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Consumers are escaping the stresses of ownership and rediscovering the value of communal stuff – and cars are driving the movement. During the Pleonexicene, sharing has largely been seen as a painful necessity related to poverty, depression or war, or as something institutionalized by primitive cultures in ceremonies where the wealthy could cement their social dominance. True, some things in life shouldn’t be shared, like hypodermic needles, toothbrushes and underwear. The word share comes from old English, where it meant to divide into parts that could be distributed among a group.
As the sharing economy builds steam, collaborative consumption is becoming the name of the game instead of individual acquisitiveness.
The sharing economy is based on the simple fact that ownership isn’t required to get the benefits of a service or product.
Sharing can also improve social equity by allowing those who can’t afford to purchase an item outright the opportunity to enjoy its use.
Sharing-based businesses and P2P sharing have flourished as online access has become nearly universal.
Smartphones and tablets enabled with GPS, WiFi and 4G allow people to identify nearby sharing opportunities, read reviews, arrange the share, leave feedback and make a payment, all while on the move.
The earliest of the online sharing platforms, like Freecycle and CouchSurfing, encouraged the exchange of goods and services among peers for free.
The impacts of Communauto’s car-sharing operations have been evaluated in two independent studies. Tecsult also concluded that Communauto members reduced their annual driving by 2,900 kilometres on average after signing up with the service. The company has since more than tripled its membership and introduced a number of other environmentally friendly features.
Although Communauto was the pioneer in North America, numerous companies now serve cities throughout Canada and the US.
Another burgeoning model is P2P car sharing, in which private owners rent their vehicles to strangers. In the urban transportation universe, car sharing is creating a new niche in which ownership is seen as a low priority and car usage is accepted as part of a diverse transport cocktail that also includes transit, biking and walking. Neal Gorenflo, the co-founder of Shareable, a non-profit “news, action, and connection hub for the sharing transformation,” calls car sharing the “gateway drug” to other types of sharing. Industry observers expect car sharing to mushroom in the coming years, and North American revenues are projected to top $3-billion by 2016. From undetectable levels at the turn of the millenium, the global sharing economy is now valued at more than US$110-billion, including both P2P and B2C platforms. Another challenge is the hostility of established businesses and the legal barriers they are able to put up against emerging competitors from the sharing sector. Some thinkers are also concerned that large corporations are steering the sharing economy away from its original community-based social and environmental aspirations. Other critics have claimed that the sharing economy is replacing good jobs in regulated industries with a new class of atomized piece-workers, such as the “post-industrial peasants” who run odd jobs for strangers through TaskRabbit. Exponential growth, hostile regulations, jealous attention from the taxman and the indignation of established industries all suggest that the sharing economy is becoming a force to be reckoned with. Will the sharing economy introduce a new era of collaborative consumption or merely serve to soften some of the harder edges of the current Pleonexicene era? Learn to share: order the Sharing issue now or check out our sharing directory for dozens of inspiring examples of ways you can share just about anything.
Ray Tomalty is principal of Smart Cities Research, a Montreal consulting firm that specializes in issues related to urban sustainability. Shades of Green: The Retreating CaribouOnce a force of nature, only 140 caribou remain in Atlantic Canada.
Shades of Green: For the PilotsExamining the beginning of the reconciliation process for the wrongs done to pilot whales in the Atlantic. Science Communication: the Currency of the Global Knowledge EconomyExploring the realm of science communication and why it matters. Organizing UrbanismCities for People is building better cities through community resilience networks. Buckle Up, MontrealThe plan to create a greenbelt around Montreal is backed by a sharp brain trust, ecological incentive and $90-million.
Every week for the sixth season of Game of Thrones, Christopher Orr, Spencer Kornhaber, and Lenika Cruz will be discussing new episodes of the HBO drama.
So reading his recent essay, "The Secret Shame of Middle-Class Americans," was a gut punch: First, I learned about a role model of mine whose talent, in my opinion, should preclude him from financial woes. Ted Cruz and John Kasich need big wins in the remaining primaries for a shot at the nomination—too bad most people have already made up their minds. A professor of cognitive science argues that the world is nothing like the one we experience through our senses.
As they look ahead to the general election, some commentators envision a campaign in which Donald Trump attacks viciously and Hillary Clinton makes a virtue of her refusal to stoop to his level. Partly that’s because the average person will probably not die in an automobile accident.
A pastor and a rabbi talk about kids, poop, and tearing down the patriarchy in institutional religion. No wonder there’s not much theology preoccupied with weird-colored poop and the best way to weather tantrums. Fresco of Approving of bylaw of Society of Jesus depicting Ignatius of Loyola receiving papal bull Regimini militantis Ecclesiae from Pope Paul 3. This group bound themselves by a vow of poverty and chastity, to "enter upon hospital and missionary work in Jerusalem, or to go without questioning wherever the pope might direct".
