Experimental results are shown for three energies in a coplanar symmetric geometry, and for three energies in an asymmetric geometry. Ionization of atomic and molecular targets is one of the most complex and fundamental collision processes that can be studied in detail.
To fully characterize these interactions, it is necessary to perform sophisticated measurements where an incident electron of well controlled momentum scatters and ionizes the target. In these (e,2e) experiments, information about the collision is obtained by measuring the outgoing momenta of the collision products. For molecular targets, it is difficult to know the orientation and alignment of the molecule prior to the interaction occurring, unless this can be defined prior to the collision or can be measured following the collision.
The interaction of low to intermediate energy electrons with molecular targets has been much less studied compared with high energy electron collisions. Experiments on molecular targets often employ effusive beams produced at room temperature, and so the targets may have internal rotational and vibrational energy. Results are presented here for an H2O target at significantly lower energies than has been studied before.
Figure 1.1 Representation of the 1b1 state of H2O, showing an incident electron ionizing the molecule.
The experiments described here were carried out in the fully computer controlled and computer optimized (e,2e) spectrometer that operates in Manchester. For the coplanar symmetric experiments described here, the electron detectors were moved so that their angles with respect to the incident beam direction were equal to each other throughout measurement (see figure 1.2). For coplanar asymmetric experiments, analyzer 1 was fixed at a scattering angle thetaa = 22A°, while analyzer 2 was swept around the scattering plane. The fixed scattering angle thetaa = 22A° was chosen as this was the smallest angle that could be used without the incident electron beam from the gun striking the side of the analyzer (and so producing unacceptable levels of noise on the coincidence signal). The energy resolution of the spectrometer is set by the resolution of the electron gun and the pass energy of the analyzers. Production of a high quality molecular beam of H2O required careful monitoring of the experiment as it progressed.
The de-gassed water was then transferred to a 150mm long tubular stainless steel flask which was connected to the main vacuum system using a swagelok fitting.
An AD590 sensor was secured to the aluminium block surrounding the flask, so that the temperature of the insulated assembly could be monitored and controlled. To monitor the molecular beam inside the vacuum chamber produced from the water, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was installed onto the spectrometer. Figure 1.3 shows a typical coincidence energy spectrum obtained from the experiment during operation.
The experiments were carried out over a period of several months, using electron beam currents ~200nA for all data runs. As the incident energy increases, the ratio of forward to backward scattering cross section increases, as has been seen for most atomic targets in this geometry. The measured coplanar asymmetric data is shown in figure 4, again normalized to unity at thetab = 45A°.
As the incident energy is increased to 55eV above threshold, the forward lobe splits into two clear peaks of approximately equal magnitude, as seen in figure 1.5(b).
Results from the 1b1 state of water have been presented for coplanar symmetric and asymmetric energies. These results have been compared to a DWBA theory in the paper J Phys B, however the averaging used in this theory was not a good approximation, and so is not expected to yield accurate results for this state. Experimental results are presented for electron impact ionization of water in the energy regime from near threshold to intermediate energies. Results of a sophisticated model which approximates the random orientation of the target using a spherical averaging of the wave-function prior to the collision, using sophisticated distorted wave Born calculations that include post-collisional interactions in first order and to all orders of perturbation theory are also shown for comparison (see J. The calculations predict the data most accurately at the lowest energy studied (4eV above threshold) in a coplanar symmetric geometry, whereas the comparison between theory and experiment is generally poor for higher energies and for non-coplanar geometries. Energy deposition and angular distributions resulting from electron collisions with water are used in charged particle track structure analyses to model radiation damage in biological samples. These low energy electrons have an effect over a much wider volume than the targeted cancer site. At incident energies less than ~200eV, the collision dynamics are strongly influenced by effects including post-collision interactions, target polarization, distortions in the wave-functions for the participating electrons and multiple collisions.
Current models now yield reasonable agreement with experimental data for a range of atoms, implying a good understanding of the collision dynamics under the conditions used in the experiments, and these models are now being extended to low energy (e,2e) collisions from molecules. Recent experiments studying simple diatomic targets including H2 and N2 have provided benchmark data. The apparatus at Manchester can also access non-coplanar geometries, and so has provided additional data to further test these models.
In a previous study the groups at Manchester and Missouri investigated the 1b1 (HOMO) state of H2O in coplanar kinematics.
By contrast, the 3a1 orbital of interest here is involved in the O-H bonding and has a charge density distribution distorted from that of a symmetric atomic like orbital. The experimental triple differential cross sections (TDCS) presented here were measured in the (e,2e) apparatus at the University of Manchester.
The spectrometer can be operated in a standard coplanar geometry where the momenta of all three electrons (the incident and two outgoing electrons) are within the same detection plane (psi = 0A°, figure 2.1). The power supplies for the electrostatic lenses in the electron gun and the electron analyzers are fully computer controlled and computer optimized, allowing for automated tuning at regular intervals, with the analyzers being re-optimized each time they move to a new angle.
