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Introduction Definition : “The broad spectrum of tasks and techniques that lead to an understanding of requirements is called Requirement Engineering.” Why it is important?
It is a major software engineering action that begins during the communication activity and continues into modeling activity. 2) Recognizing multiple viewpoints Because of many stakeholders, the requirements of the system will be explored from many different points of view. 4) Asking the first questions:- Questions in 3 different sets (1)Context free questions focuses on the customers and stakeholders, the overall proj.
Eliciting requirements Collaborative requirement gathering Team of stakeholders and developers work together to identify the problem, propose elements of solution, negotiate different approaches, and specify preliminarily set of solution requirements. The goal is to identify the problem, propose elements of solution, negotiate different approaches, and specify preliminarily set of solution requirements. Each attendee is asked to make a list of objects that are part of the environment that surrounds the system, other objects that are to be produced by the system, and the objects that are used by the system to perform its functions.
As the requirement gathering meeting begins, the first topic of the discussion is the need and justification for the new product. During all discussion, the team may arise an issue that can not be resolved during the meeting. Quality Function Deployment QFD is a technique that translates the needs of the customer into technical requirements for s.w. 2) Expected:- These requirements are implicit to the product or system and may be so fundamental that the customer does not explicitly state them. These data are then translated into a table of requirements – called the Customer Voice Table – that is reviewed with the customer and other stakeholders. User Scenarios As the requirements are gathered, an overall vision of system features and functions begins to materialize.
Developing Use Cases The use case describes the system’s behavior under various conditions as the system responds to a request from one of its stakeholders. Because requirement elicitation is an evolutionary activity, not all actors are identified during the first iteration. ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGE OF USING AUDITPROGRAMME ? Benefits derived from the audit programme… To obtain a degree of reasonable assurance that the fin statements are not affected by material misstatements and to make a conclusion on the truth and fairness of fin statements. SOLID LEGAL EVIDENCE:Audit program and audit working papers are solid legal evidence of work doneby every assistant of the audit team. Disadvantages of audit programEven though audit program has number of advantages, it is not free fromlimitations. It defines through diagrams, sketches and descriptions the various components of the digital engagement: online tools, mobile companion, and online social involvement. Introduction Definition : “The broad spectrum of tasks and techniques that lead to an understanding of.
Elicitation :- It seems simple enough – ask the customer, the user, and other what the objective for the system are, what is to be accomplished etc. Elaboration:- The information obtained from the customer during the pervious two stages is expanded and refined during elaboration. Negotiation :- It isn’t unusual for customers nad users to ask for more than can be achieved, given limited business resources. Specification :- A specification can be a written document, a set of graphical models, a formal mathematical model, a collection of usage scenario, a prototype, or any combination of these. Requirement management :- It is a set of activities that helps the project team identify, control, and track requirements and changes to requirements at any time as the project proceeds. 3)An agenda is suggested that formal enough to cover all important points but informal enough to encourage the free flow of ideas. In addition, each attendee is asked to list services that manipulate or interact with the objects.