They called themselves the Company of Jesus, and also Amigos En El Senor or "Friends in the Lord," because they felt "they were placed together by Christ." The name had echoes of the military (as in an infantry "company"), as well as of discipleship (the "companions" of Jesus). There is something I have been monitoring on the internet since the pre-maturity of online social media networks, and even as early as the end of Myspace.
The Internet is being corporatized and if it continues, it will be the end of social networks being a place of opportunity and sharing of information online. Now, social media has changed all of or lives, from reconnecting long lost friendships, finding that awesome party, the latest news and social movements, to rekindling the love of my very own life. Social Media sites control a large portion of the information and communication distribution of the entire world. With algorithms and even more simply, manual deletion or sanctioning of content and social media accounts. At this point, there are still a lot of people on the social networks, but engagement is down. I will be updating this article in shortly with the email conversations between the various social networks and more examples of social media censorship, so please let me know any questions you have or similar experiences in the comments. DriveMyCar, Australia’s first and largest peer-to-peer car rental service, and LDV Automotive is now helping tradespeople get a better deal that will nearly halve the cost of renting one-tonne vans.
The new service, launching in Western Sydney, will allow tradies to rent a G10 one-tonne van directly from the LDV dealer in Parramatta for just $59 per day, a major discount on the $102 that some van rental providers charge.

The partnership between DriveMyCar and LDV Automotive now makes it possible for people to rent vehicles directly from a car dealer and avoid the high prices charged by traditional rental firms. DriveMyCar now has more than 26,000 members across Australia benefiting from cheaper car rental, or renting out their vehicles to earn extra revenue.
Since DriveMyCar does not own any vehicles, prices are up to 62% lower than traditional car rental firms. LDV, formerly part of the British Leyland Group, has undergone a major resurgence after significant investment from its new owners, SAIC Motor Corporation, and is challenging the incumbent brands on price and specifications.
It’s not that the Pleonexicene is coming to an abrupt end any time soon, but many people are rethinking their relationship to the things that populate their lives, the businesses that provide them, and the social and environmental impacts associated with their production, distribution and use.
But the plethora of recent books and articles about sharing suggests a resurging popular interest, and that there is nothing new or unusual about it. From this comes the common meaning of the verb – the act of giving part of what you own to someone else, as in “let’s share my pie” – as well as the derivative noun, as in “your share of the pie.” Other meanings of sharing have evolved from this root. When we own material things, we must also care for, store, clean, repair, refurbish and insure them. Proponents claim that the growing number of firms fuelling the sharing economy provide both gainful employment and supplemental revenues to participating households. In the past, the cost of sharing or borrowing stuff has been high because of the inconvenience involved in organizing potentially sharable resources and connecting with other potential users. Modern web frameworks like Django and Ruby on Rails facilitate the creation of sharing websites. But the latest sharing platforms are firmly anchored in a commercial model, mobilizing many resources that would otherwise sit idle. As an idealistic planning student at the Universite Laval in Quebec City, founder Benoit Robert studied German car-sharing models and discovered their advantages compared to car ownership. Because Communauto cars are more gas-efficient than the average vehicle, the study estimated that members emitted 60-per-cent less CO2, an annual difference of 1.2 tonnes per member. A fleet of hybrid and all-electric cars that draw on Quebec’s inexpensive and relatively sustainable hydroelectric power is now available in Montreal and Quebec City. Owners log into a network and indicate when and where their car and keys will be available. Cars are the ultimate expensive underutilized commodity, which makes them ideal for sharing. One reason is that recent research has shown attitudes toward car ownership are in flux throughout North America, especially among younger people. A back-to-the-city movement is reviving downtowns in many cities, while urban planners and developers are putting more emphasis on creating compact, diverse, walkable neighbourhoods, especially near transit stations.
All kinds of sharing opportunities thrive in denser communities where people tend to live in smaller living units with less storage space. Zipcar, whose global membership has grown 30-fold in the last 10 years to more than 900,000 registered users, was purchased by Avis last year for nearly US$500-million. While lending your old clothes steamer to an online stranger is a breeze, lending your new car might be a little more nerve-wracking. P2P websites like Zilok let owners and renters leave feedback about each other, and sites like SnapGoods require renters to make a security deposit.
Take, for example, the 2010 state law that makes it illegal for property owners to rent rooms for less than 30 days in New York. For example, Zipcar’s new owner, Avis, has been criticized for undermining transit ridership among students by setting up on university campuses, and for offering SUVs in its mix of available vehicles.
In response to this criticism, April Rinne of US-based think tank and consultancy Collaborative Lab says, “this is not about ‘taking’ jobs; rather, this is about creating livelihoods and ways of generating income that didn’t exist before – a net market, so to speak.
