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PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. DonorsChoose.org helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. The Media Kitchen used data from a survey like the ones we discussed in Chapter 6 "Segment, Target, and Position Your Audience: SS+K Identifies the Most Valuable News Consumer", conducted by Simmons Market Research Bureau, one of the leading authorities on consumer behavior. Choosing the right media mixThe media that will be used to get a campaigna€™s message to consumers, arrived at by understanding the primary advantages and disadvantages of each media format.
Describe the usefulness of out-of-home media, sponsorships, and direct-response media for carrying advertising messages.
The television plan that The Media Kitchen put together had a heavy push the first week of the launch on select cable networks: BBC America, Comedy Central, Discovery, ESPN, ESPN 2, Food Network, History Channel, and National Geographic. SS+Ka€™s client My Rich Uncle used radio as part of a campaign to get parents to think about other options when they consider taking out a student loan.
The spot a€?Lost and Founda€? ran in over twenty markets across the United States as part of a campaign that ran from June through September 2008.
Billboards, bus stops, and point-of-sale displays provide a way to reach people as they go about their daily lives. Place-based video screens are now in thousands of shops, offices, and health clubs across the country, including stores like CompUSA, Best Buy, Borders, Foot Locker, and Target. As traditional advertising canvases like TV and newspapers get painted in, agencies search for new places to put their messages.
And now, some retailers can even follow you around the store to deliver more up-close and personal messages: A new technology called RFID (radio frequency identification) tracks customers as they make their way through the aisles. Direct response methods are forms of communication addressed to specific recipients so that the sender can track whether or not the person took action after receiving the message. General Motors is known for its TV ads and NFL sponsorship, but it also makes use of direct mail. Describe the usefulness of out-of-home, sponsorships, and direct-response media in reaching target markets. Discuss how marketers and advertisers can use virtual worlds to bring messages to consumers. Review how social media and social networking sites can be used to advocate brands and brand messages. Online advertising includes a spectrum of text, still-image, animated graphics, streaming-video, and interactive advertising on the Web. Online advertising is relatively inexpensive, which means that small businesses can afford it. StickinessThe ability of a Web site to hold consumersa€™ interest.a€”keeping consumers at your sitea€”is an important component of good design. Unfortunately, online is a very fragmented media outlet due to the tens of millions of Web sites in existence. Mobile commerceNew media technology that enables advertisers to reach consumers through their cell phones and wireless PDAs. Cell phone advertising is still in its infancy in the United States, but ita€™s much more common in some other countries, especially those where a large number of people carry Web-enabled phonesa€”in some parts of Europe this proportion is as high as three-fourths of the population. The pace of cell phone advertising is likely to pick up as more people get used to the idea of accessing content (other than IMs) on their mobiles. In addition to using cell phones to send broad-based ad messages, the coupon business is due for a radical makeover as mobile couponingNew media technology that enables cell phone users to sign up to receive coupons via cell phone; to cash in the coupons, consumers show their cell phone screens displaying the coupon to a store cashier. Picture this scenario: youa€™re strolling down the street and as you pass a Starbucks your trusty phone beeps and invites you to stop in to receive a discounted Grande Vivanno Chocolate Banana smoothie.
In the 2008 season finale of CSI: NY one of the showa€™s characters asks the detectives to gather on a sophisticated videoconferencing system to discuss a shooting.
This practice is so commonplace (and profitable) now that ita€™s evolving into a new form of promotion we call branded entertainmentNew media technique in which advertisers showcase their products via longer-form narrative films instead of brief commercials., where advertisers showcase their products in longer-form narrative films instead of brief commercials. Unless the FCC severely clamps down on this practice, ita€™s probably here to staya€”unless (or until) such blatant messaging suffers from the problem ita€™s designed to address: advertising clutter.
Seeing real brands pop up in TV dramas, sitcoms, or reality programs is no longer notablea€”but how about on a news program? The problem with ads in commercial games is that many players are too immersed in the game to notice them.
Herman raises a valid point, but videogames seem poised to become a distribution platform in their own right.
As the tip of the iceberg, MTV recently announced that the sequel to its popular Rock Band game (Rock Band 2, not surprisingly) will include a track from the first Guns Na€™ Roses album in more than a decade. One new communication model seeks to get consumers and the media talking about the product, brand, or campaign.
Viral marketingNew media technique that involves giving consumers a reason to recruit friends and family to the product; examples include shared-minutes cell phone programs and online ads remarkable enough that people will want to send them to their friends. BuzzNew media technique involving creating a newsworthy event to get news coverage for a product or brand. Some of the veterans of that effort also have pioneered a form of viral marketing the industry calls alternate reality gamesNew media platform in which fans interact with the company as they try to solve a puzzle, mystery, or staged crime., where fans interact with the company as they try to solve a puzzle.
