From mid 2013 to mid 2015, I was one of the developers of Jelly Splash, a free-to-play matching game from Wooga. After overcoming my fear of square brackets and manual memory management (these were the dark times before ARC), I realized that F2P games and web applications share many architectural similarities. The game was installed over 70,000,000 times, with 31,000,000 of these installs happening on iOS devices, the rest on Android and Facebook (Flash).
The main reason why mobile free-to-play games are similar to web applications is that they run and monetize like services, over extensive periods of time. Because user progress needs to be shared across devices the player chooses to play on, we use an in-house backend to store it.
It’s a system that could probably work only with games: I have trouble imagining a large software company testing a suite of accounting tools with a similar strategy.
Not surprisingly, malicious people on the verge of being obsessive-compulsive are the most valuable testers :).
Because all test variants live in a single codebase, the number of possible execution paths can quickly get out of hand. Each successful build is uploaded to Hockey App and immediately available to everyone in the team. As a result, recent Wooga games, like Agent Alice, are now developed with Unity 3D, which provides reliable cross-platform engine. On a related note, I have to admit that static typing is incredibly helpful when dealing with hundreds of thousands of lines of code. While I didn’t measure it myself, I can attest that reviews were extremely helpful in finding mistakes, much more than unit tests.
Speaking of tests, we had a relatively small number of integration tests and many more unit tests. According to the BLS, the average video game programmer salary in 2012 was around $93,820, while the wage was around $44.85.
PayScale showed that the typical video game programmer salary in the US ranges between $40,359 and $104,374.
In 2011, Game Developer found that the average video game programmer salary was around $85,733. Aside from the basic video game programmer salary, 77% of the game programmers received financial incentives in 2011, according to Game Developers. In 2011, the highest video game programmer’s salary in the US was in the West, where companies paid programmers around $97,000.
According to the BLS, the top paying states for software developers and game programmers in 2012 was California, with its salary of $105,120. WowJobs, on the other hand, reported that the average video game programmer’s salary is around C$52,992. According to PayScale, there is only a small difference between the median video game programmer salary and video designer salary. Seek, on the other hand, reported that the video game programmer’s salary in November 2012 was around AU$82,279 to AU$103,000.
The typical software developer salary, which include video game programmer’s salary, is around R118,283 to R485,732 in South Africa. Video game programmers and software developers who only have less than a year of experience are paid between R71,760 and R242,763. The software developer’s salary for those based in Johannesburg ranges between R116,985 and R495,802. To become a video game programmer, one has to at least have a bachelor’s degree in areas such as graphic design, video game development, computer science, or information systems. Network programmers, sometimes also called network engineers, are the people behind the technical stuff of any online multiplayer game. In theory, there are substantial differences between server development and client-and-protocol development, but in game development, these two jobs often are merged and handled by one person or team.
Because network programmers need to be such heavy-lifters, they're often paid handsomely. Depending on a game's design, networking can easily be one of the top three hardest coding challenges in a development project -- sometimes the hardest. The deciding factor in latency is the speed of electricity in a wire, a limit that we're already close to reaching in many places. As more and more games seek to take advantage of the internet, either for core gameplay (as in MMORPGs, fast-action multiplayer RTS games, or first-person shooters), or for secondary activities, such as community building or modding, the demand for network programmers is at its highest now and seems to only be increasing.
It's possible to still be a good programmer without a degree, but a mainstream computer science course will teach you so much that will be directly useful to you that life is much harder without it. For those of you currently in college, you still almost certainly have a choice about which modules or courses to take.
Stack Overflow is a community of 4.7 million programmers, just like you, helping each other. Often the results would be quite interesting - wrong, but interesting - and the person would still get my recommendation if they could explain why they took a particular approach.
Question: What is the most space-efficient way you can think of to encode the state of a chess game (or subset thereof)? EDIT: As one of the posters has pointed out, I didn't consider the time interval between moves. He assumes that the game can start with any legal initial setup (just like in the chess game puzzles you can find in newspapers).
