Then five months after that announcement, news of another high-profile breach emerged—this one another sophisticated hack targeting prominent Belgian cryptographer Jean-Jacques Quisquater. Now it appears that security researchers have found the massive digital spy tool used in all three attacks. The threat has been known since at least 2011, around the time the EU was hacked and some of the attack files made their way to Microsoft, who added detection for the component to its security software. The researchers have no doubt that Regin is a nation-state tool and are calling it the most sophisticated espionage machine uncovered to date—more complex even than the massive Flame platform, uncovered by Kaspersky and Symantec in 2012 and crafted by the same team who created Stuxnet.
Though no one is willing to speculate on the record about Regin’s source, news reports about the Belgacom and Quisquater hacks pointed a finger at GCHQ and the NSA. Targets include entire networks, not just individuals, among them telecoms in multiple countries, as well as government agencies, research institutes and academics (particularly those doing advanced mathematics and cryptography, like Quisquater).
But perhaps the most significant aspect of Regin is its ability to target GSM base stations of cellular networks. Kaspersky won’t identify the telecom or country where this GSM attack hack occurred, but it must be either Afghanistan, Iran, Syria or Pakistan, as out of Kaspersky’s list of countries with Regin infections, only those four are in the Middle East.
Earlier this year, news reports based on documents leaked by Edward Snowden revealed two NSA operations codenamed MYSTIC and SOMALGET that involved hijacking the mobile network of several countries to collect metadata on every mobile call to and from these nations and, in at least two countries, to covertly record and store the full audio of calls.
The Regin platform made its first public appearance in 2009 when someone uploaded components of the tool to the VirusTotal web site. Guido Vervaet, the EU Commission’s director of security who helped investigate the breach, wouldn’t discuss it other than to say it was “quite” extensive and very sophisticated, with a “complex architecture.” He says the attackers used a zero-day exploit to get in but wouldn’t say what vulnerability they attacked. Vervaet wouldn’t say when the intrusion began or how long the invaders had been in the EU network, but documents released by Snowden last year discussed NSA operations that had targeted the EU Commission and Council. Liam O’Murchu, senior manager in Symantec’s threat response group, says the threat landscape in 2008 was much different than it is today and this likely contributed to Regin remaining stealth for so long. Websites built with Content Management Systems such as WordPress and Drupal scatter the web by the millions. An enterprise application is software intended for use in a corporate environment (obviously!). The aforementioned architectural dissonance stems from the original goals of these two systems. Drupal is considered more an application framework than a CMS but its roots lie in content management and its architecture reflects such.
This architecture is organized in a way to effectively deal with complex business workflows, data, and security needs and to integrate with other enterprise applications.
Like a building built on a weak foundation, an enterprise application built with the wrong architecture will ultimately fail.
Hampered agility: CMSs will really start to work against you when you need to work outside of their paradigm. Thankfully, development organizations across the globe have been building enterprise applications for decades. You’ll also benefit from a huge hiring pool of experts who know and understand these technologies. Building your enterprise applications on top of a CMS will get you off to a quick start but will ultimately drag your project into a lethargic, insecure, maintenance nightmare.
My research focuses on four main areas which are tied by the thread of space meant as spatial distribution of computation, spatial representation, and spatial reasoning.
Since 2015 Member of the scientific steering committee (Comitato d’indirizzo) of the Universita degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche e Matematiche.
Since 2014 I sit on the board of the startup Nerdalize BV as representative of the crowd-funders coop. Since February 2012, I am a Full Professor (Hoogleraar) in Distributed Systems and member of the board of the Johan Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics and Computer Sicence. 2012-2014 Honorary professor in Bournemouth University, UK supported by the Fusion Investment Fund and hosted by the School of Design, Engineering and Computing.
In 2002, I received my PhD from the University of Amsterdam defending a thesis titled Spatial Reasoning: Theory and Practice under the supervision of Prof. In 1995 I was an intern at the Advanced Technology Group at Apple Computer in Cupertino working with Martin Haeberli on Internet Server Technologies under the guidance of Jim Spohrer and Don Normann. BIGS - BeijIng Groningen Smart energy cities - in collaboration with the Chinese Academy of Science and Prof. Redesigning the electricity market in order to facilitate the transition towards a sustainable energy system.