The energy of the spectrometer was re-calibrated at the start of each new kinematic arrangement, by measuring the coincidence binding energy spectrum. Over the course of this study the binding energy spectra were recorded for various energies and geometries, and it is estimated that contamination from neighbouring orbitals was always less than 10%, and is more typically in the range of 0.5%. The distilled water sample used to provide the molecular target beam was contained within a 50mm diameter 100mm long stainless steel vessel sealed by a CF-70 flange to a 6.35mm swagelok fitting.
The sample vessel and gas handling line were held at a constant temperature of 50A?C throughout data collection, so as to create sufficient driving pressure for the target beam. The purity of the target beam was verified with a Spectra VacScan mass spectrometer fitted to the scattering chamber.
The background pressure within the scattering chamber was set to 1.1 x 10-5 torr during operation, and was found to remain constant throughout all data runs.
During these experiments we observed an unusual behaviour of the tungsten hairpin filament used as the incident electron source.
To facilitate this, the current measured by the Faraday cup located on the opposite side of the interaction region to the electron gun was monitored by the computer control software, and the current through the filament adjusted to maintain a beam current of 300nA throughout data collection.
In the present study we also measured the coincidence energy resolution from ionization of helium, and found this did not change, indicating that the temperature of emission remained approximately constant. The data presented in figures 3-5 were then averaged over these angular sweeps, and the uncertainties in the measurements determined from the complete set of data for each scattering angle.
The experimental data are not measured on an absolute scale and so experiment and theory are normalized to a maximum of unity at each energy, as shown in figure 2.2.
As the energy of the outgoing electrons is lowered, it would be expected that the Coulomb repulsion between the outgoing electrons should play an increasingly important role, driving the electrons apart.
The best agreement between experimental data and theory is at the lowest energy, where the experimental data and MDW model are in excellent agreement for the binary peak.
A key advantage of the spectrometer in Manchester is the ability to measure data for kinematics in non-coplanar geometries. Non-coplanar measurements were hence taken here with both outgoing electrons having an energy of 10eV. As shown in figure 1, the geometry adopted in this spectrometer provides a common normalization point (xi1 = xi2 = 90A°) for all gun angles psi, which allows ALL data at a given energy to be referenced to a common point.
For the current measurements, the coplanar data have been normalized to a maximum of unity, as before.
The data in figure 2.3 show a clear trend indicating the binary and recoil peaks diminish in magnitude as the angle of the electron gun angle increases. The data contrasts strongly with the theoretical models for the larger gun angles y, where the theories predict significantly more structure than is seen in the data. The final kinematic configuration used symmetric geometries and 20eV excess energy as above, however in this case the data are for unequal energy sharing between the outgoing electrons. The data were only taken for coplanar and perpendicular plane geometries, so as to contrast differences in these two extremes. The key differences that can be seen in these data for the coplanar geometry are that the binary peak moves to a smaller angle as the energy asymmetry increases, as might be expected from post collisional interactions. Agreement is mixed, and rather surprisingly gives best results at low energies, where it might be expected that the approximations are least accurate. The experimental results for both equal and non-equal energy sharing in the perpendicular plane show almost no structure, whereas the theoretical calculations predict that three clearly defined lobes should be seen. This work was supported by the University of Manchester and the US National Science Foundation under Grant. 12.A A  Naja A, Staicu-Casagrande E M, Lahmam-Bennani A, Nekkab M, Mezdari F, Joulakian B, Chuluunbaatar O and Madison D H 2007 J.
Coplanar symmetric and asymmetric electron impact ionization studies from the 1b1 state of H2O at low to intermediate impact energies. The experimental data show a wide variation in the cross section over this range of energies.
These ionizing collisions are important in a wide range of different areas, ranging from plasma physics, astrophysics, atmospheric physics, medical and biological processes involving low energy electrons through to the study of high voltage discharges.
The scattered electron is then detected in time correlated coincidence with either the electron ejected during ionization, or with the resulting ion.
This is usually accomplished by determining a cross section that is five fold differential in angle and energy. In most cases, this means that an averaging over the orientation of the target must be included for theory to compare with experimental results. This energy region (from threshold to ~200eV) is important as it is here that the cross section for ionization is largest. The ionization potential from these ground ro-vibrational states is usually less defined than for atomic targets, due to the associated Franck-Condon overlap between the potential energy curves of the neutral molecules and the resulting ions.
This apparatus is described in detail on other web pages on this fileserver, and has been designed to operate in the energy regime from ~10eV to ~300eV. In this configuration, the energies selected for the scattered and ejected electrons were equal. The inner diameter of this flask was 9mm, and the outside diameter was 12.7mm, so that a standard swaged fitting could be used. This was accomplished using a Newport model 325 temperature controller, which supplied drive current to the TEC. This proved invaluable, as it was then possible to continuously monitor the background gases in the chamber during operation.
