The TILA-RESPA integrated disclosure rule replaces four disclosure forms with two new ones. Ensures compliance with Federal consumer financial laws by supervising market participants and bringing enforcement actions when appropriate.
Provides, through a variety of initiatives and methods, information to consumers that will allow them to make decisions that are best for them. The CFPB is a 21st century agency that helps consumer finance markets work by making rules more effective, by consistently and fairly enforcing those rules, and by empowering consumers to take more control over their economic lives. Inform the public, policy makers, and the CFPB’s own policy-making with data-driven analysis of consumer finance markets and consumer behavior. Strategies and investments that lay out the actions we will take to accomplish our outcomes.
Prior to Congress enacting the Dodd-Frank Act, consumer financial protection had not been the primary focus of any one federal agency, and no agency could set the rules for the entire financial market.
Industry structure is always changing, and therefore, so too will the number of institutions that fall under the CFPB’s supervisory authority.
Develop and maintain an efficient fact-based approach to developing, evaluating, revising, and finalizing regulations. Develop a rule-writing team with highly advanced skills in relevant and specialized legal and business areas. Work with consumers and industry stakeholders on developing regulations to implement existing Federal consumer financial laws effectively.
Develop ways to provide financial product disclosure information to consumers electronically. Section 1022(d) of the Dodd-Frank Act requires the CFPB to assess each significant rule the Bureau adopts and publish a report of the assessment within five years of the effective date. The Regulatory Flexibility Act, as amended by SBREFA and the Dodd-Frank Act, requires the Bureau to convene a Small Business Review Panel before proposing a rule that will have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. Acquire and analyze qualitative and quantitative information and data pertaining to consumer financial product and service markets and companies. Focus resources on institutions and their product lines that, based on their size, nature of the product, and field and market intelligence, pose the greatest risk to consumers. Establish a framework for sharing information, coordinating activity, and promoting best practices with fellow financial institution supervisory and law enforcement agencies to ensure the most effective use of regulatory resources.
Continue to develop a technology solution for coordinating supervisory information, capable of recording, storing, tracking, and reporting information on the CFPB’s supervisory process. Continue implementing a tool capable of reviewing loan and deposit portfolios for compliance with Federal consumer financial laws.
Effective supervision of financial institutions to foster compliance with Federal consumer financial laws requires prompt notice to institutions of matters requiring their attention and action to avoid further violations or consumer harm.
This measure ensures that the CFPB successfully resolves as many actions as possible while, at the same time, pursuing complex and challenging actions when appropriate, even when success is not assured. The CFPB works to arm consumers with the knowledge, tools, and capabilities they need in order to make better-informed financial decisions by engaging them in the right moments of their financial lives, in moments when they are most receptive to seeking out and acting on assistance. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book.
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Identify the major sections of an APA-style research report and the basic contents of each section. In this section, we look at how to write an APA-style empirical research reportA type of journal article in which the author reports on a new empirical research study., an article that presents the results of one or more new studies. An APA-style research report begins with a title pageThe first page of an APA-style manuscript, containing the title, author names and affiliations, and author note..
Virtual Driving and Risk Taking: Do Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Cognitions, Affect, and Behavior? Below the title are the authorsa€™ names and, on the next line, their institutional affiliationa€”the university or other institution where the authors worked when they conducted the research.
In some areas of psychology, the titles of many empirical research reports are informal in a way that is perhaps best described as a€?cute.a€? They usually take the form of a play on words or a well-known expression that relates to the topic under study.
For articles that are being submitted for publication, the title page also includes an author note that lists the authorsa€™ full institutional affiliations, any acknowledgments the authors wish to make to agencies that funded the research or to colleagues who commented on it, and contact information for the authors. The openingThe first paragraph or two of the introduction of an APA-style empirical report. Festingera€™s theory of cognitive dissonance received a great deal of attention during the latter part of the 20th century (p. The individual who holds two beliefs that are inconsistent with one another may feel uncomfortable.