EnSO - Energy Smart Offices - The EnSO project will develop a scalable energy-aware framework for offices that incorporates awareness of the occupant’s and building context with the goal of overall energy saving. GreenerBuildings - GreenerBuildings develops an integrated solution for energy-aware adaptation of public buildings. MyCare - an open, dynamic information system for personal risk assessment, recovery targets, and self-management in schizophrenia funded by the Dutch Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMW).
Reviewing Board of Frontiers in Energy Systems and Policy, section of section of Frontiers in Energy and Mechanical and Industrial Engineering. Editorial Board of Reviewers of International Journal of Web Services Research (IJWSR), IGI-Global.
Information Director of the Transactions on Computational Logic of the Association of Computing Machinery (ACM). 2003 ?Society for design and process science Service award for outstanding service in organizing the 7th IDPT conference.
2000 ?JELIA 2000 Organizing Committee Student grant to participate to the Jelia 2000 conference. 1999 ?NWO (Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek): Stimuleringsfonds voor internationalisering, to participate to WebNet99 Conference. Team Coordinator for the RuG participation at the Automated Web Service Composition competition, co-located with IEEE Conference on Service Oriented Computing and Applications (SOCA-10), 2010. Team Coordinator of the RuG participation at the IEEE 2009 Web Service Challenge, Vienna, July 2009. Team Coordinator of the RuG participation at the IEEE 2008 Web Service Challenge, Washington DC, July 2008. Team Coordinator of the TU Wien participation at the IEEE 2006 Web Service Challenge, San Francisco, June 2006. September 2008?Keynote at the Parasoft Userday workshop (Industrial event organized by Parasoft for the Dutch testing community.
December 2006?Encoding Web Service Choreographies as Constraints,Tilburg University, Tilburg (invited by Prof.
June 2006?Encoding Web Service Choreographies as Constraints, SRI, Menlo Park (invited by Dr. July 2005?Planning and Monitoring Web Service Interactions, Technical University of Vienna (invited by Prof.
December 2003?A proposal for a book on logics of space, Reasoning about space workshop, December 22 nd, Univ. December 2003?Planning and monitoring the execution of web services, Telcordia Labs, December 5 th, Austin, Texas (invited by Dr.
December 2001?Spatial Reasoning: Theory and Practice, Signal and Images Division, CWI, December 12th, Amsterdam (invited by Dr. May 2001?Spatial Reasoning: Theory and Practice, Infolab, KUB, May 31st, Tilburg (invited by Prof.
March 2000?Logical Patterns in Space - An Investigation towards Image Retrieval, Istituto per la Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica (IRST) ITC, March 15st, Povo (Trento) (invited by Prof.
Tutorial Chair: 5th International Conference on Service-Oriented Computing (ICSOC 2007), Vienna, Austria, 18-21 September 2007. Chair Distributed and Mobile Collaboration Workshop 2007 (DMC'07) held in conjunction with the 16th IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructures for Collaborative Enterprises, Paris, France. PC-member: ICSE 2016 Software Engineering in Society (SEIS) Track, Austin, TX, from May 14 - 22, 2016.
PC-member: IC2IT 2015 The 11th International Conference on Computing and Information Technology held at Arnoma Hotel Bangkok, July 2nd-3rd, 2015. PC-member: 7th IEEE Conference on Service-Oriented Computing and Applications (SOCA 2014) Matsue, Japan, November 17-19, 2014. PC-member: IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC2014) San Diego, October 5-8, 2014. PC-member: Conference on Future Energy Business and Energy Informatics will be held as part of the two-day Future Energy Business Forum 2014, hosted by the Erasmus Centre for Future Energy Business (ECFEB) on 19 and 20 June 2014. PC-member: Second Workshop on Green and Sustainable Software (GREENS) held on 1st June 2014 in conjunction with the 36th International Conference on Software Engineering.
PC-member: 7th IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD 2014) Hilton Anchorage, Alaska, USA, June 27-July 2, 2014. PC-member: 3rd International Workshop on Adaptive Services for the Future Internet (WAS4FI 2013) held in conjunction with the European Conference on Service-Oriented and Cloud Computing (ESOCC 2013), Malaga, Spain, 11-13 September, 2013.
PC-member: 6th IEEE International Conference on Service-Oriented Computing and Applications (SOCA 2013), December 16 - 18, 2013, in Kauai, Hawaii.
PC-member: 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Services for the Future Internet?(WAS4FI 2012) held in conjunction with the European Conference on Service-Oriented and Cloud Computing (ESOCC 2012), that will be held in Bertinoro, Italy, from 19th to 21st of September, 2012.
