The term Promotion encompasses all of the various ways a business can communicate with customers and includes advertising, public relations and publicity (PR), sales promotion, direct mail, the internet and direct communications as well as sponsorship. Is a paid-for, mostly non-personal form of communications and includes, TV, radio, newspaper & magazines, public transport, outdoor displays and exhibitions, billboards, brochures and catalogues and the internet.
ABL uses mass media such as TV, radio, newspapers to promote brands and is used predominantly to create awareness.
As the term suggests direct marketing communicates directly with a targeted customer group. To contact a customer through most but not all of the methods above a business needs to gather information on their customers. A data base can contain some of the information shown below and is a useful source of information to assist business in customer segmentation.
The key to data marketing is to ensure that the information collected is as accurate as possible and that actual and potential customers are not bombarded with telephone calls and leaflets promoting products they clearly do not want!
As we have discussed in this module before, how interested are you to buy from telesales or door to door sales people? Although, there might not be a direct cost in placing the story in say a local or national newspaper there are hidden costs such as the time needed to write the story and research contacts in the media. Public Relations can be concerned with the management and control of the process of publicity. Public Relations is also concerned with the communication between an organisation and its key stakeholders or publics shown in the diagram.
Supporting a special event or cause whether financially or materially (such as computers for schools given by Tesco) is called Sponsorship. Why do you think that so many top brands get involved in sponsorship of top sporting events?
Although the link below follows through to a blog the amount of money used in sports sponsorship is staggering. At the time of producing this module information there was debate whether BP could be allowed to remain a sponsor of the games after their oil leak tragedy in the USA.
This is face-to-face communications with the buying customer by a representative of the company interested in selling products. The choice of promotional methods employed is influenced by a number of factors including; communication objectives, target audience needs, and promotional spend.
So for example advertising has a high ability to reach a large number of potential customers, is expensive but moderately easy to control but the medium is not an effective way to deliver a personal message and offers little customer interaction.
Most business will use a combination of some maybe all of the promotional methods we have discussed, some will spend a little others will spend a lot! Integrated Marketing Communications is concerned with co-ordinating all of the marketing communication tools available rather than use one in splendid isolation. There is an array of communications tools which can be used so it is vital to ensure that all are co-ordinated to achieve maximum effect. Jobber (2010 p 464) says something very similar, ‘Integrated Marketing Communications is the concept that companies co-ordinate their marketing communication tools to deliver a clear, consistent, credible and competitive message about the organization and its products. With a huge selection of marketing communications tools to chose from, many companies are moving away from using mass media advertising only and are employing a combination of promotional methods. As with any academic subject, there is plenty of theory relating to marketing and this section on communications is no exception.
Shannon and Weaver in the late 1940s developed a linear process of communication looking at the source of a message and its transmission to another. For a message to be effective, the sender's encoding process must match up with the receiver's decoding process.
The key is to ensure that effective communications cut out noise or barriers to communication from the process so that understanding of the message is spot on.
In order to communicate effectively, a company needs to understand its target audience at the same time determining communication objectives.
There are competing views on the effectiveness of adverting and how it works; the strong theory of advertising and the weak theory of advertising.
The model importantly stresses that advertising is strong enough to increase consumer knowledge of a product and can change attitudes and buying behaviour. Whether advertising and other communication methods too have the power to change attitudes and buying behaviour is very much open to debate, yet the AIDA model has been effectively used to design communication messages.
Chose another well known brand that advertises on TV, or in magazines or newspapers and see if the AIDA model has been applied? Push strategy: trade promotions and personal selling efforts push the product through the distribution channels.
Read the following scenario and then put together an Integrated Marketing Communications Plan for Sony’s new product as detailed in the Task instructions below. Sony is to launch a new multi functional handset incorporating a mobile telephone, a small TV, camera, video, and MP3 player. With wireless technology this should represent one of the most up to date models in its class.
Despite its high threshold price, it is anticipated that the product will also appeal to the age group 16-22, as the price is within the ballpark figure for many games consoles, although relatively more expensive than a mobile phone with added features. Design is key, and Sony has shaped the new handset on the lines of an ipod, with colour and simplicity representing key features.