While some observers think its youthful energy will gradually be absorbed into existing commercial relations as the sector matures, others think we are on the cusp of a major change in our way of meeting personal needs and how we relate to one another and the planet.
He is also an adjunct professor at the School of Urban Planning at McGill University, an A\J editorial board member and a regular contributor to the magazine.
Because no screeners are being made available to critics in advance this year, we'll be posting our thoughts in installments.
After all, this is usually when campaigns enter naptime; by May, both parties normally have a presumptive nominee and are busying themselves with chair arrangements at the conventions. There’s still wiggle room in Indiana, where polls say somewhere around 6 percent of voters are undecided. So does Bromleigh McCleneghan, a Chicago-area pastor and the author of a 2012 book about parenting and a forthcoming book about Christians and sex. Ignatius of Loyola, who after being wounded in a battle, experienced a religious conversion and composed the Spiritual Exercises to closely follow Christ. The fresco was created by Johann Christoph Handke in the Church of Our Lady Of the Snow in Olomouc after 1743. What makes this article so interesting is that I have tested, contacted, collected all the evidence of this and am prepared to show you specifically how major social media sites censor sharing of thought and ideas.  What better time than the Monday following the collapse in share price of LinkedIn of almost 50%, and continual fall in share prices of other social media companies. Yelp (just last week), LinkedIn and Yahoo have manually deleted my posts, locked my accounts, and disabled commenting in that order.
If the censorship and feature restrictions continue to increase at the rate they have been, users will get less value and either move to newer services, or do the unthinkable = stop using social media.
Please like and share to get the word out, which if this goes viral, will help bring light to the CEOs and share holders of these offending companies that we know what is happening. 15, 2015  World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) announced …All I Want for Christmas is Coal and ARLP Stock DividendsFirst of all, I want to say I am an environmentalist. The cost will make it far easier and cheaper for people who need a van for work and provides a great opportunity to experience the quality and performance of the G10. The company has traditionally focused on peer-to-peer consumer rental vehicles, but has recently moved into the light commercial space.
We are trained from infancy to desire new things, whether we need them or not, and to dispose of those things, whether they are worn out or not, to keep the cycle of acquisition rolling. There is a groundswell of interest in products and services that have local content, build community between consumers and producers, and involve some degree of sharing. In fact, far from being a sign of great wealth or poverty, it’s increasingly understood that sharing has been and remains an important part of the mainstream culture.
But many things, perhaps most, can be and are shared to everyone’s gain: food, clothes, taxis, bikes, cars, tools, hotel rooms, apartments, office space, streets, sidewalks, parks, libraries, train stations, buses, movies, books, music, stories, memories, efforts, even miseries. It can mean to have something in common with someone else, whether tangible (like genetic traits) or abstract (like a philosophical belief, attitude or value). When you share a story with a group of friends, you still have as much story left as when you started.
Sites like Kutoto (or TaskRabbit in the US) allow unemployed or underemployed people to bid on tasks their neighbours need doing (the most popular of which is assembling Ikea furniture).
This idea didn’t start with the sharing economy, but it gradually caught on as people got used to doing such things as renting movies on Netflix and downloading music from iTunes instead of buying CDs or DVDs.
Indeed, many people are realizing that in some cases, the costs of ownership can outweigh the benefits. For example, a 2013 study found that Airbnb generated US$632-million in economic activity in New York City in one year, and the typical Airbnb host earns US$7,530 per year by renting their spare rooms or beds. Developer tools like Google’s free Maps API make it easy for sharing platforms to integrate mapping features that help users find the nearest bike-sharing outlet or exchange spot.

This alignment of self-interest with community and environmental interests is ramping up the potential of the sharing economy. Not only did car sharing reduce the number of vehicles needed to serve a given population, but paying to use a car by the hour or kilometre tended to limit the amount of driving people did and would better balance their driving with other modes of transport.
Twenty years later, Robert is the sole owner of the company, which has 70 employees and 28,000 members in four cities (Montreal, Quebec City, Gatineau and Sherbrooke) sharing a fleet of approximately 1,300 vehicles. They also found that Communauto members used a car for only one-quarter of daily trips compared to their neighbours, with the difference taken up by more walking, biking and transit trips.
Thus, each shared vehicle substitutes, on average, for eight owned vehicles, saving not only the energy and materials embedded in those vehicles, but also the parking spaces and other resources that are needed to support car ownership.
The study calculated that Communauto’s fleet had reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 10,000 tonnes annually. Members can offset the greenhouse gas emissions associated with their trips by helping to purchase carbon credits that contribute to renewable energy, energy efficiency and forestry projects in developing nations.
Car2Go, which is owned by Daimler AG and uses their smart car exclusively, is available in Vancouver, Calgary, Toronto and Montreal, along with two dozen other cities in the US and Europe.