Update: I liked this topic so much I wrote Programming Puzzles, Chess Positions and Huffman Coding. Positions are generally recorded as a letter for the column followed by the number for the row so White’s queen is at d1. An important ability for any programmer is to be able to correctly and unambiguously specify the problem. The first thing you need to determine is whether you’re storing the state of a game or the position of pieces on the board. Firstly, we could store an extra 6 bits of information (1 for each rook and king) to indicate whether that piece had moved. Black’s pawn on b4 now has the option of moving his pawn on b4 to c3 taking the White pawn on c4.
This is important in our problem because it means we can’t count on there being a fixed number of pieces on each side. Because of the stalemate case, the only feasible or sensible way to store the game state is to store all the moves that led to this position. Piece layout can be broadly handled in one of two ways: by storing the contents of each square or by storing the position of each piece. The first solution treats the position as a 64 digit base 16 number but as demonstrated there is redundancy in this information (being the 3 unused possibilities per “digit”) so we can reduce the number space to 64 base 13 digits. In base 16 the number 0xA50 is equivalent to 10 x 162 + 5 x 161 + 0 x 160 = 2640 (decimal). Actually encoding and decoding such values to and from decimal (or binary) is a little more convoluted but it can be done reliably and is left as an exercise to the reader. Notice how the letter E (the most common letter in English) is a single dot, the shortest possible sequence, whereas Z (the least frequent) is two dashes and two beeps. Such a scheme can significantly reduce the size of an expected message but comes at the cost of increasing the size of a random character sequence. It should be noted that Morse code has another inbuilt feature: dashes are as long as three dots so the above code is created with this in mind to minimize the use of dashes.
So what you do is XOR the 256 bit current board position with a 256 bit starting position and then encode that (using Huffman coding or, say, some method of run length encoding). As mentioned, another way of attacking this problem is to instead store the position of each piece a player has. The logical way to divide this up is store a Position consisting of two Sides (White and Black). As for the pawn location, the pawns can only be on 48 possible squares (not 64 like the others).
It should be pointed out that there are less than 488 possibilities because the pawns can’t all be in the same square  The first has 48 possibilities, the second 47 and so on. You can further improve this by eliminating the squares that are occupied by other pieces (including the other side) so you could first place the white non-pawns then the black non-pawns, then the white pawns and lastly the black pawns. Another possible optimization is that each of these approaches has its strength and weaknesses. One thing you have to determine is are you simply storing a list of moves or are you annotating the game? White’s move is marked by two exclamation points as brilliant whereas Black’s is viewed as a mistake. The second thing to try is to store the starting location (6 bits) and end location (6 bits) so 12 bits per move. Alternatively we can determine all the legal moves from the current position in a predictable and deterministic way and state which we’ve chosen. What I like about this and similar problems is that it demands abilities important to any programmer like considering the usage pattern, accurately determining requirements and thinking about corner cases.
The Portable Game Notation assumes a standard starting position (although it doesn't have to) and just lists the moves, turn by turn. I am with Robert on this one - existing solution is practical, human readable and compact enough. Considering the frequency of each piece, I constructed a Huffman tree on paper, which I won't repeat here. Repetitions of empty squares could be run-length encoded by introducing extra symbols for, say, "2 empty squares in a row" and "4 empty squares in a row".
You can do a separate Huffman tree for each of the 64 squares, as some likely have some pieces more often than others. The enumeration is not practical of course, but this shows that at least 144 bits are required. It'd add interest to optimize for average-case size for typical games played by humans, instead of the worst case. For the move sequence, have a good chess engine generate moves from each position; it'll produce a list of k possible moves, ordered by its ranking of their quality. It's also kind of hard to estimate how much savings this would buy you in average-case complexity, without gathering some statistics from an actual corpus.
For encoding each step, you need 64 values to encode the starting position (6 bits for 64 squares on the board - 8x8 squares), and 6 bits for the end position. Industries with the highest published employment and wages for this occupation are provided. For a list of all industries with employment in this occupation, see the Create Customized Tables function.
States and areas with the highest published employment, location quotients, and wages for this occupation are provided.
For a list of all areas with employment in this occupation, see the Create Customized Tables function. Average Video Game Programmer salaries for job postings in Hoffman Estates, IL are 19% higher than average Video Game Programmer salaries for job postings nationwide. You can include this smaller version of your results on a webpage by cutting-and-pasting the code below.
From a top level programming standpoint, state is evil, and saved games are all about preserving and restoring state, which is doubly evil.