After capturing the readera€™s attention, the opening should go on to introduce the research question and explain why it is interesting. Researcher Larry Jacoby reported several studies showing that a word that people see or hear repeatedly can seem more familiar even when they do not recall the repetitionsa€”and that this tendency is especially pronounced among older adults. A friend whose mother is suffering symptoms of Alzheimera€™s disease (AD) tells the story of taking her mother to visit a nursing home, preliminary to her mothera€™s moving there. Although both humor and personal anecdotes are generally discouraged in APA-style writing, this example is a highly effective way to start because it both engages the reader and provides an excellent real-world example of the topic under study. Immediately after the opening comes the literature reviewA written summary of previous research on a topic. Finally, remember that your goal is to construct an argument for why your research question is interesting and worth addressinga€”not necessarily why your favorite answer to it is correct. The closingThe last paragraph or two of the introduction of an APA-style empirical research report. These considerations lead to the hypothesis that the more bystanders to an emergency, the less likely, or the more slowly, any one bystander will intervene to provide aid. Thus the introduction leads smoothly into the next major section of the articlea€”the method section. The method sectionThe section of an APA-style empirical research report in which the method is described in detail. The method section begins immediately after the introduction ends with the heading a€?Methoda€? (not a€?Methodsa€?) centered on the page. In the third basic way to organize a method section, the participants subsection is followed by a materials subsection before the design and procedure subsections. The results sectionThe section of an APA-style empirical research report in which the results are described in detail.
Although there are no standard subsections, it is still important for the results section to be logically organized.
The discussion typically begins with a summary of the study that provides a clear answer to the research question. The theoretical and practical implications are often followed by a discussion of the studya€™s limitations. Finally, some researchers are quite good at ending their articles with a sweeping or thought-provoking conclusion. The references section begins on a new page with the heading a€?Referencesa€? centered at the top of the page.
Note that the introduction is headed with the full title, and the method section begins immediately after the introduction ends. The introduction consists of an opening that presents the research question, a literature review that describes previous research on the topic, and a closing that restates the research question and comments on the method. The method section describes the method in enough detail that another researcher could replicate the study. The discussion typically summarizes the study, discusses theoretical and practical implications and limitations of the study, and offers suggestions for further research. Practice: Find a recent article in a professional journal and identify where the opening, literature review, and closing of the introduction begin and end.
Assignment (Section 1, Part 2) - SMART Goal Setting:SMART goals help us achieve our goals by setting clear directions.


We take in data, manage it, store it, share it appropriately, and protect it from unauthorized access.
This means developing and leveraging technology to enhance the CFPB’s reach, impact, and effectiveness. Therefore, we invest in world-class training and support in order to create an environment that encourages employees at all levels to tackle complex challenges.
We serve our colleagues by listening to one another and by sharing our collective knowledge and experience. We believe in investing in the growth of our colleagues and in creating an organization that is accountable to the American people. The result was a system without sufficiently effective rules or consistent enforcement of the law. The CFPB is designed to be agile and adjust its approach to supervising the financial industry in order to respond rapidly to changing consumer needs. Working with industry groups, develop data standards so that private enterprise can create new tools that help consumers understand the financial products they buy. The assessment addresses, among other factors, the rule’s effectiveness in meeting the purposes and objectives of the Dodd-Frank Act, Title X and the specific goals the Bureau states for the rule. Other public outreach efforts, such as meetings with consumers and industry stakeholders in the development of a proposal, inform and otherwise assist the Bureau in crafting more effective rules. A thorough report development and review process ensures high quality reports that appropriately explain what the examination team found and why corrective actions, if any, are required. Timely pursuit of resolutions increases deterrence and provides consumers with greater protections of law.
The CFPB seeks to successfully resolve as many fair lending actions as possible while, at the same time, pursuing complex and challenging actions when appropriate, even when success is not assured. To that end, the CFPB will develop and maintain a variety of tools, programs, and initiatives that provide targeted, meaningful, and accessible assistance and information to consumers at the moment they need it. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. Recall that the standard sections of an empirical research report provide a kind of outline. As we have already seen, the authors are listed in an order that reflects their contribution to the research. Here are some examples from recent issues of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. For student papers that are not being submitted for publicationa€”including thesesa€”author notes are generally not necessary.
It introduces the research question and explains why it is interesting., which is usually a paragraph or two in length, introduces the research question and explains why it is interesting. For example, the person who knows that he or she enjoys smoking but believes it to be unhealthy may experience discomfort arising from the inconsistency or disharmony between these two thoughts or cognitions. During an orientation meeting at the nursing home, the rules and regulations were explained, one of which regarded the dining room. It constitutes the bulk of the introduction of an APA-style empirical research report., which describes relevant previous research on the topic and can be anywhere from several paragraphs to several pages in length.
For example, it might begin by describing a phenomenon in a general way along with several studies that demonstrate it, then describing two or more competing theories of the phenomenon, and finally presenting a hypothesis to test one or more of the theories.
First, it is extremely important to start with an outline of the main points that you want to make, organized in the order that you want to make them.
To test this proposition it would be necessary to create a situation in which a realistic a€?emergencya€? could plausibly occur. Immediately after this is the subheading a€?Participants,a€? left justified and in italics. The rest of the steps involve presenting the research question and the answer to it in words.