More recently, some gamers were surprised to discover the unnamed force behind The Lost Ring, an online game with an Olympics theme. The Internet has spawned numerous virtual worlds in which people take the form of avatarsDigital representations of people. This is a very short-sighted perspective: virtual worlds will most likely continue to mature and evolve into a major media platform over the next five or ten years.
When the inmates take over the asylum, therea€™s bound to be resistance: a lot of advertisers arena€™t happy about giving up control of their brand messages.
A new PepsiCo promotion for its Mountain Dew brand illustrates the new perspective on involving consumers as partners in a campaign and taking this initiative into a virtual world.
Many of these user-generated reviews (warts and all) appear on blogsShort for a€?Web loga€?; a Web site an individual maintains, usually with commentary about a specific topic to which others can respond. In addition to the sheer numbers involved, blogs are catching advertisersa€™ attention because of the diversity of consumers who participate. You would have to be living in a deep hole not to be aware of the impact of social networkingOnline communities of people who share interests, activities, or relationships, and typically are interested in following the activities of other members.
Despite their huge popularity (who do you know who doesna€™t have either a Facebook or MySpace page?), until recently advertisers struggled to figure out how they could use these platforms to talk to consumers.
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Use our proven strategies for breaking through marketplace noise and clutter to reach prospects more reliably. We are available to assist you with your launch , or to manage the entire process for you, from plan through launch.
We follow a proven product launch process with accepted best practices on your project, as seen below. Before Stage 1 - the Planning Phase, we begin by discussing what you're launching, your launch objectives, and available assets. We can typically develop the launch strategy and plan for between $7.5K to $10K (USD), which includes the customized launch plan, project schedule and go-to-market strategy. During Stage 1 - the Development and Pre-Launch phase, we develop the content (email sequences, website content, launch blog content, videos, etc.) that will be rolled out from a marketing communications standpoint during the pre-launch phase (typically 3 to 6 weeks) prior to launch day.
We can usually provide a fixed-price estimate on this part of the project once the scope is understood. Then, we work with you to build a launch list of qualified prospects during the pre-launch Stage 1, create anticipation and buzz during the period leading up to launch day and Stage 2, then help drive the sales process once the product is launched. We can also assist you with the post launch and early-demand Stage 3 as the product launch wraps up and you enter your ongoing promotion and normal operations cycle.
We can manage the entire process for you, or work with your own project manager, depending on your needs. A leaked PR plan of the Samsung event at the Mobile World Congress has made the Samsung Galaxy S2 and Samsung Galaxy Tab 2 almost official. As you can see that both device presentations are listed in the PR schedule, and we have already heard about both the devices in previous leaks.A  So, some more days and we will the official first hands details live in Barcelona.
Manufacturers, MWC 2011 Mobile World Congress, Samsung Galaxy S II, Samsung Galaxy Tab 2 January 27, 2011 Gaurav Shukla.
PR is usually seen as a sling shot approach to generating more awareness and ultimately more sales (or customers)…and the measurement tool used is usually based on how many media hits or feature story placements are secured. Without an effective PR strategy the brand is at the mercy of the public, and that’s the worst position to be in. The starting point to developing a formal PR plan is to first understand how it integrates into the marketing communications plan. Besides press releases, which are often misused or overused anyway, there are additional tools to distribute key news and core messages.
Submitting the organization for industry awards and roundups helps to extend credibility from among peers.
Ashlee, as a fellow PR professional, you’re already well aware of the misconceptions about what exactly PR is. My question is, how can someone hire a PR professional to help build their business and brand? The misconception is that PR will solve all your problems when the truth is that it’s just another tool in the integrated marketing communications landscape. The implementation stage of your PR plan will need to outline the various communication methods or channels to the key stakeholders.
The results should be measured against the objectives, which should have been written in quantifiable terms to see how closely the actual result for each objective has matched the intended result.
A rule of thumb is to use multiple channels of communication frequently enough to lead to behavior or attitude change. Each target audience will need to be reached through credible and accessible channels of communication. An example of a change communication plan for the introduction of an employee incentive and performance management program is shown below covering the period leading up to the launch. Wherever possible, the implementation activities should be tested on a focus group or a suitable sample of other people so that the actions can be fine-tuned when the full-scale activities take place.
It is all too easy to fall into the trap of applying a convenient label to the activities that are based on the broad communication process, such as saying the project is a community relations campaign, or it is a government relations project. If the logistics of the communication program are too large to be handled effectively by in-house PR staff, it may be necessary to use public relations consultancies to assist with the effort.
