Abstract: This paper aims at exploring and discussing the possibilities of applying qualitative content analysis as a (text) interpretation method in case study research. Finally the use of qualitative content analysis for developing case studies is examined and evaluated.
There has been an ongoing debate on the appropriateness of different approaches and methods in social research. This paper also aims at helping to overcome the strict contraposition of qualitative and quantitative research. Given this definition it might be important to note that a case study is not a method but a research strategy (cf. A detailed explanation of these concepts can be found in numerous textbooks on social science methods (e.g.
Finally, YIN (2003a, pp.78-80) recommends conducting a pilot case study as a final preparation for data collection. According to BABBIE (2001), content analysis can be defined as "the study of recorded human communications" (p.304).
Freudian dream analysis can be seen as early precursors of content analysis (MAYRING, 2000a, [6]).
However, this seems to be rather the description of a general approach to analyzing documents qualitatively.
This section offers a short introduction to the main points of MAYRING's qualitative content analysis. The object of (qualitative) content analysis can basically be any kind of recorded communication, i.e. Theory-guided analysis: Technical fuzziness of qualitatively oriented research needs to be balanced by theoretical stringency. Inclusion of quantitative steps of analysis: Quantitative analyses are especially important when trying to generalize results. If necessary the system of categories is re-examined and revised, which necessitates a reappraisal of the material. Both the dimensions of existing categories can be modified and new categories can be designed. Figure 1 shows the basic proceeding of qualitative content analysis from the initial theory to the final analysis and interpretation. Inductive category development belongs to the procedure of summary (MAYRING, 2003, pp.74-76).
Any kind of social research asserts its claims to fulfill certain quality criteria for measuring and collecting data.
Problems of reliability: here, particular attention is paid to the trustworthiness of the coding. The Oxford English Dictionary is widely regarded as the premier dictionary of the English language and is rated the most comprehensive dictionary on the planet by Guinness World Records.
It instead focuses solely on the slave like zombie of Afro-Haitian tradition that is unrelated to the modern zombie of contemporary pop culture.
Does this mean that nearly every movie, video game, event, and organization that celebrates zombies simply doesn’t exist?


It seems that billions of dollars in annual revenue across multiple platforms still can’t put the modern zombie officially on the map. The modern zombie is a relentlessly aggressive, reanimated human corpse driven by a biological infection. By breaking down the definition into its component parts, three key elements emerge against which all manner of creature can be quickly and easily judged. This definition is intended to be narrow enough to clearly identify the modern zombie’s unique characteristics and broad enough to apply equally to 1968’s original Night of the Living Dead as to the zombie films being conceived and produced today. I think that my only concern regarding the proposed definition would be that if the zombie outbreak is parasitic in nature, would that still be referred to as an “infection”?
So just to be clear, the zombie had to of been alive at some point, died, then come back to life.
If we’re dealing with a fictional account of a zombie outbreak sparked by something other than a biological infection, would they not qualify as zombies? Romero is the father of the modern zombie, and he is also on the Board of Zombie Research Society. By contrast, you don’t get turned into a zombie by someone putting a spell on you, or you doing something that is bad luck (like stealing a sacred object). It seems silly to me to try so hard to create such a specific definition when no one knows exactly what the zombie apocalypse will look like.
Good point, but what we were getting as is that zombies are based in biology, not superstition or myth. I think the most important element is that a zombie lacks self awareness or any true human consciousness.
I think being relentlessly aggressive implies a lack of self awareness, or any true human consciousness. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. The term of brand can be defined as “a physical labelling of products, so that consumers are able to identify which firm produces which goods or services” (Soto, 2008, p.8).
Finally, the use of qualitative content analysis for conducting case study research is examined and evaluated. YIN, we can say that "[u]sing case studies for research purposes remains one of the most challenging of all social science endeavors" (YIN, 2003a, p.1, original emphasis).
Or, put differently: "[c]ase study is not a methodological choice but a choice of what is to be studied.
In fact, RYAN and BERNARD (2000) see content analysis as one of the "major coding traditions" (p.780). As a result, inference in content analysis confines itself only to specific features of external and internal validity. It includes specific definitions for countless obscure and unusual monsters, including the infamous chupacabra of Latin America and Bigfoot’s Himalayan cousin, the albino yeti. Are the tens of millions of people who participate in zombie walks, zombie proms, zombie pub crawls, and zombie festivals across the planet gathered to express their interest in a non-thing? It strays away from the need for the zombie to be a re-animated corpse so it could fit in with things like the 28 days later zombies as well as the Romero films.


Given the fact if that actually happens I will have my weapons ready and I’m pretty sure the government will have something to do with it.
In terms of radiation, that would also be considered a biological infection in this definition – it is not magical.
Recent zombie movies and video games have the victims become mindless flesh eaters without actually dying e.g Left 4 Dead, 28 days later. You do not need to be bitten or infected, you just have to die with your brain left intact. I don’t agree that relentless aggression implies a lack of awareness or consciousness. If the bodies of the infected are living instead of dead, destroying the brain specifically is less imperative, as a bullet through the heart or massive bleeding to the point of organ and heart failure would be sufficient to kill the infected.
Besides, definition point one is that a zombie is the reainmated corpse of a human, so the biological part is a given anyway, any organinc matter is biological. They share common characteristics of other monsters – some agility, and brute strength. And in that film, people who were previously deceased were reanimated without coming into contact with an infected person. Even if it starts out as a curse or something magical, it quickly becomes a biological infection. We don’t know what zombies will look like, how they will behave, or how they will come to exist in the first place. There are other types of aggressive reanimated corpses (vampires, mummies, etc), and some are even infectious, but they’re not zombies.
It might imply a level of aggression that’s not human, but I do think other monsters aside from vampires have it while being self-aware.
The Haitian zombie doesn’t apply to current pop culture references so for my purpose is worthless, to an extent.
Therefore, in my opinion, it is impossible to establish a specific definition at this point.
It may not have been the bite itself which caused the person to reanimate, it could simply be that they died, and were reanimated by some extra-terrestrial force. I think the distinction between living infected and undead infected is crucial – it changes the whole situation, from the effects of the infection to the means of survival for the uninfected. If the dead reanimate and start walking the earth, call them ghouls and change your name to the Ghoul Research Society if you like, but I will still call them zombies.
That’s OK, but I would consider living zombies like the infected in 28 Days Later to be more true zombies than the talking undead zombies in Return of the Living Dead.
But a good definition of zombies should take both possibilities into account, so I think Tarbel’s summary is a good one. I have no objection to the biological point because in all material, no matter how it originates, it spreads through biological means.



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