In Quebec, Communauto is piloting this model in a limited number of neighbourhoods, while US services like RelayRides, Spride Share and WhipCar are proliferating. However, cars are also the ultimate symbol of our consumer-oriented society, which makes sharing them potentially transformative. Gen Yers are far less likely to get a driver’s licence and own a car today than their predecessors – and those that do drive do so more sparingly.
Studies have shown that car sharing works best with stations in accessible urban settings where densities ensure a large pool of potential users.
Airbnb, which started in 2008 when two guys rented out an air mattress in their living room for overnight stays, now lists more than half a million properties worldwide (including teepees, treehouses and igloos) and is valued at $2.5-billion. Although there are exceptions, things that are fragile, irreplaceable, inexpensive to buy or difficult to transport are generally not ideal for sharing. In real-world communities, people’s willingness to trust others is guided by reputations for good behaviour.
For bigger-ticket items like accommodation and vehicles, many sharing platforms offer insurance against damage or loss.
The law targeted illegal hotels and short-term P2P rentals through online platforms like Airbnb, Craigslist and Roomorama, which are much cheaper than New York’s regular hotels. Meanwhile, Airbnb is introducing new verification procedures to ensure the identity of guests, along with new standards of service that hosts have to respect, like ensuring their guests have clean towels and sheets. At the most fundamental level, we share our biosphere, including the atmosphere, soil, water and the myriad ecological processes that support life.
This definition eventually calved off the more active idea of sharing emotions, a secret, an experience, or information.
The obvious environmental advantage of sharing is that it extracts the maximum amount of use from things we already have.
Almost two-thirds of hosts say Airbnb helped them stay in their homes and more than half are non-traditional workers such as freelancers, part-time employees or students. Whereas sharing was once only practical within a small network of family, friends, colleagues or neighbours, total strangers can now interact online and share accommodation, tools, cars, office space, camping equipment and even home-cooked meals. A new ecosystem of individual and corporate entrepreneurs is presenting an alternative – hopefully less destructive – model of consumption. The cars are parked at almost 400 stations located strategically near major transit routes, catering to households who can walk, bike or take transit to most destinations but need a car for occasional use.
The company, which styles itself as a social entreprise, also has agreements with the BIXI bike-sharing network and public transit agencies to offer discounts to Communauto members and encourage sustainable transportation alternatives.
Most other car manufacturers are experimenting with car-sharing services to attract young customers and capture some of the growth in this effervescent industry. Car-selling companies are hoping this is a temporary blip related to the recession, but car-sharing companies are betting that it’s part of a permanent generational shift in tastes and spending habits. Moreover, urban centres have many walkable destinations, good transit networks and a lack of parking. In online communities, building trust is trickier because people can have multiple identities that flit in and out of existence, and there is no grapevine to pick up rumours and assess risks. For example, in 2011, after a woman in California came home to find her apartment trashed by her Airbnb “guests,” the company introduced a $50,000 guarantee to cover losses to renters (it was later increased to $1-million).
It will grow, diversify and morph as the technology of sharing evolves and new opportunities for sharing arise. The answer: 47 percent of respondents said that either they would cover the expense by borrowing or selling something, or they would not be able to come up with the $400 at all. If Cruz and Kasich want a chance at winning the nomination, they have to seriously wow voters in these last handful of primaries.
Here are some of the comments and free content I made over the years that was obviously valuable to the readers. Computer file sharing is actually a positive-sum transaction in that it creates more files than previously existed. The more we share our existing consumer products, the less we need to mine raw materials and burn polluting energy sources to make new products, and the less waste we create.
Sharing has become so convenient, low-risk and personalized that many products are now more of a hassle to own than to rent or swap. Ironically, at the centre of this new ecosystem is the ultimate symbol of reflexive acquisitiveness: the automobile. As of 2013, there were more than one million members of multi-city and local or regional car-sharing initiatives across North America, with almost 150,000 in Canada alone.
Automotive market researcher Dennis DesRosier thinks history is on the side of the sharers. These factors tend to make car ownership less necessary to a good quality of life and more costly from a personal point of view. For example, even car-sharing promoters acknowledge that those who drive more than 15,000 kilometres a year are better off owning.
Despite these safeguards, online chicanery exists and is undoubtedly dampening the growth of the sharing economy. Likewise, bus, rental car and taxi companies have petitioned governments to restrict car and ride services.
Finally, as the sharing economy grows, governments are looking for ways to tax these new, diffuse forms of value creation. A candy bar, as generous children soon discover to their dismay, is a zero-sum shareable good.
It’s these zero-sum physical objects and services that are the basis of the emerging sharing economy; because they are in limited supply, a money value can be attached to them and this helps regulate sharing transactions.

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