The implementation phase requires decisions to be made about project management of the communication activity. Charting the planned stages of a project can be an extremely valuable technique to ensure the project is running to time and all necessary actions are taking place when they should. Gantt charts showing the scheduled start and finish of each part of every PR project can be used to help ensure projects are running on time.
A Gantt chart is constructed with a horizontal axis representing the total time span of the project, broken down into increments (for example, days, weeks, or months) and a vertical axis representing the tasks that make up the project. Automated Gantt charts store more information about tasks, such as the staff assigned to specific tasks, and notes about the procedures. A PERT chart is a project management tool used to schedule, organize and coordinate tasks within a project.
A PERT chart presents a graphic illustration of a project as a network diagram consisting of numbered nodes (either circles or rectangles) representing events, or milestones in the project linked by labeled vectors (directional lines) representing tasks in the project. Tasks that must be completed in sequence without requiring resources or completion time are considered to have event dependency. The PERT chart is sometimes preferred over the Gantt chart because it clearly illustrates task dependencies. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. An ever-growing portfolio of media offers the promise of reaching different consumers in different contexts and at different times.
The Media Kitchen is the media arm of creative shop Kirshenbaum Bond and Partners, which is owned by the holding company MDC Partners (which also owns the innovative ad agency Crispin Porter + Bogusky). They used this information to develop a profile of its target consumers and to match that profile with the targeta€™s media habits. On the other hand, newspaper circulation continues to fall as existing readers age and younger consumers choose to get their news from the Internet. Magazines can be more finely targeted because many of them address readers who share very specific interests, such as Cat Fancy, Guns & Ammo, or Cosmopolitan.
Magazines last longer than newspapers and are often passed from person to person (magazines often cite this number of pass-along impressionsThe number of times a magazine or other piece of media is passed from one person to another. On the other hand, the production and distribution schedules of magazines require months of lead time.
A general-audience magazine typically charges more than $100,000 for a full-page four-color ad. TV attracts mass audiences, and network TV is the highest-exposure medium every hour of the day, according to a€?The Middletown Media Studies: The Media Day,a€? a study of consumer media habits by Ball Statea€™s Center for Media Design.
On the other hand, younger consumers spend less time watching TV, so this medium is steadily aging. Whether they take a bathroom break, hit the skip button on their TiVo, or turn to the Internet for a few minutes, consumers pay less and less attention to commercial breaks in the programs.
Whereas network TV attracts a mass audience, cable TV lets advertisers pick demographic segments.
Cable providers offer more targeted opportunities than do the national networks or even local broadcasters. Radio reaches 232 million listeners during the week, according to figures from Arbitrona€™s RADAR 93 June 2007 Radio Listening Estimates. Research has found that the best radio ads can have as much impact as the average TV ad, yet at a fraction of the cost. Another disadvantage of radio is that ad agencies see it as a medium of secondary importance and often assign their junior people to work on the campaigns. They intercepted the target audience of parents during the time period when students apply for college and for the loans to pay for it (assuming they get in).


And advertisers keep finding new places, such as ads that cover entire buses, go on airline tray tables, cover bathroom walls, and shine down on sidewalks. The Wal-Mart TV Network has more than 125,000 screens in 2,850 Wal-Mart stores, and patients who wait in over 10,800 doctorsa€™ offices watch medical programming and ads. It seems as if no space is beyond reach; in recent years wea€™ve seen ads pop up in front of public urinals, on rockets, imprinted on flowers, and even on sheep (yes, one enterprising company in the Netherlands puts ad messages on blankets that adorn grazing sheep). Out-of-home ads can be situated for maximum impact in terms of both whom the ad reaches and when it reaches them. Outdoor campaigns a€?interact with so many consumers at numerous touch-points during the day, which is important,a€? according to Jodi Senese, executive vice president of marketing at CBS Outdoor, New York. Unfortunately, many forms of outdoor advertising only catch a few seconds of attention as people drive or pass by the ads. The company provides funding or some other material help to the event (such as food) in exchange for being mentioned as the eventa€™s sponsor during the event and in the promotional material about the event. Although sponsorship reminds viewers of the brand, it offers little opportunity to convey detailed brand messages or to present a unique selling proposition (defined below). Coors might sponsor the NFL, but Pepsia€™s name might be on the stadium while one of the teams is sponsored by Gatorade. This is a big issue at the Olympics; for example, the 2008 Beijing Games had twelve global sponsors who together paid almost a billion dollars for bragging rights. Extensive databases and lists mean that advertisers can pick who they want to contact and tailor the message to that group. Direct response offers just thata€”people can respond directly to the advertisersa€™ pitch by returning a reply card, saying yes to a telemarketer, or clicking a link on an e-mail.