In this example, the analyzers were set to pass electrons of energy 20eV, and a symmetric geometry was chosen with thetaa = thetab = 45A°. Over this period of time, the filament current driving the cathode had to be steadily decreased, probably since the water vapour within the vacuum chamber slowly reduced the diameter of the filament. The data is normalized to unity at thetaa = thetab = theta = 45A°, since the results have not been placed on an absolute scale. Results were taken in symmetric coplanar and non-coplanar geometries, with both equal and non-equal outgoing electron energies. The human body, and other biological material comprise of ~80% water, which makes it an ideal test case to investigate processes occurring in the body. These models are an active area of research since the observation that high energy radiation that is used to treat cancers also liberates many low energy electrons, causing additional damage to cell DNA.
Knowledge of the collision dynamics of low energy electrons with biological systems is hence needed, so as to develop robust models of these processes.
In such experiments the energy and momenta of the outgoing electrons are measured, giving a five fold differential cross section. In this regime these processes must be considered on an equal basis, and so the complexity of the interactions means that theoretical studies have mainly been limited to atomic targets.
This contrasts to atoms which have a single nuclear scattering centre, and which can hence be described using a spherical basis. A further challenge arises since the experiments cannot, at present, align the molecules prior to the collision, so the models must consider the random orientation of the targets for accurate comparison. The majority of data is recorded in a coplanar geometry, where the incident and two outgoing electrons are in the same plane, and were conducted at a higher incident energy than the studies presented here. The symmetry of the 2py oxygen atomic orbital, representing the lone pair of electrons on the oxygen atoms, prevents it from hybridizing with the H atomic orbital, leaving the molecular 1b1 HOMO orbital essentially atomic like, and therefore symmetric. However, the orientation averaged molecular orbital used in the theoretical calculation is a bad approximation for that state given the cancellations due to the orbital symmetry. The molecular orbital used in the model therefore should not suffer from the same cancellation problem during the orientational averaging procedure.


This apparatus is fully computer controlled and computer optimized, allowing it to operate continuously without user intervention. A coplanar geometry (psi = 0A?) is defined when all three electrons are in the detection plane.
The angular resolution of the apparatus is estimated as A±3A°, based on geometric considerations of the electrostatic lenses at those energies.
Several freeze-pump-thaw cycles were performed using a salted ice slurry bath, to remove dissolved gas impurities from the water prior to admission into the scattering chamber. Over time the emission current from the filament dramatically increased, when a constant current was delivered to the filament. The data were normalized to a collection time of 1000sec for each measurement, and up to 30 sweeps of the detection plane were used to produce statistically significant results.
The overall shape of the TDCS measured at corresponding energies in a previous study of the 1b1 state are qualitatively similar, however the 1b1 state shows a second peak in the binary region emerging at higher energies that is not observed in the 3a1 state. PCI would also be expected to shift the recoil peak towards xi = 90A°, although this cannot be confirmed in the data. This agreement diminishes as the energy increases, which is unexpected since the MDW model is usually more accurate at higher energies. The TDCS measured in the perpendicular plane is almost constant over all analyzer angles, which is very different to what is observed for atomic targets. The progression in both models shows a decrease in cross section from psi = 0A° to 45A°, after which the intensity once again increases. There also appears to be a narrowing in the main binary peak as the asymmetry increases, with a new shoulder appearing around xi = 60A°.
This contrasts markedly with the calculations, which predict triple peaks in the perpendicular plane that change magnitude only marginally with the asymmetry.
This discrepancy is seen both for equal energy and for non-equal energy data, which have been taken in coplanar and perpendicular geometries.
This year’s theme: “Cotton Sacks and Freedom Quilt Narratives” substantiates the viability of the sweat equity investment made through labor and cultural contributions by Cotton Pickers and other Plantation Workers.
Theoretical approximations accurate at high impact energies can no longer be applied, and so there are stringent demands on theory which must be satisfied for accurate comparison with data. The (e,2e) coincidence signal for molecules may then have a correspondingly lower yield compared to an atomic target where the ionization potential is well defined. A pictorial representation of the water molecule in the 1b1 state is given in figure 1.1 below. The spectrometer allows measurements to be conducted from a coplanar geometry through to the perpendicular plane, although in the present measurements only a coplanar geometry was used. The analyzer pass energy was then set to measure electrons so that the overall resolution of the coincidence signal (as measured using a helium atomic target) was 600meV.
The pump removed background gas from the flask, and extracted dissolved gases held in the water. The flask was secured to the cold side of a 50mm x 50mm thermo-electric cooler (TEC) using a large aluminium block, and the assembly (flask + block) was insulated from the air using Styrofoam. The 1b1, 3a1 and 1b2 states are clearly resolved in this spectrum, which is fitted to three Gaussian peaks to ascertain the widths of the spectral profiles. These data were measured in a coplanar geometry with outgoing electron energies of 20eV detected at theta1 = theta2 = 55A°. Figure 1.5(a) shows the lowest energy results, with an incident energy 15eV above the ionization threshold.