Devise an outline marketing communications plan for the new Sony handset for each segment identified. Use all of the stages listed in the framework below or use the headings from the Jobber advertising framework in section 2. Affects decisions related to what, how, when, and where message will be said, as well as who will say it. Push strategy: trade promotions and personal selling efforts push the product through the distribution channels. Pull strategy: producers use advertising and consumer sales promotions to generate strong consumer demand for products. Putting the plan into action can take some time and often businesses will employ an advertising or specialist agency to undertake this work for them. At the same time technology in tele-communications had developed to encompass the mobile phone plus digital and online television.
Jobber also points out the difference between Internet marketing and Digital marketing by stating that Internet Marketing is concerned with meeting customer needs through the utilisation of the internet only whereas as Digital Marketing includes the internet, mobile phones and digital TV. Electronic commerce is often thought to simply refer to buying and selling using the internet, but as Jobber explores further it is also a provider of information.
E-business is a term generally used to refer to both buy-side and sell side e-commerce and the use of Internet technologies throughout an organisation.
There are a variety of forms of e-commerce from business to business to consumer to consumer.
Permission based simply means that by supplying your contact details to a business you have given them permission to communicate with you.
It is unlikely that the 5Is will knock the traditional marketing mix off its top spot, but it does offer food for thought. The use of internet and other digital technologies has made marketers review the application of the marketing mix in a different way as illustrated above.

The big change has been place…… top UK supermarkets use the internet as a virtual shopping experience, indeed some sites have virtual shopping baskets and check-outs! To conclude marketing is a big subject and we have touched on quite bit of it, yet there is much more to add!
Met database marketing wordt bedoeld dat gegevens uit een database (bijvoorbeeld adressenbestand met klanten) gebruikt worden voor marketingactiviteiten. Om zo optimaal mogelijk te kunnen profiteren van database marketing is het belangrijk de aanwezige informatie zoveel mogelijk te verrijken. Veel websites bieden onine bezoekers de mogelijkheid om zich in te schrijven voor een nieuwsbrief. Het is geen drempel om aan je nieuwe inschrijver te vragen naar meer informatie en interesses, mits je de gevraagde informatie niet allemaal verplicht maakt.
De hoeveelheid informatie die je wilt verzamelen en vervolgens wilt koppelen aan een bepaalde inschrijver is bij Postzegelnietnodig onbeperkt. Voor een succesvol database marketing campagne is het van belang dat je de database met klantprofielen up to date  houdt. Zie je in de database statistieken dat er bij een bepaald mailadres de mailingen niet worden geopend? Neem contact op met Postzegelnietnodig om database marketing effectiever in te zetten of om kennis te maken met doelgerichte emailmarketing. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. INTRODUCTIONDatabase marketing is a form of direct marketing using databases of customers or potential customers to generate personalized communications in order to promote a product or service for marketing purposes.
DATABASE MARKETING TECHNIQUESDatabase Marketing and techniques tailored to fit your own products and services, you can gather and store targeted information about your visitors, clients or prospects.1. WHY DATABASE MARKETING ???If your work in a market niche with a limited number of prospects, e.g. CHALLENGES OF DATABASEMARKETINGTracking their online behaviour has become the most effective means for most organizations to understand what is top-of-mind for their target audience RIGHT NOW. CHALLENGES OF DATABASE MARKETING - CONTD? Web analytics systems evolved primarily as reporting and site analysis systems. Despite high interest in database marketing (DBM), many marketers still have not implemented DBM. A higher level of segmentation involves profiling, scoring, or modeling of customers and prospects.
Scoring, as the name implies, ranks segments or individual customers by some predetermined criteria, often sales or gross margin contribution. Modeling employs statistical techniques like multiple regression to identify factors that correlate to high sales potential or likelihood of promotional response. Strategies in this area have grown in importance since the high cost of new customer acquisition has been well documented.
Sometimes a by-product of DBM is the ability to utilize the database as a marketing intelligence device.