Both direct mail and telemarketing have a high cost per impression due to physical production and labor costs, respectively. Although the telephone offers the most interactive channel to reach consumers, many despise it for its intrusiveness. For example, GM sent out five million personalized cards by mail to customers whoa€™d bought GM cars between 1998 and 2004. For example, the SciFi Channel keeps fans of Battlestar Galactica engaged by letting fans see the inner workings of the show.
Although more and more consumers are spending more and more time online, their time is being subdivided, making it hard to reach a mass audience. Some advertisers are skeptical about the future of m-commerce because they feel that many consumers will resist the practice of seeing a lot of ad messages clog up their phones. Already, major phone companies including Verizon Communications and AT&T have signed deals to distribute programminga€”including Saturday Night Live clips and user-generated videoa€”to cell phone customers along with ads to support this effort.
What is new, however, is that product placement has evolved from a practice of convenience (directors like to include actual products as props to enhance realism) to a deliberate and lucrative business practice. As the number of placements continues to grow, advertisers may discover theya€™ve created a monster thata€™s no longer very effective. The Fox affiliate in Las Vegas made a deal that gets news anchors to sit with cups of McDonalda€™s iced coffee on their desks during the news-and-lifestyle portion of their morning show.
As gaming becomes more of a mainstream activity, we can expect to see more advertising targeted to players. As a music industry executive observed about the potential of videogames to sell music products, a€?These games absolutely have an impact because the opportunity to hear these songs on radio is dwindling. Rather than pay for every media impression, advertisers influence their customers to work with them to create media impressions.
In one of the best-known executions (that these same producers created), carmaker Audi staged a heist of an A3 from Audia€™s Park Avenue showroom in New York City. In some cases (as in advergaming) they simply advertise their product on virtual billboards.
The research firm Gartner predicts that by the year 2011, over 250 million people will be involved in these immersive digital environments. Some early campaigns fizzled because they failed to generate interest among virtual world inhabitantsa€”simply putting up a billboard just wona€™t do it for most avatars. Major media companies, including MTV Networks and Disney, continue to invest millions of dollars as they develop their own virtual worlds.
In a twist to the old practice of using customer testimonials, companies are giving customers the power and the tools to make their own ads, a phenomenon known as consumer-generated media (CGM). When Chevy let consumers make ads about its new Chevy Tahoe, some consumers created ads attacking the large SUVa€™s gas-guzzling ways. For example, liquor makers need to promote sensible drinking habits, which homemade videos may not convey.
According to results of a survey released by Accenture, media and entertainment executives see the ability and eagerness of individuals to create their own content as one of the biggest threats to their business.
Indeed, the promotion is aptly named a€?DEWmocracy.a€? The campaign includes a story-based game that features a live-action short film (directed by actor Forest Whitaker, who also provides a voice-over).
This term refers to the many new platforms that combine technology with community to allow users to contribute their own content and to react to what other users post.
Popular applications include Wikipedia, MySpace, LinkedIn, Facebook, and Twitter, with new ones arriving almost daily. For example, research finds that 81 percent of shoppers who spend more than $500 online each month use product reviews when they make buying decisions. For example, more than one-third (35 percent) of all women in the United States aged eighteen to seventy-five participate in the blogosphere at least once a week. The sitesa€™ owners didna€™t make this easy, because they tightly controlled access to outside application developers.
Those may include in-house email lists, partners you believe you can count on to promote during the launch, and any related advertising and PR activities related to the launch. Our work is always estimated in advance, and no work proceeds without your written approval. Public relations is essentially about crafting and managing the public perception of your brand.
In a nutshell, an effective PR strategy is synergistic with the branding strategy and is a perfect companion to your messaging and marketing communications strategy.
An effective integrated marketing communications strategy is multi-layered with PR being one of those layers. Many PR failures occur as a result of a lack of a cohesive message that resonates with the public. White papers and case studies do an exceptional job of positioning the company as a thought leader and so do by-line articles and opinion editorials, especially when it’s from the CEO or senior executive.
Measurement shouldn’t rely on just media mentions and news item placements but should also assess tone of coverage, media penetration, and key message exposure. So clients have to first be educated on the PR process and how it should work in cohesiveness with the overall integrated marketing plan.
Often times, businesses lack a core messaging strategy, have yet to define their key audience targets, and don’t even know how to tell their own story. It is important to identify measurable actions that each stakeholder group or sub-group needs to take to fulfill the selected goals.