So you play the game, and it takes up, say 1GB of regular RAM and 1GB of video RAM while running. You also have to deal with the situation where the game crashes, or the power goes out, or the player gets impatient and force-quits the game, right when the game is writing the save data to disk. Which isn’t to say that any of this is especially hard, at least in comparison to programming the rest of the game. Some people portray them as the current incarnation of the Antichrist, while the users flock to them in numbers that even successful premium titles can’t dream of. Granted, most of this code belongs to dependencies, configuration and test files, and “only” about 100,000 lines is the core game code.
Most players will download the game long after the original release and they’ll keep playing it for months, as we publish new content.
It’s quite different from premium games, where most energy is spent on the initial release, possibly followed by as few as possible patches. However, loss of user data doesn’t have to result in a crash, making it much harder to detect. Instead everyone in the company is encouraged to play early versions of our games and provide feedback. But it works well for us: with tens of people using multiple devices (Wooga buys everyone a phone or tablet of their choice), we discover most bugs and usability problems before the product goes live.
Therefore after concluding the test (plus additional grace period to ensure we won’t change our mind), we ruthlessly remove unused parts to keep complexity under control. Extra benefit of putting new feature behind a switch is the ability to disable it in case something goes wrong in production. If you have released a broken build to the AppStore, you probably know what I’m talking about. While we submitted the fix in the next 4 hours, it took another 5 days and over 200,000 crashes before we our users could download a fixed version, thanks to the review process and Thanksgiving holidays at Apple. But calling your sick colleagues and asking them for a dSYM file they built a few days earlier is something that should never happen. Setting up and maintaining continuous integration (CI) takes some time, but that investment pays off very quickly.
We tried email first, but chat works better, as people are more likely to immediately respond and get help from others. Most importantly, the company behind the tool pulled the plug this July… Also, the effort required to get to the current state, when most of the code is shared and releases are simultaneous, was anything but trivial.
Objective-C enables very explicit naming of methods and their parameters and Apple is encouraging that.
A few months ago one of my colleagues from Jelly Splash team showed me his developer diary (thanks, Gustavo!).
When I started to work with Objective-C I resisted AppCode for 3 months and instead stuck with Apple’s Xcode. Big refactorings and complete rewrites are very disruptive, and I witnessed how they could bring down successful, but unmaintainable games. In contrast, the average effectiveness of design and code inspections are 55 and 60 percent. Almost every review I received helped to improve my code and often uncovered overlooked problems. Frankly, the former didn’t really help us to find major bugs and consumed more time to maintain what they helped to save.
When the same happens to a F2P game, the authors must be ready for years-long growth and expansion.
Programmers collaborate with video game animators, designers, and producers to develop a successful product. They are focused on various aspects in the process of creating a game from developing a concept to coding and programming.
This is lower compared to the salary of a programmer analyst, which is C$63,625, but higher than that of a computer programmer, which is C$45,995. The median pay for video game designers is around AU$45,000, while it’s AU$41,910 for programmers. Careernav cited that entry-level game developers earned around AU$35,000, while those in senior level positions made an average of AU$80,000 per year. Developers with one to four years of experience earn around R100,128 to R310,787, while those with more than 20 years in the business make R502,516 to R670,703.
The degree would provide education in programming, software developing as well as graphic design, art, and writing. Just think for a moment about how complex a big MMOG is, from the ever-changing world, to the hacker sensibilities of some of the players, to the incoming credit card payments of thousands of people worldwide. Additionally, they're usually responsible for all the planning, design, and implementation of the game server. It's easy enough to move between the two that I treat them as a combined subject for most of this article. Although hardware has become faster and better infrastructures have increased bandwidth, every year the two toughest problems of networking rarely get any easier: latency and distributed state.
The problem with distributed states is that computers in separate physical locations will never be 100 percent in sync (unless you magically reduce latency to zero), and for the same reason you can never know exactly how out-of-sync they are until after the fact. A game development course at an institution that does not have a computer science department probably won't give you enough traditional material to prepare for a career in game programming.
Other than asking the standard "do you know X technology" questions, I've also tried to get a feel for how they approach problems. That is, given a chess board with the pieces arranged legally, encode both this initial state and all subsequent legal moves taken by the players in the game. A program would take a chess game as its input (you could define some basic, human-readable, non-optimized format for this) and would output the compressed game. If you read through this I've determined that the only way to store a complete game state is by storing a complete list of moves.