PC-member: 6th REFS International Workshop on Requirements Engineering for Services will be held in Izmir, Turkey, July 16-20, 2012, in associated association with COMPSAC'12.
PC-member: 1st International Workshop on Adaptive Services for the Future Internet (WAS4FI 2011) held in conjunction with ServiceWave 2011. PC-member: 7th International Workshop on Engineering Service-Oriented Applications (WESOA'11) held in conjunction with the 2011 ICSOC conference. PC-member: 12th Web Information System Engineering Conference (WISE 2011) will be held in Sydney, Australia, 13-15 October 2011. PC-member: 5th International Workshop on Architecture, Concepts and Technologies for Service Oriented Computing (ACT4SOC 2011), Seville, Spain, on 18-21 July 2011.
PC-member: IJCAI'2011 workshop on Benchmarks and Applications of Spatial Reasoning, July 17 in Barcelona.
PC-member: Techniques and Applications for Mobile Commerce (TAMoCo) 19-21 of September 2011 in Szczecin, Poland. PC-member: Eigth European Conference on Web Services (ECOWS 2010) Ayia Napa, Cyprus, on December 1-3, 2010.
PC-member: 6th International Symposium on Wireless sensor network Technologies and Applications for Smart Space (WTA 2010) 9-11 december 2010, Korea.
PC-member: The 18th 18th International Conference on Cooperative Information Systems (CoopIS 2010) Crete, October 2010.
PC-member: The 9th International Conference on Service Oriented Computing (ICSOC 2010) San Francisco, Dec 7 - 10, 2010.
PC-member: 16th IEEE International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems (ICPDS 2010), Shangai, December 7-11, 2010. PC-member: 1st Workshop on Engineering SOA and the Web (ESW'10) Vienna, Austria, from July 5 - 9, 2010. PC-member: 4th International Workshop on Architecture, Concepts and Technologies for Service Oriented Computing (ACT4SOC 2010), Athens, Greece, on 23 July 2010. PC-member: The Second International Conference on Advances in P2P Systems (AP2PS 2010) October 25 - 30, 2010 - Florence, Italy.
PC-member: 5th SIKS Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (EIS 2010), Eindhoven University of Technology on November 16, 2010. PC-member: IEEE International Workshop on Requirements Engineering for Services (REFS 2009), Seattle, July 20, 2009 as part of the COMPSAC. PC-member: ACM SAC 2009 workshop on Service Oriented Architecture and Programming, Hawaii, USA, March 8 - 12, 2009. PC-member: Symposium on Web Services for Mobile Devices in conjunction with the International Conference on Techniques and Applications for Mobile Commerce (TAMOCO), 2009. PC-member: IEEE 23rd International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA 2009) Bradford, UK, May 2009. PC-member: Fourth International Workshop on Engineering Service-Oriented Applications (WESOA'08) held in conjunction with ICSOC 2008, Sydney, Australia, December 1, 2008. PC-member: First International Symposium on Trusted Computing (Trust-Com’08) Zhang Jia Jie, China, November 18-20, 2008. PC-member: International Conference on Advances in Human-oriented and Personalized Mechanisms, Technologies, and Services (CENTRIC 2008) Malta, October 26-31, 2008.
PC-member: International Workshop on Governance of Service-oriented Systems (GovSOS 08) in conjunction with the EEE Joint Conference on E-Commerce Technology (CEC'08) and Enterprise Computing, E-Commerce and E-Services (EEE'08), Washington,USA, July 21-24, 2008.


PC-member: 6th IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering and Formal Methods (SEFM 2008) Cape Town, South Africa, November 10-14, 2008. PC-member: IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS) Beijing, China, September 23-26, 2008.
PC-member: The 16th International Conference on Cooperative Information Systems (CoopIS 2008) Monterrey, Mexico, Nov 12 - 14, 2008.
PC-member: 3nd International Symposium on Smart Home (SH’08), Hainan Island, China, December 13-15, 2008. PC-member: Wireless Applications and Computing 2008 (WAC 2008), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, July 22-24, 2008. PC-member: IEEE International Workshop on Distributed and Mobile Collaboration (DMC 2008), Rome, Italy, June 23-25, 2008.