In total, all the component results contained in the plan should add up to successful achievement of the overarching results objectives so that the overall plan is achieved. In this era of electronic communication there are many more channels available to communicators than in the past, and research has shown that a combination of channels generally provides the most effective result. For instance, in a government lobbying campaign to gain support from Members of Parliament or Congress, a series of briefings, workshops and working groups may be held with relevant parliamentary or Congressional committees and key government officials. Some of the techniques include face-to-face meetings, telephone contact, group meetings, teleconferences, email, letters, faxes, reports, brochures, and media releases to the mass media, ie all forms of print and electronic media, as well as media conferences. Most PR plans comprise a complex, interconnected range of activities and therefore a label based on one communication process can be a simplistic and limiting approach. External consultants may have expertise that is not available in-house, such as skills in strategy development, issues and crisis management, media relations. The communication strategy document should outline the roles and responsibilities of the members of the project or campaign group. Everyone needs to be clear about who will approve the creative concepts and whose budgets will pay for the activity. In public relations projects, several types of charts are used such as Gantt charts, PERT charts, and to a lesser extent, critical path analysis and sophisticated project management software for more complex work.
A Gantt chart is a horizontal bar chart developed as a production control tool in 1917 by Henry L. The PERT chart, another popular project management charting method, is designed to do this. PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique) was developed by the US Navy in the 1950s to manage the Polaris submarine missile program. On the other hand, the PERT chart can be much more difficult to interpret, especially on complex projects. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (8 MB) or just this chapter (724 KB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). The tools available to us range from an 8.5-by-11-inch ad tacked to your classroom wall by one of your fellow students who wants to sell his used textbooks (good thing we dona€™t need those anymore in our new a€?Flat World!a€?) to a high-tech mystery game where thousands of people text, IM, or Twitter one another with clues to help each other figure out the message. The basic philosophy at The Media Kitchen is to evaluate the research and information about the target audiencea€”the news consumers that SS+K has dubbed News Explorersa€”and then decide which vehicles fit best. These are the criteria The Media Kitchen used to describe the News Explorer segment in the Simmons database.
The vehicle lets the advertiser present in-depth information at less cost than would be possible on TV or in linear media like radio or quick-glance billboards. Others attract a well-defined demographic readership; for example, airlinesa€™ in-flight magazines boast an affluent audience.
Some magazines, such as Time, also print regional editions to support regional demographic differences and more targeted advertising.
A monthly magazine slated to stay on newsstands through the end of December may have been printed in early November with a deadline for ad copy in September. At least 30 percent of the studya€™s participants were exposed to TV programming during the day, and at times as many as 70 percent were watching.
Advertisers can demonstrate the product and show the faces of the characters in the ad to convey both emotion and information. Yet TV ad spending rose 5.3 percent in 2006, according to TNS Media Intelligence, and accounted for nearly 44 percent of all advertising spending in 2006. Consumers younger than thirty-five spend more time on the Internet than they do watching TV, according to a study by New York-based Jupiter Research. A thirty-second ad on a popular prime-time network program can cost $250,000 each time it runs. Cable operators sell ad slots for local ads that can be targeted to specific sections of a city or even to specific neighborhoods.
For example, Bishopa€™s Promart hardware store advertises on five radio stations in its Ithaca, New York, market area.
Cell phones and iPods compete for the ears of radio listeners, and other listeners are switching to commercial-free satellite radio. New technologies such as computer-driven flat-screen displays now enable dynamic, interactive ads that respond to passersby. A month-long billboard might provide more than twenty exposures for daily commuters.Quoted in a€?The Results Issue,a€? Brandweek, July 23, 2007, 28. The people who see an ad on the side of an urban bus might be homeless or they might be millionaires.
Coorsa€™ sponsorship of the NFL guarantees that the brand is mentioned numerous times during each game, along with a logo or brand image.
Coors is the official sponsor of the league, but rival Anheuser-Busch has individual deals with twenty-eight teams at an estimated cost of $30 million annually. China tried to crack down on other companies that used the five-ring logo or sold unauthorized versions of the mascot. The fact that there are over 149 million phone numbers on the FTCa€™s National Do Not Call Registry, which has only existed since 2003, shows the breadth of the publica€™s dislike for getting unwanted sales calls in the middle of dinner. For example, an airline can notify an individual customer about airfare deals from her home town.
For example, network television lets you speak to many people at once (though not quite as many as in the past), but you need deep pockets to use it.
The ad might show on the Web site as a separate pop-up window or as a banner embedded in the content of the site or running down the side of a Web page. She has found that the best way to use the Internet for client companies is to get e-mail addresses volunteered by customers of IKEA, for instance, and then put out occasional e-mails to them about in-store deals. For example, Absolut brand vodka partnered with Free411, an ad-supported directory-assistance service.
One recent survey reported that only 18 percent of American respondents said they were receptive to the idea of watching ads in exchange for free mobile content. Today cell phone users can sign up to receive mobile coupons that offer discounts on products ranging from CDs and DVDs to fast food. Product placementNew media technique in which a showa€™s story line incorporates a branded product, typically in TV shows and movies., where a showa€™s story line incorporates a branded product, is a strategy to reach consumers on a traditional medium. A typical placement deal between Staples and NBC illustrates how this works: when the office products retailer introduced a new paper-shredder called the MailMate in 2006, it engaged a company that specializes in placements to handle this part of its media strategy.