It typically includes a summary of the research, a discussion of theoretical and practical implications of the study, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research. If the study did not satisfactorily answer the original research question, what will it take to do so? An appendixAn optional section at the end of an APA-style manuscript used to present important supplemental material. The main purpose of these figures is to illustrate the basic organization and formatting of an APA-style empirical research report, although many high-level and low-level style conventions can be seen here too. At a minimum, it consists of a participants subsection and a design and procedure subsection.
Each primary result is presented in terms of statistical results but also explained in words. Read the opening of the first five articles and rate the effectiveness of each one from 1 (very ineffective) to 5 (very effective). For this assignment you will create a SMART goal for either yourself**, one of your students or your classroom. The Bureau is developing targeted outreach to groups that face particular challenges, as required by the Dodd-Frank Act. Our aim is to use data purposefully, to analyze and distill data to enable informed decision-making in all internal and external functions.
We strive to be recognized as an innovative, 21st century agency whose approach to technology serves as a model within government. The Bureau is also interested in exploring ways to increase general consumer involvement in the rulemaking process.
These supervisory activities will foster compliance with Federal consumer financial laws, promote a fair consumer financial marketplace, and prevent unlawful discrimination. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (24 MB) or just this chapter (4 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). Here we consider each of these sections in detail, including what information it contains, how that information is formatted and organized, and tips for writing each section. The title should clearly and concisely (in about 12 words or fewer) communicate the primary variables and research questions. When multiple authors have made equal contributions to the research, they often list their names alphabetically or in a randomly determined order. This feeling of discomfort was called cognitive dissonance by social psychologist Leon Festinger (1957), who suggested that individuals will be motivated to remove this dissonance in whatever way they can (p. The dining room was described as similar to a fine restaurant except that tipping was not required. Or it might describe one phenomenon, then describe another phenomenon that seems inconsistent with the first one, then propose a theory that resolves the inconsistency, and finally present a hypothesis to test that theory. If you want to emphasize the generality of a phenomenon, then of course you should discuss various studies that have demonstrated it.
Each subject should also be blocked from communicating with others to prevent his getting information about their behavior during the emergency.
The participants subsection indicates how many participants there were, the number of women and men, some indication of their age, other demographics that may be relevant to the study, and how they were recruited, including any incentives given for participation.
In the first, the participants section is followed by a design and procedure subsection, which describes the rest of the method. This might mean multiple questionnaires, written vignettes that participants read and respond to, perceptual stimuli, and so on. Although it does not include the raw dataa€”individual participantsa€™ responses or scoresa€”researchers should save their raw data and make them available to other researchers who request them.
One approach would be to answer the most general questions and then proceed to answer more specific ones. We seek input from and collaborate with consumers, industry, government entities, and other external stakeholders. The Dodd-Frank Act increased accountability in government by consolidating consumer financial protection authorities that had existed across seven different federal agencies into one, the newly formed Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. At the end of this section is a sample APA-style research report that illustrates many of these principles. This sometimes requires a main title followed by a subtitle that elaborates on the main title, in which case the main title and subtitle are separated by a colon.


The heading at the top of this page is the full title of the manuscript, with each important word capitalized as on the title page. The absence of tipping was a central theme in the orientation lecture, mentioned frequently to emphasize the quality of care along with the advantages of having paid in advance.
Instead, it constitutes a kind of argument for why the research question is worth addressing. In applied research, it might describe a phenomenon or theory, then describe how that phenomenon or theory applies to some important real-world situation, and finally suggest a way to test whether it does, in fact, apply to that situation.
However, if there are other studies that have failed to demonstrate it, you should discuss them too.
Finally, the experimental situation should allow for the assessment of the speed and frequency of the subjectsa€™ reaction to the emergency. An important principle for writing a method section is that it should be clear and detailed enough that other researchers could replicate the study by following your a€?recipe.a€? This means that it must describe all the important elements of the studya€”basic demographic characteristics of the participants, how they were recruited, whether they were randomly assigned, how the variables were manipulated or measured, how counterbalancing was accomplished, and so on. This works well for methods that are relatively simple and can be described adequately in a few paragraphs.
Was the independent variable manipulated, and if so, was it manipulated between or within subjects? The rationale for excluding data should be described clearly so that other researchers can decide whether it is appropriate.
The summary is often followed by a discussion of the theoretical implications of the research.