PC-member: 3rd  International Symposium on Trustworthiness, Reliability and services in Ubiquitous and Sensor neTworks (Trust 2008) Shangai, China, December 17-20, 2008. PC-member: IEEE International Workshop on Requirements Engineering for Services (REFS’08 at COMPSAC), Turku, Finland, July 24, 2008. PC-member: Young-Researcher Workshop on Service-Oriented Computing (YRSOC’08) Imperial College, London, UK, June 12-13, 2008. PC-member: International Conference on Electronic Commerce and Web Technologies (EC-Web’08) held in conjunction with DEXA-2008 Turin, Italy, September 1-5, 2008.
PC-member: The Second International Workshop on Architectures, Concepts and Technologies for Service Oriented Computing (ACT4SOC) Porto, Portugal July 5th, 2008. PC-member: Third International Conference on Internet and Web Applications and Services (ICIW 2008) Athens, Greece, June 8-13, 2008. PC-member: First International Workshop on Telecom Service Oriented Architectures (TSOA-07) at ICSOC Vienna, Austria, 18 September 2007. PC-member: The 2nd International Symposium on Smart Home (SH'07) Jeju Island, Korea, December 8-7, 2007. PC-member: The 1st Workshop on Engineering the Semantic Desktop (SemDeskEng2007), Dubrovnik, Croatia, September 3, 2007.
PC-member: 5th IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering and Formal Methods(SEFM 2007), London, England, 10-14 September 2007. PC-member: 15th International Conference on Cooperative Information System(CoopIS 2007), Iberian peninsula and islands, October 28th to November 2nd, 2007. PC-member: 8th International Conference on Web Information Systems Engineering(WISE'07), Nancy, France, 3-7 December 2007. PC-member: IEEE conference on Service-Oriented Computing and Applications(SOCA'07), Newport Beach, California, June 19-20, 2007. PC-member: The 2007 International Conference on Intelligent Pervasive Computings(IPC-07), Jeju Island, Korea, October 12-13, 2007. PC-member: Joint 9th IEEE Conference on E-Commerce Technology and the 4th IEEE Conference on Enterprise Computing, E-Commerce and E-Services (CEC' 07) (EEE' 07), Tokyo, Japan, July 23-26, 2007.
PC-member: International Conference on Electronic Commerce and Web Technologies, in conjunction with DEXA-2007, Regensburg, Germany, September 3-7, 2007. PC-member: First IEEE International Workshop on Requirements Engineering for Services (REFS’07 at COMPSAC), July 24, in Beijing, China, 24 July, 2007. PC-member: International Workshop on Service, Security and its Data management for Ubiquitous Computing (SSDU-07), Nanjing, China, May 22-25, 2007 . PC-member: The 2nd International Workshop on Trustworthiness, Reliability and services in Ubiquitous and Sensor neTworks (TRUST 2007) Taipei, Taiwan, 10-13 December, 2007. PC-member: The 2007 International Workshop on Application and Security service in Web and pervAsive eNvironments(ASWAN 07), Huang Shan, China, June 16-18, 2007. PC-member: 14th International Conference on Cooperative Information Systems (CoopIS 06) Montpellier, France, Nov 1 - Nov 3, 2006. PC-member: Web-Services and Formal Methods, workshop (WS-FM 2006), Vienna, September, 2006. PC-member: 7th DEXA International Conference on Electronic Commerce and Web Technologies (EC-WEB 2006), Krakow, Poland, September, 2006.
PC-member: 2nd International Workshop on Data Engineering in E-Commerce and Services(DEECS 2006), San Francisco, California, in June 2006 in conjunction with IEEE Joint Conference on E-Commerce Technology (CEC'06) and Enterprise Computing, E-Commerce and E-Services (EEE'06). PC-member: Web Services, e-Business, and the Semantic Web Workshop - WES03 at CAiSE 03, Vienna, Austria, June 17-18, 2003. Born in 1964, John Swinney joined the Scottish National Party in 1979 and went on to graduate from Edinburgh University with an MA (Hons) in Politics. Prior to his election as Westminster MP for North Tayside in 1997, he held a number of posts in the SNP at local and national level. Warren McIntyre has over ten years’ experience working in the environment sector and is now manager of the public sector team at Resource Efficient Scotland, the new Scottish Government funded programme to help all businesses and organisations save money by using energy, water and material resources more efficiently. Following completion of a MSc in Environmental and Waste Management he initially worked within the private recycling industry developing resource use reduction projects and delivering training to both operational staff and senior managers.
He then worked in a senior management position at Carbon Trust Scotland for four years during which time, among other achievements, he helped over 180 public sector organisations and SME’s to develop a Carbon Management Plan.