Database marketing promises to deliver more effective marketing and communications, first by improving customer understanding through segmentation, and then by using this information to communicate with customers in a targeted, even personalized, way. We have a list of 9000 emails gotten without an opt out opportunity, gotten by people who bought our CD, booked us to play, etc. The articles on this web site are available to the general public to read, enjoy and for limited business use. It is a flexible form of communication which has the potential to reach a vast audience (depending on the medium used) yet is not always suitable if the business needs to communicate to a small, select group of customers. The suggestion here is that agencies can be offered commission from printers for using them to print direct mail, brochures and the like. Until recently direct marketing included direct mail through the door and mail order catalogues, but due to its popularity direct marketing also encompasses telemarketing, direct response TV advertising (the red button during advertisements and the shopping channels!), door to door and personal selling and the internet.
Someone somewhere must be buying in this way as this type of promotion has seen a surge in popularity in recent years.
Unlike the direct marketing techniques discussed above sales promotion can be employed as an incentive to all channel members. Many companies will employ the services of a PR agency who will deal with press stories and maintain good links with the media. This is the professional body for the UK public relations industry, providing PR training and events, PR news and research. Think of Max Clifford when some celebrity gets into trouble and how quick he takes control of the publicity. Funds are made available to a recipient organisation in return for recognition of the benefactor’s generosity. The reputation of this top global company had certainly taken a hammering and the Olympic organisers were unsure whether the games should be associated with the company. Like all of the promotions techniques we have reviewed personal selling has its advantages and disadvantages. PR on the other hand offers high credibility with low costs at the expense of low control once the media gets the story. Rather than advertise a new product or change in price on the TV only, the company will use a range of methods to ensure that the product is noticed even more by many more customers.
As consumers ourselves we do not only seek product information from the TV, but look at the internet, read magazines, leaflets and brochures and speak to sales staff. The consumers are pulling the product through the distribution channels as opposed to a push strategy which is employed to communicate to members of the distribution channel.
We shall briefly review some theories, concepts and models relating to communication starting with the communication process. In latter years Schramm (1962) added a feedback back loop to review whether the message had been received correctly.
However, there can be noise in the process which hinders or halts the message being understood.
Then its needs to select the appropriate media and encode a message appropriate to the audience, decide on communication strategies, what promotional tools to use and how much money to spend. Buy-side e-commerce refers to transactions to procure resources needed by an organisation from its suppliers. Changes can be made on-line almost immediately through the flick of HTML, think of changing pricing through established distribution channels. In the Western world we assume all have access to a computer yet in the developing world this is hardly the case.
Hoe meer informatie jij van de klant verzamelt in de database, des te meer doelgerichter je informatie kunt mailen. Door gebruik te maken van de informatie in de database kan er met de online applicatie van Postzegelnietnodig gesegmenteerd worden. Denk eraan; hoe meer informatie je hebt, hoe beter je met de doelgroep kunt communiceren door middel van segmentatie. Het kan natuurlijk zijn dat de interesses van een klant wijzigen na verloop van tijd, of dat men gebruik maakt van een ander mailadres. Appended Data - More in-depth data may be desired for business to business (B2B) communications like SIC code, number of employees and annual sales, for bidding projects. Website Data – Some websites offer a means to gather their own data, too, through the use of cookies that gather information from website visitors.

Message and offer, finely tuned to audience, have been and remain the key to effective database marketingTo build an effective online database marketing system, it’s necessary to use a robust targeting platform that integrates online behavioural data with any essential customer dataIt’s a very rare database marketer that wants to target based on simple aggregations like visits, page views or time on site.
Despite huge amounts of seemingly invaluable online customer behaviour and a growing capability to integrate data across channels, few organizations have been able to truly unleash this capability. The most basic level of segmentation involves classifying, coding or sorting customers and prospects by type, size or potential. Profiling identifies frequencies (percentages) of different categories, for example, financial services comprise 17% of XYZ Corporation’s customer base. Dividing the ranked list into three groups is common to identify heavy, moderate, and light users. Prospective customers can then be “fitted” to these models to determine which prospects should be priorities.
The segmentation tools described allow you to focus on prospects that are “heavy users” or that fit predetermined criteria. DBM can help identify penetration by comparing transaction data to total customer purchases.
DBM can support the identification of lost customers to be reclaimed, dormant customers to be reactivated, as well as the Lifetime Value (LTV) of customers. At least six DBM strategies should be considered including segmentation, customer acquisition, penetration, retention, market intelligence and measuring results. A business might contract an advertising agency to design and place advertisements on their behalf in the mass media. His recent national story lines have included the girlfriend of married Chelsea footballer, John Terry and the death of Jade Goody.