Moves are most often stored in algebraic notation, which is unambiguous and generally only specifies the minimal information necessary. Encoding simply the positions of the pieces is one thing but the problem says “all subsequent legal moves”. Part of the requirements for this are that the king and the relevant rook can never have moved, so whether the king or either rook of each side has moved will need to be stored.
We could streamline this by only storing a bit for one of these six squares if the right piece happens to be in it.
This only happens on the first opportunity meaning if Black passes on the option now he can’t take it next move. Alternatively we can store whether each pawn on its 4th rank has just moved there with a double move forward. If White moves his pawn on h7 to h8 it can be promoted to any other piece (but not the king).
It is entirely possible (but incredibly unlikely) for one side to end up with 9 queens, 10 rooks, 10 bishops or 10 knights if all 8 pawns get promoted. The most likely variant is where you cannot make a legal move (usually because any move when put your king in check).
If the same board position occurs three times in a game (or will occur a third time on the next move), a draw can be claimed. A player can claim a draw if no pawn has moved and no piece has been taken in the previous fifty consecutive moves so we would need to store how many moves since a pawn was moved or a piece taken (the latest of the two. Each piece can be White or Black so a square may contain one of 12 possible pieces or it may be empty so there are 13 possibilities. This could even be extended by adding 3 more possibilities without increasing the storage requirements: a pawn that has moved 2 spaces on the last turn, a king that hasn’t moved and a rook that hasn’t moved, which will cater for a lot of previously mentioned issues. Of course this can’t be done as efficiently as base 16 can but it will save on storage requirements (and minimizing storage space is our goal). For example, pawns cannot occur at in the first or eighth ranks, reducing the possibilities for those squares to 11.
Since 1s and 0s (our building blocks) don’t have this problem, it’s not a feature we need to replicate. Huffman coding creates a variable length code substitution, typically uses expected frequency of the symbols to assign shorter values to the more common symbols. Morse code has the character separator so it can do otherwise ambiguous substitution (eg 4 dots can be H or 2 Is) but we only have 1s and 0s so we choose an unambiguous substitution instead. This is based on the assumption that most expected Chess boards (rather than randomly generated ones) are more likely than not to, at least in part, resemble a starting position.
Obviously this will be very efficient to start with (64 0s probably corresponding to 64 bits) but increase in storage required as the game progresses.
This works particularly well with endgame positions where most squares will be empty (but in the Huffman coding approach empty squares only use 1 bit anyway). Because of promotion the exact make up of those pieces can vary enough that you can’t assume the numbers based on the starting positions are maxima. As such, it is better not to waste the extra 16 values that using 6 bits per pawn would use.
The starting position is the worst case for this method however and it will get substantially better as you remove pieces.
On a starting position this reduces the storage requirements to 44 bits for White and 42 bits for Black. You could, say, pick the best 4 and then encode a scheme selector in the first two bits and then the scheme-specific storage after that. Because of the threefold repetition we have to store the list of moves that have occurred to this point. Including a terminating byte you’re looking at about 6 bytes (48 bits) per move (worst case).
All are MAJOR feats compared to custom super packed solution with complicated algorithms to decode them. Actually, the initial frequency of pieces on the board is nearly perfect for this: half of the squares are empty, half of the remaining squares are pawns, etcetera. But it is not so easy to estimate the frequency of those, and if you get it wrong, it's going to hurt rather than help. People generally pick good moves more often than random moves, so we need to learn a mapping from each position in the list to the probability that people pick a move that 'good'. But the starting point with all moves equally probable I think would already beat most of the proposals here: the arithmetic coding doesn't need an integer number of bits per move. You know the initial position in the beginning of the chess game; by traversing the linked list of steps, you can get to the state after X moves. A lot of that video ram is textures and stuff that you can reload when the game starts back up (though see below). This usually means that you have to write code that makes a backup of the save before the save is written.
In order to post comments, please make sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and reload the page. My transition from web to games was rather smooth as my first product at Wooga was built with HTML5. But while corrupting saved progress in most games is just an annoyance, in free-to-play it often means the loss of real money that the player spent on virtual currency or other in-app purchases. We rely on our own tests and app store reviews to monitor if there are any bugs that don’t translate nicely to Hockey App reports.