After combined lists for all topic areas ( objects, services, constraints, performance) have been created, the facilitator coordinates the discussion.
A variety of diagrams, matrices, and evolution methods are then used to extract expected requirements and to attempt to derive exciting requirements.
Developers and users can create a set of scenarios that identify a thread of usage for the system to be constructed.
The first step in writing a use case is to define the set of “actors” that will be involved in the story.
Primary actors are identified during first iteration and secondary actors as more is learned about the system. Set of procedures (evidence – gathering steps) that an auditor believes is necessary to perform to obtain reasonable assurance that the financial statements are not affected by material misstatements.An audit program is a set of policies and procedures that dictate how an evaluation of a business is done. It can be presented in the court of law ifany action is taken against the auditor for negligence.
That’s why it’s important to understand what the customer wants before you begin to design and build a computer based system.
Requirement engineering provides the appropriate mechanism for understanding what the customer wants, analyzing need, assessing feasibility, negotiating a reasonable solution, specifying the solution unambiguously, validating the specification and managing the requirements as they are transformed into operational system.
It focuses on developing a refined technical model that identifies various aspects of s.w functions, behavior and information. Customers, users and other stakeholders are asked to rank requirements and then discuss conflicts in priority. It describes the functions and performance of the computer based system and the constraints that will govern its development.
Requirement validation examines he specification to ensure that all software requirements have been stated unambiguously, that inconsistencies, omission, and error have been detected and corrected. Features traceability table:- show how the requirements relate to important customer observable system. Interface traceability table:- shows how requirements are related to internal and external system interfaces. The job of requirement engineer is to categorize all stakeholder information in way that will allow decision maker to choose an internally consistent set of requirements for the system.
Stakeholder collaborate by providing their view of requirements, but a strong “project champion” may make the final decision about which requirements make the cut. The objective is to develop a consensus list of objects, services, constraints, and performance for the system to be built.
An actor is anything that communicates with the system or product and it is external to the system itself. This generally involves specific instructions as to what, and how much, evidence must be collected and evaluated, as well as who will collect and analyze the data and when this should be done. These programmes andpapers proves that the auditor has used his skills and due care in the audit of thefirm so his liability can be reducedFIXATION OF RESPONSIBILITY:Audit programmes fixed the responsibilities of the staff.
Elaboration is driven by the creation and refinement of user scenario that describe how the end user will interact with system. The review team includes s.w engineers, customers, users, and other stake holders who examine the specification looking for errors in contents or interpretations, missing information etc. 3) Exciting:- It reflects features that go beyond the customer’s expectations and prove to be very satisfying when present.
These types of programs are used to check up on things like a business performance, finances, economy, and efficiency, and are generally tailored to a specific business or purpose. To provide evidence of proper planning and a record of the work done that conforms to auditing standards. Using iterative approach, requirements are eliminated, combined, modified so that each party achieve some measures of satisfaction. It does this through a simple five stage process, each step starting with the letter “S” hence the name 5S. Purposes of audit programme Guiding audit staff in audit work Provide evidence of proper planning and recording of audit work to be done Provide the basis for coordinating and supervising audit work and controlling the time spent Audit programs are important because they standardize the data collection and evaluation process.


In some cases, the development of mini-specs will uncover new objects, services, constraints, or performance requirements that will be added to the original lists.
The 5S process is not one that can be forced onto an area by an outsider, it a process of improvement that is conducted by the people that work within the area itself.
By setting out a specific list of steps to be followed and data to be collected, the program ensures that auditors collect all the information they need in an efficient manner while under appropriate supervision.
They become responsible for and have ownership of all of the improvements and changes that they implement. Keeping the process standardized also means that all the data collected can be used to make useful comparisons between businesses, departments, and previous years inspections, since the same set of data is collected each time.
Or completion of an audit, itserves the purpose of audit record that may be useful for future reference. Additionally , having a program like this in place makes sure that any problems are discovered promptly and reported to the correct person.? Main components of audit programme will include the objectives, procedures and conclusion of each audit work performed. Incase of auditor is appointed for the same concern in any future time the auditorcan use the same audit programme with some changes.
Audit Program Increases the Chance of FraudStaffs of the client get information about the audit program in advance whichincreases the chance of committing frauds. The second stage of 5S results in ensuring that items (components, equipment, tools, machines, people) are located in the most ergonomic and thus efficient (and safer) positions.
Similarly, it harasses the audit staffsso they perform the work of audit carelessly which also increases the chance ofcommitting frauds.4. So it isrightly called the basic instrument for training for the staff at the time of need.
Audit Program Is Unsuitable To Small ConcernSmall concern has less transactions and work of audit can be completed in shortperiod of time. The operators do not have to search for things as the use of shadow boards and clear visual identification ensure that things are immediately to hand and obvious. These items are located as close to where they are needed and at the correct most ergonomic height and orientation to minimize handling.
Exclusion of Problems of New TechnologyNew techniques and technologies are used in the work of accounting. The third stage of 5S ensures that the work place remains clear of clutter and that any signs of malfunction become more obvious leading to actions being taken to prevent more serious breakdowns and other delays.
Suchtechnology creates the problem in the work of audit but such problems andremedial measures are not included in the audit program. The forth and most important step is that of standardization, wherein you ensure that there are standard ways of working.
This ensures that everyone uses the most efficient work method and that there are clear standards. This prevents delays, defects and other wasteful occurrences The right tools in the right place, the correct methods and standards, and a motivated workforce means that you will have a far more efficient and less wasteful working environment. The visual management aspects ensure that anyone can see if there are problems such as things missing, in the wrong location and so on. The 5th stage, sustain, ensures that this continues on an ongoing basis and that it remains everyone’s responsibility; this ensures that there is no slippage and that you continue to challenge what you do and make improvements through the constant involvement of your staff. Components that begin to stack up in areas that they should not be in, or empty racks and other visual aspects of your 5S implementation quickly show you exactly where problems are occurring. 5S is not something that you learn in a class room, whilst there should be an overview given to all involved as to how it works plus an explanation of the seven wastes and some company specific objectives, the bulk of the “training” should be at the work place actually conducting the 5S process.



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