Recognition can include the display of the sponsors’ name and logo and plenty of public recognition of the charitable act. The good bit is that it is very intensive and aimed at a small number of customers through meetings and regular updates; good relationships can be maintained and developed. The link below shows a developmental timeline of the internet from onset to what we know today! A co-ordinated, customer-focused and harmonised use of methods from billboards to product packaging, website to internet advertising, sponsorship and publicity, in-store publicity through sales staff and sales promotions, plus direct marketing, all reiterating the same message with the same logo and branding. If the message is not consistent, say McDonalds are promoting a 50p burger on the TV but in the store the sales-staff haven’t a clue what is happening, this is a little frustrating for the consumer and hardly professional for the company.
So a manufacturer such as Wella (still on hair care!) will use promotional tools to inform their wholesaler of product pricing or change.
Noise can include language and cultural differences - using the wrong language can certainly stop the message being understood!
Consumers can seek information and buy products from all over the world at any time of the day. Sell-side e-commerce refers to the transactions involved with selling products to customers.
Mooier zou zijn om bij de inschrijving meer gegevens te vragen zoals geslacht, leeftijd of interesses om hiermee de database te verrijken. Hierdoor willen consumenten ook meer gegevens delen, want je gaat nieuwbrieven en acties versturen die interessant voor hen kunnen zijn. Door te segmenteren in groepen van geslacht of bijvoorbeeld interessegebieden is het mogelijk om doelgericht informatie en acties te sturen die aansluiten bij de klant. Or for one-on-one relationships with clients like for realtors and insurance products, people can append data to name and address files, seeking out income, age, home value, length of residence, number of children and over 30 other bits of info. This marketing method is popular for allowing Internet marketers a means to learn more about who visited their sites, which pages they searched and for how long, and many other site statistics.
Business marketers can utilize Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC codes) established by the federal government to categorize most business types. Mail order marketers utilize RFM, that is recency, frequency and monetary or transaction value, as criteria for judging customer worth.
DBM can be utilized to identify new customer “gains”, and to track trends in new customer activity.
In addition, modeling “ideal” product mix by customer type will identify cross-sell and up-sell opportunities.
DBM often is the foundation for implementing loyalty building strategies including continuity or points programs, recognition, and other value-added marketing or sales programs. In addition, coding and sorting allows for the testing of alternative programs or offers, with responses carefully measured to support ongoing improvements.
Segment profile to include, wealthy younger professionals age 23-30, looking for a multifunctional device, with good design and all features in one handset.
Research cited in Jobber 2010 suggests that on average people spend 29% of their time on the web. Inschrijvers per email vragen om het eigen inschrijversprofiel aan te passen is ook een goede mogelijkheid.
Vraag in de service mail om het klantprofiel te updaten zodat nieuwe mailingen beter aansluiten op zijn of haar wensen. When you have customer details on the database, you can contact them at the right time with the right offer and gain extra sales for a very low cost to your business.Your sales cycle is three months or longer. Other typical classifications include sales revenue, employees, product purchases, purchase interest, etc.
Finally DBM can be used to target and manage prospect communications, marketing, and sales programs. Remote database access and “real-time” updating reinforce marketing intelligence applications. Another advantage is that communications can be judged so much better on a face-to-face basis. Een beloning is een goede motivatie voor veel inschrijvers om het inschrijversprofiel aan te vullen en uit te breiden.
Appended data can be done in-house or outsourced with larger companies that have more complete databases.
Email Communications & Tracking – Email surveys, customer reply forms and shipping documents that use tracking numbers and share them with the clients are excellent examples of database marketers in action. Prospects will forget about you should you be out of contact for 90 days or longer, so you need to remind them that you are there. Non-verbal communications such as body language and tone of voice, can offer clues as to how a meeting is proceeding. Bij geen enkele reactie is het altijd mogelijk om het mailadres te verwijderen uit de database. By using this type of tracking, companies can improve their customer-client relationships, resulting in increased sales and customer retention, and earn more about their clients in the process for future sales and retention efforts.

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