Such crisis may never arise, but having a fail-safe option at least partially reduces the stress of pressing the release button in iTunes Connect. CI makes recent versions of the game available to everyone within minutes and ensures that builds are reproducible.
Otherwise the codebase eventually becomes so difficult to manage, that only a large rewrite offer a glimpse of hope. They didn’t (and couldn’t) anticipate all future changes, but the codebase was clear enough to enable growth in the years to come.
Taste for long method names is an acquired one, but I found it to be very helpful while working with large codebase authored by many people.
Since then I keep a Markdown file documenting what I did on each day and what things I learned.
However, JetBrains’ IDE is superior in highlighting mistakes, navigating the codebase and refactoring.
That doesn’t mean that static typing is a silver bullet – having to recompile the project just to move few pixels around can offset the aforementioned benefits and makes space for projects like React Native.
In fact, we even tried to do one large refactoring of crucial networking code in Jelly Splash, only to postpone it indefinitely after conceding a defeat.
Reviews (and pair programming) are probably the cheapest and most effective way to write better code and learn from your peers. Sprinting is exciting, but there’s also something very gratifying in working on a well designed product that keeps changing and provides entertainment to millions of people for years. They may focus on specific aspects of programming, such as graphics, artificial intelligence, physics, user interface, and tools.
The same salary survey site reported that their basic pay ranges from $40,089 to $101,782 per year with the bonus reaching up to $4,958. Only business, legal workers, and game producers earn a bit higher than the game programmer. Fifty-one percent of the survey respondents said that they received an annual bonus, while around 27% of them got bonuses for certain projects. Those with more than six years of experience got a video game programmer’s salary of around $107,888. Programmers in the Northeast earned an average of $78,000, while those who are based in the Midwestern states got around $71,000. The starting salary for game programmer with less than four years of experience is around C$33,000 to C$55,000. This is the typical salary for developers, producers, technical directors, and team managers.
Those who are working in Sandton earn around R78,523 to R454,986, while those who are in Cape Town get an annual pay between R116,748 and R444,058.
Typically, I'd send them the question by email the day before the interview, and expect them to come up with a solution by the following day. Then, with a parameter, it would take the compressed game and regenerate the original input which would have to match.
Obviously if they aren’t on their starting positions, they have moved otherwise it needs to be specified. Alternatively we could treat each unmoved piece as another piece type so instead of 6 piece types on each side (pawn, rook, knight, bishop, queen and king) there are 8 (adding unmoved rook and unmoved king). Or we can look at each possible En Passant position on the board and have a flag to indicate whether its possible or not. 99% of the time it is promoted to a Queen but sometimes it isn’t, typically because that may force a stalemate when otherwise you’d win.
The positions need not occur in any particular order (meaning it doesn’t have to the same sequence of moves repeated three times).
The board state problem will be simplified to this: store the current position of all pieces on the board ignoring castling, en passant, stalemate conditions and whose turn it is. 13 can be stored in 4 bits (0-15) So the simplest solution is to store 4 bits for each square times 64 squares or 256 bits of information. That reduces the possible boards to 1116 x 1348 = 1.35e70 (approximately), requiring 233 bits of storage space. Each “character” is the same width but the efficiency can be improved when you consider that each character is not equally likely. Those dashes and dots are transferred over radio (typically) with a pause between them to delimit them.
White and Black have 20 possible moves each on their first move, more on the second and so on. Using these probabilities (based on a corpus of games from some internet chess database), encode the moves with arithmetic coding.
And then you have to write code that does integrity checking to make sure that the save that you just wrote actually works, and fallback code that drops the backup in place if your last save didn’t work. Plus QA and fixing all the fun little bugs that only show up when you save at exactly the right time and then reload your save at midnight on a Wednesday or something. If you’re a small team on a tight time budget, you probably want to make saves as simple as possible. However, after working for two years on a successful F2P title I wanted to offer a programmer’s perspective on how such games are built and operate. Jelly Splash, on the other hand, is a fully native app, written in Objective C, a language invented in the 1980s that may easily frighten a JavaScript coder. Roughly at every 40 levels we introduce a new gameplay feature, such as a new kind obstacle to beat. Jelly Splash has a migration system ensuring that user data is correctly upgraded with each game update, so players don’t lose their progress. Tools like AppAnnie or Otter help to discover if there is any worrying trend in the reviews. In Jelly Splash we run about 3 different tests at any given time – more than that can create problems with statistical significance of results. Only after installation the client downloads configuration file from the server to turn parts of the codebase on or off.