Molecular wave-functions are generally not spherical, the nuclei within the molecule providing multiple scattering centres. This becomes a computationally intensive problem, and so approximations are usually made to allow these calculations to become tractable.
In this study the analyzers were always kept in a symmetric configuration with xi1 = xi2 = xi. A needle valve at the entrance to the scattering chamber controlled the flow of target H2O vapour into the interaction region. This indicates that an H2O target molecular beam of high purity was created, as confirmed from binding energy spectral studies.
This increase in emission current was often more than a factor of 2 within a 24 hour period.
The solid line shows results from the Molecular Distorted Wave Born Approximation (MDW) while the dashed line was generated from the Molecular 3-body Distorted Wave Approximation (M3DW).
This trend is much clearer in the present data compared to that from the 1b1 state measured at higher energies. For the theoretical model, the coplanar TDCS has also been normalized to unity for both MDW and M3DW models.
These measurements were taken in a series of symmetric non-coplanar geometries with outgoing electron energies of 10eV. The M3DW model follows a trend that is closer to the experimental data, although neither model accurately predicts the results that have been obtained.
The theoretical calculations are also shown, where once again the data and theory have been normalized to unity at the peak in the coplanar geometry.
The minimum around 90A° in this geometry does not change substantially as the energy sharing changes.
The following evening, Friday November 13, the “Cotton Pickers Ball” shall be held at 7:00pm, in da’ House of Khafre, located at 300 Main Street, Indianola.
The angles that could be accessed in this configuration ranged from thetaa = thetab = 25A° through to thetaa = thetab = 135A°.
The acceptance angle of the analyzer lenses was A±3A°, as set by input apertures at the entrance to the electrostatic lenses. This de-gassing procedure was carried out for ~2 hours before the water sample was used in the experiment, to ensure that the proportion of dissolved gases in the water was minimized.
The hot side of the TEC was attached using thermal conducting paste to an aluminium heatsink to which a 12VDC boxer fan was secured, so that heat from the TEC could be dissipated efficiently. If this ratio reduced, the experiment was halted and the water changed to a newly de-gassed sample. In this case, the 1b1 state was found to have a width of 620meV, which is comparable to that for an atomic target. The contrast between the maximum and minimum in the cross section increases as the energy increases. As the energy increases further to 95eV above threshold (figure 1.5(c)), the double peak in the forward direction is still visible but the magnitudes of the peaks are now different.
The purity of this beam was monitored regularly using the mass spectrometer throughout this study. To ensure constant incident electron beam current throughout the measurements as required, the filament current was hence also placed under computer control. The experimental and theoretical data has been independently normalised to unity at each energy.
Dr Kate Nixon thanks the British Council for funding under the research exchange programme, and the Royal Society for a Newton International Fellowship.
All are encouraged to attend both events in costume attire worn in the cotton fields, such as “overalls and straw hats, etc.”The 1st Annual Historical Narrative Competition enhances this year’s Symposium.
For asymmetric geometries, thetaa is fixed at 22A° while analyzer 2 is swept around the scattering plane. A glass flask was used for this procedure as this allowed the process to be visually monitored. This indicates that the energetic effects of ro-vibrational transitions from the ground state to the ion state are negligible for this state.
Further checks were made regularly on the energy of the incident electron beam by monitoring the coincidence energy spectrum (figure 1.3), and regular monitoring of the partial pressures of the gases in the vacuum chamber.
A second peak occurs in the backscatter region, however the maximum of this peak appears to occur at thetab < 225A°.
For non-coplanar geometries the electron gun is lifted out of the plane, and is defined by the angle psi. Mississippi Delta high school seniors and MVSU students will compete for a trophy and gift card provided by Khafre, Inc and Lost Pizza, Company. There is an offset of 1eV in the position of the peaks which is due to contact potentials in the spectrometer. The full line represents a three-Gaussian fit, whereas the dotted lines show the individual Gaussians from this fit, illustrating the degree of separation measured with the current energy resolution. The results in the backward direction also have structure, with a minimum occurring when thetab ~ 250A°. Very little contamination is expected from neighbouring orbitals in the measured TDCS for the 3a1 state. All projects must be delivered to the MVSU Social Sciences office “T” by 5:00pm November 5th, (or call organizers to arrange for pick up).
Professor, Public Policy, MVSU; Dr Alpha Diarra, National Cotton Spokesman of Mali, West Africa. Local storyteller Helen Sims will pay tribute to “the Spirit of Mama Lula.” Hollandale folk artist Dorothy Hoskins will showcase recent multi-media work on Cotton Pickin’ and Sharecropping in the American South. The University is driven by its commitment to excellence in teaching, learning, service, and research--a commitment resulting in a learner-centered environment that prepares critical thinkers, exceptional communicators, and service-oriented, engaged, and productive citizens. MVSU is fundamentally committed to positively affecting the quality of life and creating extraordinary educational opportunities for the Mississippi Delta and beyond. KHAFRE, Inc.