Luana has worked in Digital Delivery of transactional services for seven years and her specialism is youth engagement and innovation. Her reach has encompassed working in a busy media centre, working in Private Office, opening the first Dept of Health Public Enquiry Office to working on the Towards Cleaner Hospitals MRSA task force. Luana previously worked for Directgov, where all essential government information and services were provided in one place, ensuring it was easy to understand for the members of the public.
Joel Bailey is a knowledgeable customer experience and service design leader, having spent over 15 years combining user-centred methodologies and business strategy to transform services in the private and public sectors. Colin is the technology lead for the Glasgow Future Cities Demonstrator, an ambitious £24m programme funded by the Technology Strategy Board (TSB). Martin Dorchester is the CEO of the David MacBrayne Group and operates as Managing Director of both Argyll Ferries and Caledonian MacBrayne.
Martin is a firm believer in CPD and lifelong learning and is currently completing a diploma in Economics with the Open University. Claire Guerin is an MSc level Biological Sciences graduate, with over 12 years of experience within the environmental sector. Claire began working at Zero Waste Scotland in 2011 as a Design and Waste Prevention Manager. Colin Henderson is the geospatial lead at Atkins, the UK’s largest design and engineering consultancy. Alex is a native Glaswegian who, after Strathclyde University, joined the Met Office in the early 1970s. He has held a variety of posts working amongst others as a forecaster at RAF Leuchars, Glasgow Weather Centre, Senior Forecaster London Weather Centre, and Senior Forecaster for the ITV National Weather. After London Weather Centre he moved on to manage the Met Office defence network in the south of England and the Mediterranean.
Stuart McRae is an Executive Collaboration & Social Business Evangelist for IBM Collaboration Solutions, responsible for briefing executives and IT strategists on the business value organisations can realise from the latest exceptional web experience and exceptional work experiences solutions, as well as speaking at public events on related topics.
As a senior leader within the Scottish Government, Robbie Parish holds a pivotal role in building partnerships across the entire public sector in order to transform the service landscape for the people of Scotland. As a Board level Director with experience encompassing both the Private and Public sector, Robbie utilises this experience to drive forward public sector reform, and the opportunity digital presents in delivering public services which are accessible, user-friendly and cost efficient. A digital strategist and software engineer at heart, Robbie is recognised within the industry at both a UK and international level for his ability to build award winning applications and services across a range of sectors.
Since January 2013, Robbie has held the position of Director Online Services with responsibility for the delivery of digital service transformation for Scotland. Robbie’s vision for the Scottish Digital landscape is founded on the premise that we need to put user needs at the heart of change. A keen golfer, Robbie is a lifelong fan of technology and innovation and is always on the lookout for ways to combine the two. Mark Powles is chief executive officer of Business Stream, the leading supplier of water and waste water to businesses.
Since joining the company at start up stage in March 2007, he has created a major stand-alone retail business operating in the world’s first competitive water retailing market in Scotland. He has championed the benefits of competition in the water industry and is playing an influential role in driving forward the water market reform agenda in England.Business Stream is now established as a strong, sustainable and high performing brand delivering significant value for customers, through keener prices and a range of tailored and innovative services.
He brings a wealth of senior management experience from private sector companies operating in highly regulated, competitive and customer focused markets across retail, travel and financial services, with leading companies such as Sealink Stena Line, National Express Group and AEGON UK. Very often it's the creative thinking that takes place across organisations and between sectors that leads to the best results.
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The intrusion into the EU’s legislative body was sophisticated and widespread and used a zero-day exploit to get in. The intrusion into the EU’s legislative body was sophisticated and widespread and used a zero-day exploit to get in. Dubbed “Regin” by Microsoft, more than a hundred victims have been found to date, but there are likely many others still unknown. Researchers with Kaspersky Lab only began tracking the threat in 2012, collecting bits and pieces of the massive threat. Kaspersky confirms that Quisqater was infected with Regin, and other researchers familiar with the Belgacom attack have told WIRED that the description of Regin fits the malware that targeted the telecom, though the malicious files used in that attack were given a different name, based on something investigators found inside the platform’s main file.
