pilot sessions, and training and selecting the youth mentors and facilitators, who were chosen based on their prior experience working with children of the similar age groups. These focus groups led to youth creating and practicing short plays that showcased their prioritized issue, and subsequently presenting them to an audience of the CYC and other adults from the community.
As these interventions collectively included activities addressing the identified determinants, the sessions in each were added to estimate the scope of our intervention. Weekly discussions between facilitators were held, and changes in activities were made accordingly. Incentives are given at the beginning, middle and end of the program to motivate and reward success. Homicides tended to increase on the weekends, public pay days, public holidays, election days, and were concentrated in areas of nightlife.
For this reason, the municipal government created a Security Council to look at crime patterns across the city, neighborhood by neighborhood. People would also learn specific actions they can take to prevent themselves from acting violently or having violent crimes committed against them. Pre- and post-tests of knowledge showed that younger children improved in their knowledge from 79% to 87% (+ 8%) while adolescents and adults showed about the same knowledge (82% pre and 83% post). This program aims to reduce death, illness, and disability, and to promote improved growth and development among children under five years of age.
In the exit interview, a questionnaire was given to the caretaker of the sick child and it aimed to find out the knowledge given to the caretaker by the health workers about how to continue with care. The program has also funded training for nurses and midwives and is helping to build better clinics to meet increased demand for maternal healthcare. Adjectives like reduced, improved, higher, or better are often used when describing expected effects. Your activities, based on a clear analysis of risk and protective factors, are the answers to these kinds of questions, Your interventions reveal the drama in your story of directed social change. If you are armed with a logic model, it won't be easy for critics to claim that your work is not evidence-based. On another note perhaps Mallon might reflect on the cost of investigations into his behaviour that of his ex-colleagues that cost the town a fortune under Lancet! It is the second largest town in North Sinai and the only major population centre remaining in the restive corner of the peninsula, which borders the Gaza Strip and Israel.
Three people were killed and over half a dozen injured in violence that broke out in Surkhet district in mid-western Nepal.
Only 13% of youth surveyed felt their life would substantially improve in the future, and 68% stated they had fewer opportunities than others in their same age group in Lebanon. The master trainer also had the responsibility of implementing the sessions, completing the process evaluation forms and documenting the changes to the sessions and the reason behind the changes. Each week, the council held a two-hour meeting in one of the city's 20 districts, open to the public and attended by community and municipal leaders, to seek practical solutions to public security problems in that particular area. People in the community would report that they now feel their community is a safer place to live in, and they are less concerned with becoming victims of violence. It was decided that prevention should be prioritized even though it was accepted that traditional control measures were also needed.
The reduction in the number of injuries reported by hospital and traffic authorities was so obvious that the measure could be retained despite the initial opposition of the owners of liquor selling establishments.
IMCI includes both preventive and curative elements that are implemented by families and communities as well as by health facilities.
Present at the conference were Prime Minister Sushil Koirala, CPN-UML chairman Jhala Nath Khanal, UCPN (Maoist) chairman Pushpa Kamal Dahal and MJF-L chairman Bijayakumar Gachhadar.
Chaque ann e, les Pays-Bas consacrent plusieurs millions d euros au financement, direct ou indirect, d organisations dont le seul objectif est la diabolisation d Isra l. A field coordinator from the CYC handled the logistics of the intervention, as well as upheld a close relationship with community, family members, and schools. The extraordinarily high levels of violence in the city called for prevention as the main strategy since traditional methods, like increasing the number of police or increasing the number of incarcerated criminals, were not possible. Permission was obtained from the Ministry of Defense to forbid the use of permits to carry firearms on holidays. IMCI has three main components that include improving case management skills of healthcare staff, improving overall health systems, and improving family and community health practices (WHO).  Other agencies that will aid in the intervention by providing financial support and resources include WHO, Doctors without Borders, United Nation Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and World Vision. That same line of reasoning could also be uncovered using if-then statements: If we focus on briefing legislators, then they will better understand the issues affecting kids.
L ambassade isra lienne La Haye et le ministre des Affaires trang res doivent exiger un arr t imm diat de cette campagne subversive et diffamatoire. The mayor started an effort to encourage the involvement of all citizens and community organizations in the solution of the problem.
Violence and crime were considered to be too important to be left in the hands of the police and military alone. A climate of tolerance and respect for others’ rights as a base for peaceful living were actively promoted by the administration.

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