Honoring the legacy of  “grandmamma-nem” in a university setting gives artistic and academic license to the pursuit of gaining more scholarship and international acceptance, of the contributions and sweat equity made by the people who picked cotton throughout the American South,” said Professor C.Sade Turnipseed, Executive Director of Khafre, Inc.
As part of Khafre, Inc’s historic preservation efforts, a permanent marker will be placed on the MVSU campus in honor of cotton pickers from the Mississippi Delta, and those who worked the repurposed cotton plantation for higher learning, MVSU.The Symposium is free admission. Khafre, Inc is all about building monumental programs that allow reflection, reconnection, and renewal.
This year’s theme: “Cotton Sacks and Freedom Quilt Narratives” will stimulate a day of discussion about historic preservation, leading-edge research, innovative practices, and foundational values.
The agency and resistance of these narratives will also reflect on the subtle and continuing impact of cotton on life in the Delta and throughout the South. The one-day event concludes with a good old fashion “black-tie” (or period-piece costume) “Cotton-Pickers’ Ball and Ancestral Celebration” at da’ House of Khafre located at 300 Main St. Julianne Malveaux; and, introduction by award-winning poet Chinaka Hodge the volume offers a balanced view of what our children face day-to-day, on the streets of America. Over two hundred years ago, the Akan Nation (West Africa) established the Adinkra Symbols to visually communicate a system of living for African people to observe and learn. Amazingly, just as with other inspired and spiritual writings, drawings, etc., the symbols are beautiful design concepts with meanings still relevant today. They bring clarity and resolve to the question, “What do we (the village) have to do to show support and love for each other and ultimately save ourselves and one another?” The experiences of today’s youth culture demonstrate a fundamental disconnect, to most people of previous generations. The young writers selected for this publication masterfully describe the challenge in dealing with today’s world. Because, it offers tribute to the “original” mother and her instinctual knowing of the spiritual paths that her children (all children) must take to find their way out of harm's way. Revealed, in this collection of writings are a wonderful array of short stories, poems and proverbs that present a familial insight born by the great liberator of liberators, Harriet Tubman! By Writers of the 21st Century is an affiliate of Young Publishers Network (YPN) and Khafre, Inc a 501(c)(3) organization working in the Mississippi Delta to improve the welfare and healthy living environments of children in America and around the world.### Thank You Mr.
Born in a cabin on a cotton plantation outside Berclair, Mississippi in 1925, his entire life, much like the lives of so many others from the Mississippi Delta, was spent in service to others.
Unfortunately, for most of his contemporaries (colleagues, family of friends) they never received the accolades, appreciation, or respect for their life-long work as cotton-pickers in the American South.
David Matthews, MS Congressman Bennie Thompson, MS Senator Thad Cochran, National Parks Director Dr Jon Jarvis, Mr. Theodore Turnipseed, Sr., and millions of others understand the importance of sharing, and erecting a statue and National Park dedicated to the countless field workers of the American South. Though unrecognized and unappreciated, these people worked from sun up to sun down tilling, planting, chopping, picking and spinning cotton, in the blazing hot sun … This and many other horrifying conditions of the historic Mississippi Delta evoked the music we call “the Blues.”On May 21, 2014, during the last year of his life Mr. King accepted our call to become the “Honorary Chair” of Khafre, Inc, a Mississippi-based 501(3) not-for-profit organization. Maya Angelou as the Honorary Chair of the Cotton Pickers of America and the Sharecroppers Interpretive Center project. The plan is to build a thirty-foot high monument on twenty acres of cotton land along Highway 61, just outside the historic Black town Mound Bayou, MS. This is a historically rare opportunity to transform many lives in the Delta and engage conversations about race and social inequities in America.
Sade Turnipseed is the Executive Director of Khafre, Inc and teaches American History at Mississippi Valley State University, in Itta Bena, the birthplace of Mr.
This year’s theme: “Cotton Sacks and Freedom Quilts Narratives” will stimulate a day of discussion about historic preservation, leading-edge research, innovative practices, and foundational values.


No one has ever “officially” said “thank you” to the people in the American South, who literally tilled the way to the economic greatness for many countries and regions around the world. Somewhere along the way the respect and honor for their hard-earned sweat-equity investment in the wealth of others was lost and buried in the bloodstained, tear-soaked soils of the American South. Something “monumental,” needs to happen…like a National Park named the “Cotton Pickers of America Monument and Sharecroppers Interpretive Center” along the Blues Highway 61.