Kaspersky has found them in Algeria, Afghanistan, Belgium, Brazil, Fiji, Germany, Iran, India, Malaysia, Syria, Pakistan, Russia and the small Pacific island of Kiribati. The malicious arsenal includes a payload that Kaspersky says was used in 2008 to steal the usernames and passwords of system administrators of a telecom somewhere in the Middle East. Armed with these credentials, the attackers would have been able to access GSM base station controllers—the part of a cellular network that controls transceiver stations—to manipulate the systems or even install malicious code to monitor cellular traffic. Afghanistan stands out among the four, having been cited in recent news stories about government hacking of GSM networks.
The countries where metadata was collected were identified as Mexico, Kenya, the Philippines and the island nation of the Bahamas. It wasn’t until March 9, 2011 that Microsoft appeared to take note, around the time that more files were uploaded to VirusTotal, and announced that the company had added detection for a trojan called Regin.A to its security software. Version 1.0 dates back to at least 2008 but disappeared in 2011 the same year Microsoft released signatures to detect its trojan. These systems are vastly popular tools for creating websites and managing user-generated content. Notice how its main components reflect its original design goals: editing, displaying and managing HTML content. Service interfaces, service gateways, business components, data access layers and orthogonal security and operation management make up its architecture. Thousands of useless execution paths will be evaluated before your business specific logic can be reached. Enterprise systems need integration with enterprise user management systems (Active Directory, LDAP, Single Sign On, LDAP, etc…).
For example: most modern web applications built after 2012 utilize one of the popular Single Page Application frameworks (Wikipedia). Enterprise architectures and sound software design patterns are typically employed to abstract, encapsulate and manage this complexity. Proven architectural patterns, abstractions and layering will ensure avoiding these dangers. If you start off building your application on the right architecture, using proven technologies, you’ll always be able to find engineers who also understand these patterns and will be able to hit the ground running. Avoid the temptation of simplicity offered by these frameworks and build on a more sure foundation. In particular, the fields of my research interests are Service-Oriented Computing, Domotics, Computer Vision, and Spatial Reasoning.
From October 2006 to Janauary 2012 I was tenured professor (Adjunct Hoogleraar in Dutch) in Distributed Systems at the Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science of the Rijksuniversiteit of Groningen where I have founded the Distributed Systems group. Mike Papazoglou (Infolab, University of Tilburg, The Netherlands and at the time DIT, University of Trento). Partners of the project of the project are: the University of Groningen, the Institute for Development and Research in Banking Technology in Hyderabad, Shell India Markets Private Ltd, and Cognizant Technology Solutions. The EnSO approach builds on cooperative, goal-oriented sensing, context information processing, activity and plan recognition, service composition and device actuation in large-scale distributed sensor networks to minimise energy consumption while adhering to occupant comfort requirements.
It investigates self-powered sensors and actuators, occupant activity and behaviour inference, and an embedded software for coordinating thousands of smart objects with the goals of energy saving and user support.


NWO-Jacquard program, Software Engineering program of the Dutch National Science Foundation.
Ubiquitous Mobile Information and Collaboration Systems.(UMICS 2007), Trondheim, Norway, June 11-12th, 2007. In 1999, he became the MSP for Tayside North, remaining as the constituency’s MP until standing down from Westminster at the 2001 General Election. He lives near Blairgowrie in his constituency and his hobbies include cycling and hill walking. Delivered by Zero Waste Scotland, this new service is a one-stop shop where clients can access a range of free expert advice, training and funding. Warren then moved to Glasgow City Council where he lead in the accreditation of over 40 operational sites to the ISO 14011 standard and the development of the City’s Environment Strategy and Carbon Management Plan. She has more than twelve years of stakeholder and change management, account as well as project management experience across government .
Her specialist area is Digital Communications with particular expertise within the youth space.
He is Director of Service Design at Capita, a FTSE 100 company that delivers large-scale multichannel services for private sector and public sector clients such as the BBC, the Ministry of Defence, O2 and Birmingham City Council. Prior to the Future Cities Demonstrator, Colin was responsible for Glasgow City Council’s ICT Strategy and established an enterprise architecture practice within the ACCESS Joint Venture to increase the alignment of business and IT.
In a career spanning 30 years Martin has operated nationally and internationally with organisations covering logistics, technology and finance. Martin is a supporter of Social and Community Business and chairs Firstport Ltd, a start-up funding organisation for social enterprises. She supports the co-ordination of public, private and third sectors across Scotland so the third sector in particular can support people to make the most of digital technologies. She previously worked as an energy advisor with local authorities and community groups for the Energy Savings Trust,  and more recently as an environmental consultant to SMEs and public sector organisations with the Green Business Partnership.