These types of games use the advertisera€™s branded mascots, themes, and venues to make the brand a key element of the game. While many media planners still have a stereotype of a typical gamer as a greasy-haired teenager who eats a lot of cold pizza, the reality is that 40 percent of gamers are women, and the average age of game players is thirty-five. Word of mouth (WOM)Marketing that causes people to share stories about the product, brand, or campaign. For example, friends-and-family cell phone programs give subscribers an incentive (free minutes) to recruit people they know. To identify the spark that ignited the fire of buzz marketing, perhaps we need look no further than to The Blair Witch Project, a horror movie that was made for $22,000 and earned $248 million at the box office. At the site, a video presented scenes of a woman waking up in a field with a€?Trovu la ringon perditana€?a€”an Esperanto phrasea€”tattooed on her arm. Some communities, such as Linden Laba€™s Second Life, mimic real life with 3-D graphics that give people a chance to live a different identity (or several) online.
In other cases, disappointed clients didna€™t see the kinds of numbers they are used to getting from real-world campaigns that might touch millions of people.
Media planners who doubt the staying power of these platforms need look only to the next generation of consumers, who already are logging serious time in their own virtual worlds. The rise of PC video and image editing tools means that millions have the ability to create content. But Chevy didna€™t remove the negative submissions, because it showed that the brand could take a good-natured teasing and stay open to customera€™s opinions.


As the saying goes, however, when it comes to CGM, a€?youa€™re either on the train or under it.a€? Surveys show that in a typical month about half of all online users either create user-generated content (UGC) or read items posted by others.
The authors of reviews are known as brand advocatesAn author of customer reviews, such as hotel reviews posted on Internet travel sites and book reviews on online bookseller sites.. A blog is a Web site an individual maintains, usually with commentary about a specific topic to which others can respond. Internet users read at least one blog per month, and analysts project this number will rise to two-thirds of all users by 2012. This term describes online communities of people who share interests, activities, or relationshipsa€”and who typically are interested in following the activities of other members. That stance is changinga€”MySpace now lets advertisers directly manage their branded profiles on the site. Also included are go-to-market strategy, pre-launch sequence and content development plans (for videos, emails, website content, etc).
We can consider a reduced up-front fee in exchange for a percentage of revenue under the appropriate circumstances. It’s about deploying a combination of communications tactics to continually shape and influence the public. Once extracted from the overall marketing strategy, the PR plan takes on a series of activities to interact with the public and strategically craft the ideal brand perception. Is there any hard news to tell, and if not, how do you craft news out of everyday business operations? Speaking engagements, conferences, seminars, and trade shows also help extend the brand and position the organization and its executives as a thought leader. Start with the basics first; get a sound marketing blueprint going and PR can be implemented to compliment your overall strategy. For example, if the CEO wants to change the corporate culture, you should discuss first, before developing a communication plan, what observable and measurable behaviors will be different if people respect each other more or have more integrity, etc. However, too often the communication method used is employed for its convenience to the sender rather than its effectiveness in changing the behavior of the stakeholders receiving the message.
Other channels may also include ongoing meetings with political party leaders and other relevant Members of Parliament or Congress. Notice how the communication processes or channels are varied to suit the different target audiences, even though all the recipients are employees in the same organization, and how different channels reinforce key messages. It is far better, therefore, to work back from the objective of the project or program and use a working title relevant to that.
This is especially important where the organizing committee comprises representatives from different areas within the organization or external representatives from a PR consultancy, advertising or marketing agency. As the project progresses, secondary bars, arrowheads, or darkened bars may be added to indicate completed tasks, or the portions of tasks that have been completed. Charts may be adjusted frequently to reflect the actual status of project tasks as, almost inevitably, they diverge from the original plan. In the diagram, for example, the tasks between nodes 1, 2, 4, 5, 15 and 16 must be completed in sequence.
The small numbers between the nodes indicate the time (in this case the number of days) allotted for each task.
The first thing TMK had to do was to obtain demographic and media usage information about the News Explorers in order to understand where SS+K could find them. Whata€™s more, readers are used to getting in-depth information from the newspaper, so the ad fits into that style. The median household income for adults who read United Airlinesa€™ Hemispheres magazine or American Airlinesa€™ American Way magazine is $147,000, according to Mendelsohn Media Research.
The targeted nature of magazines, the good visual quality of their images, and the high credibility of the medium means that the ads are likely to reach and influence the right audience.