Once the Monument is installed, the organizers’ plan is to turn it over to the federal government for the protection and honor that only this country can provide. It shall serve as a permanent reminder and ever-present sign of respect for those whose hope for a brighter day wore thin, while working from kin to kain’t (can’t see in the morning to can’t see at night).The world must be reminded of the work ethic held by the people in the South…in most instances it was an honorable legacy … the tragedy is they were never properly compensated, nor thanked. King, (aka: The King of the Blues) will join the effort to build a National Monument in the Mississippi Delta.
King understands, as do all members of the Khafre, Inc family, that a healing will come through recognition and a true recounting of the history of cotton and its impact in the South.In September, 2009, Khafre, Inc, based in Indianola, Mississippi, embarked upon a journey designed to thank the sons and daughters of the South who helped, albeit it without accolades, fanfare, or even recognition, build the cotton empire that fueled the American economy for nearly two centuries. The impetus for the project: Cotton Pickers of America and Sharecroppers Interpretative Center (hereafter referred to as the Cotton Pickers Monument Complex) is the need to thank those who toiled in the Delta soil for generations without the pay, appreciation, or the dignity they deserved. The Cotton Pickers Monument Complex would not only help heal wounds that have festered for decades, but would also help to empower the generations of family members who have been negatively impacted by this unfortunate era in American history. This is truly a historic endeavor that has the rare opportunity of actually transforming lives, communities, and the conversations about race in America and throughout the world.           These deeply held convictions of education and empowerment are keys to improving the quality of life for all within the Delta.
They have helped to catapult Khafre into numerous projects, which are all connected to the vision and mission of this value-driven and movement-oriented organization that is designed to provide historical, health related, and cultural education and outreach to the communities of the Mississippi Delta. Khafre has already helped young people successfully publish literature, prepare for careers in the television and radio broadcast industry, produce staged events and engage in healthy behaviors through diet and exercise, all with the assistance of grant dollars and strategic partnerships.The crowning work of Khafre remains the Cotton Pickers Monument Complex, a dream, which is coming closer to fruition, day by day, because of the unprecedented support of Mr.
We have also received Congressional acknowledgment and endorsement from United States Congressmen, Bennie Thompson and Danny Davis, official endorsements from United States Senators, Thad Cochran and Roger Wicker, and expressed support from Dr John Jarvis, National Parks Director. Carroll Van West and Rebecca Conard from Middle Tennessee State University’s History Department, along with the ongoing partnership with Mississippi Valley State University, has proven a significant benefit to our overall project.
We are now ready to raise the $26 million dollars to make the Cotton Pickers Monument complex a reality. We look forward to hearing from you and to welcoming your partnership in the building of this long overdue and much needed monument.It is time!Most sincerely,C. The goal is to obtain as much first-hand information as possible relating to the development of America’s Cotton Kingdom (aka the Delta).In the aftermaths of completing the academic study for a Doctorate in Public History at Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU), Professor C. Turnipseed’s theory that perceptions of sharecropping, tenant farming, etc, will be altered in ways that are beneficial to the legacy of the American South when the memory of elders are shared. The monument site is envisioned to become a National Park; and thereby “the place” for memory and community sharing in the Mississippi Delta, for educational, economic development, and international tourism purposes.
King and former honorary chair Dr Maya Angelou who are determined to improve the legacy and social-economic status of Mississippi Delta residents. The purpose of the organization is to provide educational, lifestyle and cultural programs, build monuments and memorials to honor, celebrate, and recognize the rich and complex history of the Mississippi Delta and to positively impact the quality of life of those living in the Delta, especially the disproportionately poor African American community. There is no documented official acknowledgment of the people who tilled the path to America’s greatness. Somewhere along the way buried in the tear-soaked soils of the American South, the respect and honor for their hard-earned investment was lost. The Cotton Pickers of America Monument, Sharecroppers Interpretive Center, and Cotton Kingdom Trail make the case for building a National Park that offers a small token of appreciation for their tireless uncompensated work. Sade Turnipseed is the founder of Khafre, Inc., which has developed the Cotton Pickers of America Monument, the Sharecroppers Interpretive Center, and the Cotton Kingdom Historical Trail, among many other projects. King Museum and Delta Interpretive Center in Indianola and the former cultural arts director for the Mississippi Action for Community Education--MACE (producers of the MS Delta Blues and Heritage Festival) in Greenville. Turnipseed is the recipient of several community service and arts advocacy awards, and she was an independent candidate for mayor of the city of Indianola in 2013. For the past eight years Turnipseed was the host of “Delta Renaissance,” a cultural arts talk show focusing on the arts, education, and political issues in the Mississippi Delta.
Winter Building Wednesday, June 18: Former Secretary of State Dick Molpus talks about his experience during the Philadelphia civil rights murders of 1964. Wednesday, July 2: Filmmaker Wilma Mosley-Clopton will show and discuss her new film, "Did Johnny Come Marching Home?" about people of African descent who fought to free themselves in the Civil War. Wednesday, September 25: Author Robert Blade will talk about his book, "Tupelo Man," a biography of George McLean.