Her current role is as a Key Account Manager within Resource Efficient Scotland’s Public Sector Programme of Support.
Colin has over 13 years' experience in Geographic Information Systems (GIS), including complex data analysis and modelling.
Alex then became Head of London weather Centre where he lead a team of forecasters responsible for severe weather and road forecasts in the southeast of England, rail forecasts for the UK as well as overall monitoring of UK National TV and radio output.
He is particularly focused on the business impact of emerging technologies like Social Computing, Mobile Devices and Cloud Computing. Along with responsibility for Digital Service Transformation for Scotland, Robbie is also responsible for GLOW – the national platform of web services that connects parents, students and teachers in the Scottish education system. So if you know any apps which improve a golf handicap or would like to discuss Digital in the public sector more generally, Robbie is contactable at The Scottish Government, Online Services Division.
Once the attackers established a stronghold on the network, they were in for the long haul. That’s because the espionage tool—a malicious platform capable of taking over entire networks and infrastructures—has been around since at least 2008, possibly even earlier, and is built to remain stealth on a system for years. These are likely targeted for their reservation systems, which can provide valuable intelligence about visiting guests. They could also conceivably have shut down the cellular network—for example, during an invasion of the country or other unrest. Countries where full audio was being recorded were identified as the Bahamas and Afghanistan. Researchers, and anyone else who finds a suspicious file on their system, can upload the file to the site to see if the scanners consider it malicious. Asked if the attackers used the same malware that struck Belgacom, Vervaet couldn’t say for sure. They come pre-built with many features tempting developers embarking on enterprise application projects to build upon their shaky foundations. They are great for building websites as well as quick web-applications and rapid prototypes. CMSs are also notorious for common web application vulnerabilities including SQL injection, XSS and CSRF attacks. CMSs don’t help you here and getting their user management systems to work effectively with these enterprise systems is difficult, if not impossible. These frameworks rely on restful web-services to retrieve dynamic data but render the entirety of the application on the client via JavaScript. The design patterns employed in common CMSs lack these principals because they are unnecessary in the simplistic world of content management.
Each of these frameworks includes solid documentation and examples of illustrative best practices for building enterprise grade software. The project studies models, policies and an ITC infrastructure to reduce household energy demand and to promote smart energy use in smart cities while considering cultural differences.
She has provided advice and guidance to organisations such as Consumer Focus, Student Loans Company, YouthNet and the Citizens Advice Bureau. Before working with the public sector, Colin spent ten years working for a telecommunications company gaining valuable experience in network, operations centre and customer care architectures, and approaches to opening up services (such as service-oriented architecture, SOA) - experience that is now valuable within the context of smart cities.
As CEO of Dixon's B2B operation Martin built up the largest Apple reseller business in the UK as well as developing a £100m public sector business.
An experienced programme manager she has a background in developing and delivering large-scale social inclusion and change management programmes.
He also acts as executive sponsor for key customers and partners, helping them to maximise the business value they derive from the IBM Social Business solutions they deploy.Prior to his current role, Stuart has worked in Technical Sales, Business Transformation, Product Management, IT Architecture and Development teams in IBM and Lotus. In addition, Robbie holds the position of Executive Director and Board Member at Visit Scotland.
They scouted the network architecture for additional victims and covered their tracks well. According to published news reports and documents leaked by Edward Snowden, the attackers targeted system administrators working for Belgacom and used their credentials to gain access to routers controlling the telecom’s cellular network. Putting together information from each, it’s clear the platform is highly complex and modulated and can be customized with a wide range of capabilities depending on the target and the attackers’ needs. Some in the security community believe the files uploaded to VirusTotal in 2011 might have come from the European Commission or from a security firm hired to investigate its breach. Researchers have found some Regin files with timestamps dating to 2003 and 2006, though it’s not clear if the timestamps are accurate. While starting off with a vast wealth of features and an established framework is understandably enticing, the illusionary head start will quickly be eclipsed by problems arising from fundamental architectural dissonance. Enterprise class problems often include a requirement to store, manage and process large amounts of sensitive data. CMSs are used effectively to manage content for millions of websites, often within a corporate environment. They both are often deployed as web applications designed to be accessed with a web browser. Patterns for reading the database, rendering HTML, collecting information from users through forms, themes and skins entice application developers as a foundation to build on. Building enterprise software without these techniques will quickly mire your project in maintenance costs and yield a brittle application. These frameworks also include tools and libraries to ease integration of other enterprise software. A joint project  between the Institute for  Logic, Language and Computation (ILLC) and the Intelligent Sensory and Information Systems (ISIS) group. Martin was part of the team that brought the 5 radio authorities together to create Ofcom and worked with the London Borough of Hackney on developing its infrastructure for the 2012 Olympics. Eventually, they infected numerous systems belonging to the European Commission and the European Council before being discovered.