Moreover, advertisers often need to buy ads in multiple magazines to reach a wide audience. The study also found that consumers watch TV and use the Internet more than ten times as often as they read newspapers and magazines.Gregg Cebrzynski, a€?Taking on the Media Circus,a€? Nationa€™s Restaurant News, July 9, 2007, 33. In addition, Nielsen Media Research reported that consumers spent more time watching conventional TV in 2006 than they did in 2005. This trend is only going to increase as more video content from sites like Hulu, YouTube, and iTunes migrates to online formats. To combat this, advertisers are turning to branded entertainment such as inserting the product into the scenery, dialog, or plot of the show.
Well-heeled male audiences tune in the Golf channel while a younger male demographic hangs out on channels such as Sci-Fi. Conventional radio (as opposed to satellite radio and other subscription audio) continues to be the medium of choice for 75 percent of all drivers.
On talk radio and easy-listening stations, the retailer runs ads it targets to more upscale customers and advertises grills and heaters.
Place-based mediaMediaa€”usually TV or videoa€”that transmit messages to a€?captive audiencesa€? in public places, such as the waiting areas in doctorsa€™ offices, hospitals, and airports.
The company put ads in twenty-five hundred health clubs across the United States, locating them near water fountains and in locker rooms.
For example, 1-800-Flowers ads for a€?Happy Hour Bouquetsa€? featured flowers arranged in vases shaped like margarita or martini glasses. Moreover, some people dislike out-of-home advertising, feeling that it creates visual clutter or gives them no escape from commercials. In other cases, the event sells so many sponsorships that no single sponsor gets much play.
These ambushes have a long history: at the 1996 Games in Atlanta, Nike placed advertisements near the stadiums and established a a€?Nike villagea€? even though it was not an official sponsor.
A direct marketer can know how much a consumer paid for their house (public land records), what kind of car they drive (motor vehicle records), and which clubs they belong to or charities they support (donor lists). The site might display the ad at certain times of day, a certain number of times, or in certain contexts. To cash in the coupons, consumers show their cell phone screen that displays the coupon to a store cashier. The exciting evolution of GPS technology creates the capability for advertisers to beam coupons to phone users depending on their location.
This technique is now quite common in TV shows and movies, but it even pops up in Broadway shows and the occasional novel. The company made a deal with the producers of The Office to include the product in two episodes of the hit show. Purpose-built advergames a€?let you have complete control over your brand message since youa€™re the one making the game,a€? said Darren Herman, the cofounder of IGA Worldwide. Viral campaigns challenge agencies to create truly remarkable ads, online games, or Web sitesa€”remarkable enough that people will want to share them with their friends. As consumers joined in the chase, they were exposed to the cara€™s unique features and attributes. Clicking on the billboard gives the user a virtual copy of the car that they can drive around Second Life and even use in racing games in the online world. This platform is still in its infancy, so many consumers dona€™t even know yet that it exists. Habbo Hotel (based in Finland) targets thirteen- to eighteen-year-olds and boasts over 100 million registered users worldwide and over 8.5 million unique users each month.
For example, snack-maker Doritos posted media clips online for consumers to tweak and make a commercial for the product, with the winning commercial being aired during the Super Bowl.
Besides, everyone knows there are trolls on the Internet, so negative content is often ignored. Many major advertisers are shifting their media mix to include social media, especially those that want to speak to young people.
Increasingly these forums add sophisticated graphics, including video capability, so that video blogging allows individuals to present any kind of visual or written material to the blogosphereThe universe of blogs. They haven’t quite figured out how to find the sweet spot between brand and audience.
Knowing the message and how to communicate it is the key to developing an effective PR strategy. Once the behaviors reflecting each desired cultural value are defined, the behaviors can be measured before and after the communication plan is implemented.
Frequently used in project management, Gantt charts provide a graphical illustration of a schedule that helps to plan, coordinate, and track specific tasks in a project. Once the agency understood more about which media these people relied upon, its planner would be able to coordinate the campaigna€™s messages and make media choices to ensure that the right people would see or hear these messages. Before we talk about how we mix and match media to meet our campaign objectives, leta€™s review the options and discuss some of the pros and cons of each. The print ad provides room to present the information and provide all the supporting reasons. The average reader of these magazines is a forty-five-year-old highly educated businesspersona€”someone very desirable for advertisers of technology, travel, and real estate products to reach.
The Food Network and Travel Channel represent natural choices for advertisers in those respective arenas. The store runs ads for house painting materials, however, only on country radio, because of its generally lower-income audience. Unless youa€™re lucky enough to have someone who loves radio working on your brief, ita€™s more likely it will get dumped with the junior creatives.a€?Quoted in a€?Is There a Crisis in Radio Creativity?a€? Campaign, March 30, 2007, 19.