I whole-heartedly agree with the editor that the African American community has proven to the world an uncanny, though unreciprocated, ability to be forgiving of past deeds of injustice, brutality and cruelty at the voting polls, and socially in their community service groups, churches and everyday lives. This point should not be lost on the fact that many of those injustices happened here, in Indianola, Mississippi, to some amazingly strong and resilient individuals like Fannie Lou Hamer and all those who came before her.
But, I can’t help but wonder why the White community isn’t reciprocating and showing the same confidence and trust in racial relations?As Smith indicates, the incumbent received “between 32 and 37% of the votes in the three wards with large Black majorities, despite going up against two black opponents, with strong followings.
That’s impressive for a white candidate in a city and region with a history of racially divided politics.” I agree.
When we examine the voter polls in the wards that are predominately African American, reflected is a general evenness for all candidates, be they Black or White.
The same, however, cannot be said about the two wards that reflect the primarily White community. I submit to you the following:In wards I, and II, which are the two wards with the largest white population of voters, we see results that reflect an uncompromising resistance to acceptance and change. With an overall total of 952 votes cast: 732 went to the White candidate and 220 for the two Blacks, combined)…check that! Surely, it cannot be left up to one segment of the community, and not the other.I truly wish Smith had stressed this very critical point, instead of throwing shade on the outcome of a campaign I have yet to wage.
And for the record, as a citizen, it is my right to be afforded the opportunity to run a fair and unbiased race for mayor, without subtle suggestions that it is a waste of my time, as inferred in his editorial.
But, then again maybe he knows more than I about how citizens of wards I and II will ultimately vote.
And to also trust that the leaders of this community will look out for their best interest, politically, economically and socially. After all we live in a community that is 84% African American with a poverty rate that is fast approaching 40% and a public school system that is in deplorable condition, both physically and academically, even under the watchful eye of the government, yet there is no outrage…from either the White side, or the Black side of town. And, I have never believed it was necessary to wait until political season to demonstrate my commitment to the people in my community. If, by chance I am truly embraced by all members of all wards of this city, I believe people will witness an amazing transformation in a relatively short period of time. It’s “almost” like magic…I predict things will begin to unfold in a substantive way like the neighborhoods will brighten, crime decreases and the impoverished mindset disappears. And I am passionate enough to find the tools to help remedy the concerns that create stagnation and distrust. Please remember, we are a people who come from a very long tradition of women who made a way out of no way.My overall ambition and hope for this city is to develop a strategic plan that enables a steady stream of culturally enriched projects that insures economic development for the future growth and safety in this city.
So programs that not only engage everyone, but present real opportunities for career enhancements and social activities are critical. King Museum that I visualized and administered) Thanks Carver Randle, Sr for that wonderful quote.
I just wish he read my bio, or googled me, before publishing doubts about my abilities for success. For the past three years, I have been sitting relatively quietly completing the doctorate in history.
Now, I am ready to shake up this town with some bold ideas and ever increasing standards for excellence. I look forward to being a significant force in this community, by helping the White community too recognize the benefits of building relationships that they can trust in leadership positions.
We MUST work together to improve our community—by encouraging EVERYONE to clean on our streets, bayou, parks, etc. We have some huge unmet challenges here in Indianola, and how YOU decide to vote On December 10, 2013, is vital to our success.
Also, please be sure to come to this year's event in your overalls, or cotton pickin' clothes.
The event is the impetus that gave rise to the “Remigration Home from Chicago to Mississippi” cultural movement organized by music promoters Gus Redmond and Robert Terrell.
Legendary blues and gospel performers Otis Clay, Syl Johnson and Marshal Thompson (founder and lead singer of the ChiLites); along with promoter Gus Redmond will lead the way back home to Mississippi in an effort to support the Cotton Pickers of America Monument and Sharecroppers Interpretive Center project in the historical Cotton Kingdom AKA the Mississippi Delta. Though the Ball is a “Black Tie Affair” Overalls or other “cotton pickin” attire are encouraged and expected.“I am so pleased that we have partnered with Khafre to host an event of this magnitude,” said Dr. The discussions and historical presentations will reflect cutting-edge research, innovative practices and foundational values. Additionally, two noted scholars from Mali’s Cotton Manufacturing and Distribution will present via Skype.MVSU participants in the program include Dr. John Jones, interim provost.As part of the celebration, Khafre plans to erect a permanent marker on the site in honor of cotton pickers from the Mississippi Delta and in commemoration of the significance of this historical event. This will be a day of stimulating discussion about historic preservation, leading-edge research, innovative practices, and foundational values. The two-day event concludes with a good-old-fashion “black-tie” (or period-piece costume) “Cotton-Pickers’ Ball,” on October 18, 2013.