Researchers have found 50 payloads so far for stealing files and other data, but have evidence that still more exist.
CMS systems typically come with huge libraries of plugins, most geared towards the realm of content management but some venturing into the enterprise domain. This solution works great for content management, where information is solely controlled by the one application. You’ll get built-in support for enterprise user identity management, advanced messaging architectures, data abstractions, enterprise grade security and much more.
In May 2009, I’ve obtained the habilitation as professor in applied informatics from the same university. Martin is also a keen lecturer and academic and has written a number of papers covering areas as diverse as CSR and Emotional Intelligence in management development. Stuart has been involved in many industry bodies, including Guide Share Europe, EEMA and the IETF. These applications require enterprise-grade architectures that are specifically designed to meet such requirements.
This solution starts to break down fast in an enterprise environment where information is coming from many different systems.
Caching is important but must be handled with great care in an enterprise application; it is not a silver bullet for corporate performance problems as it is for those typically encountered in content management. According to published news reports and documents leaked by Edward Snowden, the attackers targeted system administrators working for Belgacom and used their credentials to gain access to routers controlling the telecom’s cellular network.
Then five months after that announcement, news of another high-profile breach emerged—this one another sophisticated hack targeting prominent Belgian cryptographer Jean-Jacques Quisquater.
Researchers with Kaspersky Lab only began tracking the threat in 2012, collecting bits and pieces of the massive threat.
The Most Sophisticated Spy Tool Yet The researchers have no doubt that Regin is a nation-state tool and are calling it the most sophisticated espionage machine uncovered to date—more complex even than the massive Flame platform, uncovered by Kaspersky and Symantec in 2012 and crafted by the same team who created Stuxnet. Though no one is willing to speculate on the record about Regin’s source, news reports about the Belgacom and Quisquater hacks pointed a finger at GCHQ and the NSA. A pedestrian walks outside Berlaymont, the headquarters of the European Commission in Brussels, Belgium.
Countries where full audio was being recorded were identified as the Bahamas and Afghanistan. It wasn’t until March 9, 2011 that Microsoft appeared to take note, around the time that more files were uploaded to VirusTotal, and announced that the company had added detection for a trojan called Regin.A to its security software.
Neither Symantec nor Kaspersky has uncovered a dropper component (a phishing email containing an exploit that drops the malware onto a machine or entices victims to click on a malicious link), but based on evidence in one attack from 2011, Symantec thinks the attackers might have used a zero-day vulnerability in Yahoo Instant Messenger.
But Chien says the attackers probably used multiple techniques to get into different environments. Reports about the hack of Belgacom describe a more sophisticated man-in-the-middle technique that involved using a rogue server to hijack the browser of Belgacom system administrators and redirect them to web pages the attackers controlled that infected their machines with malware.
Extended Attributes is a storage area for metadata associated with files and directories, such as when a file was created or last altered or whether an executable program was downloaded from the internet (and therefore needs a prompt warning users before opening).
Extended Attributes limits the size of data blocks it can store, so Regin splits the data it wants to store into separate encrypted chunks to hide them.
When it needs to use this data, the conductor links the chunks together so they can execute like a single file.
They call the infection “mind-blowing” and say in their report that it consisted of an elaborate web of networks the attackers infected and then linked together. These include networks for the office of the president of the country, a research center, an educational institute that from its name appears to be a mathematics institute, and a bank.
In this case, instead of having each of the infected networks communicate with the attackers’s command server individually, the attackers set up an elaborate covert communication web between them so that commands and information passed between them as if through a peer-to-peer network.
All of the infected networks then interfaced with one system at the educational institute, which served as a hub for communicating with the attackers.
The log shows commands going to 136 different GSM cell sites—cell sites with names like prn021a, gzn010a, wdk004, and kbl027a. In addition to commands, the log also shows usernames and passwords for the telecom’s engineer accounts. As news of the Regin attack spreads and more security firms add detection for it to their tools, the number of victims uncovered will no doubt grow.



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