Perhaps there is some evidence that participants did not fully understand their task or that they were suspicious of the intent of the researchers. If two sources have the same first author, they are listed alphabetically by the last name of the second author. An appendix could be used to present lists of stimulus words, questionnaire items, detailed descriptions of special equipment or unusual statistical analyses, or references to the studies that are included in a meta-analysis. These authorities include the ability to issue regulations under more than a dozen Federal consumer financial laws.
Here are some titles from recent issues of professional journals published by the American Psychological Association. The introduction includes three distinct subsections, although these are typically not identified by separate headings. Giving readers a clear sense of what the research is about and why they should care about it will motivate them to continue reading the literature reviewa€”and will help them make sense of it. By the end of the literature review, readers should be convinced that the research question makes sense and that the present study is a logical next step in the ongoing research process. One way to do this is to begin the literature review by summarizing your argument even before you begin to make it. Or if you are proposing a new theory, then of course you should discuss findings that are consistent with that theory. This statement tends to be more formal and precise than in the opening and is often expressed in terms of operational definitions of the key variables. At the same time, it should avoid irrelevant details such as the fact that the study was conducted in Classroom 37B of the Industrial Technology Building or that the questionnaire was double-sided and completed using pencils. In the second approach, the participants section is followed by separate design and procedure subsections.
A second preliminary issue is how multiple responses were combined to produce the primary variables in the analyses. If all the authors are the same, then they are listed chronologically by the year of publication. Tables are numbered in the order that they are first mentioned in the text (a€?Table 1,a€? a€?Table 2,a€? and so on). The abstract presents the research question, a summary of the method, the basic results, and the most important conclusions.
The opening introduces the research question and explains why it is interesting, the literature review discusses relevant previous research, and the closing restates the research question and comments on the method used to answer it. However, if there are other findings that are inconsistent with it, again, you should discuss them too.
This works well when both the design and the procedure are relatively complicated and each requires multiple paragraphs. For example, if participants rated the attractiveness of 20 stimulus people, you might have to explain that you began by computing the mean attractiveness rating for each participant. This means identifying and clarifying each question, suggesting some alternative answers, and even suggesting ways they could be studied. With the consolidation of existing and new authorities under one roof, the CFPB is now focused and equipped to prevent financial harm to consumers while promoting practices that benefit consumers across financial institutions.
Because the abstract is usually limited to about 200 words, it can be a challenge to write a good one. These opening sentences provide the a€?transitionsa€? that many beginning researchers have difficulty with. It is acceptable to argue that the balance of the research supports the existence of a phenomenon or is consistent with a theory (and that is usually the best that researchers in psychology can hope for), but it is not acceptable to ignore contradictory evidence.
It often works well to describe the procedure in terms of what the participants did rather than what the researchers did. Or if they recalled as many items as they could from study list of 20 words, did you count the number correctly recalled, compute the percentage correctly recalled, or perhaps compute the number correct minus the number incorrect? Although you do not have to provide a definitive explanation or detailed theory for your results, you at least need to outline one or more possible explanations.
All studies have limitations, and most readers will understand that a different sample or different measures might have produced different results.
If there is more than one, the headings are a€?Appendix A,a€? a€?Appendix B,a€? and so on, and they appear in the order they were first mentioned in the text of the report. Instead of beginning a paragraph by launching into a description of a previous study, such as a€?Williams (2004) found thata€¦,a€? it is better to start by indicating something about why you are describing this particular study. Besides, a large part of what makes a research question interesting is uncertainty about its answer.
For example, the participants gave their informed consent, read a set of instructions, completed a block of four practice trials, completed a block of 20 test trials, completed two questionnaires, and were debriefed and excused. In applied researcha€”and often in basic researcha€”there is also some discussion of the practical implications of the research.
Unless there is good reason to think they would have, however, there is no reason to mention these routine issues. Their final sentence is, a€?If people understand the situational forces that can make them hesitate to intervene, they may better overcome thema€? (p. Each figure is given a brief explanatory caption, where (aside from proper nouns or names) only the first word of each sentence is capitalized. This is where you would present test-retest correlations, Cronbacha€™s I±, or other statistics to show that the measures are consistent across time and across items.
Instead, pick two or three limitations that seem like they could have influenced the results, explain how they could have influenced the results, and suggest ways to deal with them.
It can sound overreaching or just banal and end up detracting from the overall impact of the article. It is often better simply to end when you have made your final point (although you should avoid ending on a limitation).
You begin seeing previously overlooked opportunities to bring yourself closer to the achievement of your goals. A goal can be both high and realistic; you are the only one who can decide just how high your goal should be. Additional ways to know if your goal is realistic is to determine if you have accomplished anything similar in the past or ask yourself what conditions would have to exist to accomplish this goal.



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