This year Khafre, Inc in conjunction with Mississippi Valley State University shall organize the USA’s premier interdisciplinary professional meeting on cotton, sharecropping, and its cultural significance. The deadline is September 6, 2013.Plan to join us in Itta Bena, Mississippi!This is your chance to catch up with old friends and colleagues at The Valley, make important new contacts, discuss the latest in cultural management, stay current with research findings in the historic preservation field, and connect with people who share your core values.
We invite all community-based experts in any field to become a part of the challenge to address issues of: unemployment, entrepreneurship, illiteracy, poor self-esteem, teen pregnancy, obesity, hopelessness, communication skills, journalism and creative writing, etc. Situated on the bayou waterfront at 103 and 105 Main Street, in historic downtown Indianola, da' House is the place where folks come together in the spirit of unity and love for Mississippi Delta culture, particularly its blues, spirituals and teacakes! On the historical Wall of Fame are signatures by musicians from Ghana, Senegal, Nigeria, Norway, Belguim, China, Japan, France, Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire and Mississippi, of course.
Beginning Friday, June 1, 2012, at 7 pm, the folks at da' House will be carrying on in grand teacake style, until Sunday June 3rd, around midnight.
Celebrating da love that is shared all around the world for da Delta music, art and culture. The 2nd Anniversary Celebration is dedicated to Deltas own David Honeyboy Edward, David Lee Durham, David Thompson and Mississippi Slim. These legendary bluesmen have recently joined the ancestors and will be honored by several local artists and civic leaders: Mickey Rogers, Dr.
These artists and many others will perform on da historical Front Porch stage where the legendary bluesman Sam Chatmons music room door is gracefully hinged. The door, the traditional quilts, the African art, the sweet smell of Soul Food and the Delta cotton provide a rural sophistication and ambiance that is reminicient of the culture and folk art once owned and coveted by grandmamma-nem.
Indeed, it is "The home for artful giving, music and songs," as Chicago-based Blues promoter Lynn Orman Weiss described da' House on her most recent visit to the Delta. And, since da' House is located at the epicenter of the Cotton Kingdom, visitors can expect that authentic soothing, and often times healing, Mississippi Delta experience to be dosed up in abundantly royal fashion, every time they come to da' House! Co-owners Robert Terrell and C.Sade Turnipseed extend a personal and heartfelt invitation for everyone to come on out to da House and help celebrate two-years of Delta art, music and culture. She is also the first African-American female president to lead a Mississippi public university. Since assuming her position on January 1, 2009, she has launched The Valley Renaissance, the institutions five-year strategic plan, which is pictorially depicted by the African Adinkra symbol of a Sankofa a bird that flies with his head facingbackwards as he advances forward without getting off track.
Grammy-winning blues musician David "Honeyboy" Edwards, believed to be the oldest surviving Delta bluesman and whose roots stretched back to blues legend Robert Johnson, died early Monday, Aug. Maya Angelou agreed to graciously lend her name to the Cotton Pickers of America Monument and Sharecroppers Interpretive Center project that is in development, in the Mississippi Delta.
C.Sade Turnipseed, Founder of the Monument project and Executive Director of Khafre, Inc, recently made the announcement in a community meeting held at da House of Khafre, in Indianola. Our teams collective effort honors the sacrifices made by millions of Americans and purposefully gives dignity back to the legacy of those who spent their entire lives working, tirelessly to build this country.Dr. Smith Reynolds Professor of American Studies at Wake Forest University, joins a long and growing list of American citizens, who have also expressed the desire to support this project and demonstrate their respect and gratitude to every man, woman and child that picked cotton and were never thanked, nor properly compensated as enslaved workers or as sharecroppers, throughout the American south.The Khafre, Inc team is composed of a governing Board of Directors, a Steering Committee, a Board of Advisors and several political and community leaders that include faculty members from the History Department at Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU).
The governing Board selected world-renowned monument designer, Ed Dwight, to develop the thirty-foot statue and sculptural park. It offers educational workshops, seminars and conferences for the entire community that celebrate Mississippis culture and its contributions to world history, including music, cuisine, writing, andotherartistic expressions. Turnipseed is also the host of Delta Renaissance, the number one cultural arts television talk show in the Delta, which airs weekly on WABG-TV, WABG-Radio and Delta Fox-10 television networks.Plans are also underway to incorporate the completed work into the National Parks Services, to insure prosperity and proper maintenance of the Monument.
To help the Cotton Pickers of America Monument and Sharecroppers Interpretive Center be included as part of the National Parks System, please sign the online petition.
To have name(s) of family members included in the Monument, download a Legacy Brick application; both petition and application are available on the Khafre, Inc. Sato returns to the Front Porch Stage solo, on Sunday March 6th, at 6pm, to kick off the Cultural Competency workshop series. These are on-going cultural appreciation classes presented for the first time in the Delta, by Khafre, Inc (a Mississippi-based non-profit organization).Sato, who was born and raised in Japan, will introduce to American audiences his interpretation of Mississippi Delta Blues and perform on one of his traditional instruments called a Samisen.



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