Attention-getting headlines included a€?Make your pizza lean,a€? encouraging the use of turkey. Nine out of ten e-mail messages are spam (unsolicited e-mail sent to multiple addresses), creating a different kind of pollution. Second, new promotional techniques let companies move away from the traditional a€?advertisers speak, consumers listena€? model. For example, search adsNew media technology that lets advertisers associate their ad with the keywords that Web users enter into search engines like Google and Yahoo!. Moore supports viewers who want to download parts of the show, right down to letting fans edit their own versions of the show.Quoted in a€?Inside the Mind of a Cyclon,a€? Fast Company, November 2007, 27. Each time the servicea€™s forty-five thousand users called to get the number for a club or bar, they first heard a fifteen-second spot for Absoluta€™s new Pears vodka.
Virgin Megastores, Hollywood Video, Dominoa€™s Pizza, and Quiznos Subs participate in this program, and about one million people have signed up for the service.Stephanie Kang, a€?Coupons Gain New Market on Cell Phones,a€? Wall Street Journal, September 11, 2007, B8. In one early test of this method, Coupon CBS partnered with the social networking service Loopt, which already allows its subscribers to track participating friends.
Mizerski, a€?A Review and Investigation into the Effectiveness of Product Placements in Films,a€? in Proceedings of the 1994 Conference of the American Academy of Advertising, ed. In one show, the character Kevin Malone shreds paper with the MailMate; in the second, the character Dwight Schrute leaves the company and takes a job at Staples. Many advergaming executions resemble outdoor advertising in the gamea€”game makers sell posters and billboards in the gamea€™s virtual world. In other (typically more successful) cases the brand becomes part of the world, as when avatars who receive virtual Nikes actually get the ability to run faster in the virtual world.
Gaia Online attracts more than 2 million unique visitors each month; $300,000 of the members log in for an average of two hours per day.
The company received over a hundred entries.Sonia Reyes, a€?Packaged Foodsa€? Adweek, April 30, 2007, SR19. Chevy Tahoe found that despite (or because of) the full range of ads, consumers did visit the site and did visit the car dealersa€™ showrooms in response. The gamers eventually will be given the opportunity to persuade the company to produce their drink in the real world.
Gantt charts may be simple versions created on graph paper or more complex automated versions created using project management applications such as Microsoft Project or Excel. The tasks between nodes 1 and 2, nodes 1 and 3, and nodes 1 and 6 don’t depend on the completion of one to start the other and can be undertaken simultaneously. It can cost 350,000 to create a professional thirty-second spot, although small business can often create ads for much less. The ads put the brand in front of exercising Americansa€”who frequently go to the grocery store after their workout. On top of that was the incremental benefit: when people are getting their car repaired, they wander around the showroom and look at the new models.
Callers were then offered a drink recipe that would be text messaged to their cell phones to give to their bartender.
Ads appear on two Web sites tailored for mobile devices, CBS Mobile News and CBS Mobile Sports. The advertiser takes advantage of the computer game manufacturera€™s distribution to get its ads seen. While the story of a group of young people who get massacred in the woods was fiction (sorry to burst the bubble), the producers cleverly perpetuated the idea that the movie was a true documentary. An executive boasted, a€?To the best of our knowledge, a brand has never given consumers this much control. So we try to focus on people who are going to be doing it themselves,a€? explained Bishopa€™s Promart owner Forest Putney. The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 is a step in eliminating unwanted spam, and marketers must abide by the rules laid out in that act, including supplying an opt-out button, relevant subject lines, a physical address, and a warning if content is explicit. So the secondary effect of the cards is that one in a hundred people may decide to buy a new car while getting their old one repaired.a€?The Results Issue,a€? Brandweek, July 23, 2007, 28. Nearly two thousand callers said yes, which was roughly 4 percent of the total call volume. People who choose to participate might see an ad from a business within a block or two of where they live.Laura M. And, because gamers pay upwards of $50 for the game, theya€™re likely to play it over and over. For every successful advergamea€”like Burger Kinga€™sa€”therea€™s a ton of failures, usually due to distribution. Putney also gets involved in occasional promotional events, such as the annual backyard giveaway hosted by one of the local radio stations. Englis, a€?Reality Engineering: Blurring the Boundaries between Marketing and Popular Culture,a€? Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising 16, no. He says it is a good opportunity to advertise in the community to maximize name recognition.Quoted in a€?Radio Ads Generate the Right Customer Frequency for Bishopa€™s,a€? Hardware Retailing 193, no. As was the case with Reesea€™s Pieces, new products can get a huge boost if they happen to show up in a popular media vehicle (just ask all the authors whose books hit the bestseller list because Oprah recommended them).



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