On 26th of November 2013 (definitely a highlight of my engineering career) we noticed about 10 minutes after going live an unusually high number of crashes. Back in 2012, when Jelly Splash was about to be made, Wooga considered different strategies for supporting multiplatform mobile games, including HTML5 and porting games from scratch. This hope is often unwarranted and I have seen projects failing to survive ambitious rewrites.
It’s worth noting that in less than one year, the entire engineering team was replaced by new people, yet the ship of Theseus kept sailing. However, we frequently apply Uncle Bob’s boy scout rule: leave the code cleaner than you found it. We didn’t use a dedicated tool for reviews – talking in person is more effective and reduces the risk of arguments in an online tool. While I could argue that they are more important when using a weakly typed language, they do help designing better APIs when written before implementation code.
And while I recently moved to a new and shiny secret project, my time in Jelly Splash was one of the best learning experiences in my career.
Based on the 2011 reports by Game Developer, an industry magazine, the average video game programmer’s salary was around $85,733. Among the duties of the video game programmers include making character biographies and story lines, conducting design reviews, and designing role-play mechanics. Twelve percent of the programmers got royalties for the games they took part in creating, while 37% got stock options in the gaming company. Game programmers who acted as technical directors and have been in the field for six years received around $126,554 per year. Game Developer also found that the video game programmer salary for those working in the South Central and Southeast states was less than $69,000, the lowest salary in the country. Game programmers in Virginia and Delaware had an annual pay of $101,050 and $100,210, respectively.
This one greatly complicates the problem because you have to remember every previous board position. You'd be amazed how many times really smart people come up with hyper complicated impractical solutions. If you just took that state and saved it to disk, your game saves would be huge — like 1 -2 GB apiece, and it would take forever to write the save.
And saving your inventory, character sheet and the record of some decisions you made during the last level is a lot, lot simpler than saving the state of everything while the player is at an arbitrary state somewhere in the middle of the level. Additionally, the game got plenty of extra functionality, such as saving the state on the server, seasonal events, and Android support. When a game operates as service, any issues with the backend may bring the game down, even though Jelly Splash can operate offline. Additionally, build artifacts, including the binaries and dSYM files, are archived and available, instead of being present only on one developer’s machine. Soon after Jelly Splash turned out to be doing well on iOS, work started to support Android.
It doesn’t yet fully support Swift, making it much harder to benefit from improvements offered by the language. They also helped us to find regressions introduced by changes to our complex game board logic.
Aside from the financial incentives and bonuses, there are also other benefits for video game programmers, such as dental coverage, medical benefits, retirement savings plan, and employer contributions for pension and retirement plans. Keep reading for more information about video game programmer salary and career requirements.
If this is a requirement of the problem the only possible solution to the problem is to store every previous move. One idea: fall back on the above move encoding instead, starting from the standard opening position and finding a sequence that ends in the desired board. So you need to divide that information into stuff that you need, but can be compressed, and stuff that you can rebuild the next time the game loads. To make things more interesting, the other two developers from my team were, correspondingly, sick at home, and enjoying vacation on the other hemisphere. Automating all builds was immediate followup of the November Disaster of 2013 (some were already automated before). Eventually we used Apportable, a tool for running Objective C code on Android with native performance.
I have to admit being guilty of few refactorings that introduced bugs, but fixing them was a small price for reduced complexity.
Starting video game programmers usually use basic programming tools and languages, like C++, to complete the elements of the game.
Unfortunately, the crash reports were not symbolicated, because the necessary dSYM file was on the computer of my sick colleague, who created and submitted the build. After getting a taste for refactoring tools, renaming with a text editor just doesn’t feel safe anymore. And don’t forget d) you need to make sure that your game engine is capable of smoothly reloading textures from any point in the level, without crazy pop-in and other stuff.



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