Introduction to PHP: A publicly scheduled PHP course with dates in the fourth week of every month. We have recently built and delivered an e-commerce project which runs both on Linux and Windows, talking optionally to either Microsoft SQL Server or MySQL. We thought there might be some people who would like to know a little about how it was done. Our customer was keen that any solution should be able to run equally well on Linux or Windows NT and that it should be independent of the database product as far as possible.
Flexibility and portability being important matters, we concluded that a solution based on either Perl or PHP would be the best bet and elected to use PHP since it was easier to convince some sceptics that PHP was a mature product in the NT environment. Building a version of PHP that would run on Linux and talk to SQL Server was not proving to be easy. It took a lot of cursing and sweating to get PHP working with freetds — we'd have been well advised to have spent our time looking around for the guidance that is actually out there, but sadly hadn't found it first time around.
On each target we include a tiny file which specifies the database in use, the hostname, username and password.
Most of the development was done using Linux tools with the NT virtual server directory mounted onto the Linux system (using smbmount) so that the one set of files, located on the NT system, were simultaneously being used to run the Linux and NT versions of the site. Of course we found incompatibilities between the dialects of SQL that the two databases use. A special function had to be written to deal with string concatenation in a consistent manner (see DBconcat above) because we needed it often enough. A day was wasted tracking down a difference between the databases where SQL Server stores DECIMAL types with a set of trailing NUL characters tacked on the end. A small difference between PHP's handling of strftime resulted in the %e format being expanded as a blank on the NT implementation.
The goal of building code which would run without caring which database product it was accessing simply couldn't be done cleanly enough for our taste. Now-a-days pretty much everyone and their hipster grandmother is blogging, publishing web articles or sharing some sort of digital content with free online services such as Google, Facebook, Flickr and Youtube. If you're looking to setup a website or go beyond the basics, paying a hosting provider is usually the way to go. How would you like to escape the monthly service fees of web hosting or gain full control over features, data and privacy?
The term Web Server can refer to either the hardware (a computer) or the software (an application) that serves content accessed through the Internet. We receive a lot of email requests seeking recommendations on which hardware is supported and best suited for projects like this.
Before getting started, please note that this build does have it's limitations and is intended for home or small office use on a Broadband connection.
The Intel D525MW is an energy-efficient Mini-ITX Motherboard, built with the Intel NM10 Express Chipset, featuring an integrated Dual-core 1.8 GHz Intel Atom processor D525 and Intel Graphics Media Accelerator 3150 graphics core. This desktop board gives off very little heat and utilizes passive cooling which means there are no spinning fans generating nose when powered on. One thing I love about OCZ SSD products is that they include a 3.5-inch desktop adapter bracket with their drives. Crucial's 4GB DDR3 memory kit for the Intel D525MW Motherboard is the perfect fit for our build. As with all Crucial products, these SODIMM modules come with free shipping, a life time warranty and of course made by one of the best memory manufactures in the business. A primary reason for me choosing this chassis was due in part to the included 65-Watt external AC to DC power supply adapter.
As mentioned previously, this build is intended for home or small office use with low to moderate levels of web traffic. I intentionally excluded a keyboard, mouse and optical drive from our hardware list because it lowers the build cost and shouldn't be required after initial installation. Linux system monitoring is one of the most important tasks for every sysadmin: it is crucial to know everything about system including CPU load, network traffic statistics, memory consumption, logged in users, availability of disk free space or service. This is one of the most popular web based Linux monitoring systems nowadays, actually it’s industry standard for IT infrastructure monitoring.
In case of any outage detected by Nagios server or any anomaly you will get an alert from Nagios.
So you can see CPU load graphs, RAM usage, round trip time stats, bandwidth utilization and much more information collected from various hosts. Meantime by default Cacti doesn’t provides alerts so you should install third party plugin (thold or others) for that or use more flexible solutions supporting alerts (like Nagios or Zabbix). Zabbix is enterprise class Linux monitoring system with impressive list of capabilities available out of the box. Documentation and Howtos: Official Documentation, Ubuntu Zabbix Howto, Debian Zabbix Howto, Monitor Radius with Zabbix.
One of the most common applications of MRTG is monitoring of network interfaces, CPU, memory usage and network interfaces statistics.
Documentation and Howtos: Official Documentation, Linux MRTG Howto, Advanced MRTG for Linux, Centos MRTG Howto. Let’s imagine you see traffic spike at the graph that shows that some of your host was generating some TCP traffic 12 hours ago and you wish to know what was that. Documentation and Howtos: Official Documentation, Nfsen and Nfdump Howto, Tracking incidents with Nfsen, Traffic Classification with Nfsen. Of course there are other web based monitoring tools for Linux available, some of them may even beat functionality of mentioned systems. Good to see Zabbix getting some love :) We use it to monitor many thousands of devices, it works great and is extremely flexible. Although not explicit, I think they were trying to evaluate free solutions, rather than pay for monitoring.
We can offer far more better configuration for Linux VPS in less $ in compare anyone offer today. Thank you, I have just been looking for information about this subject for ages and yours is the best I have found out so far.
Some time ago I came across NagMap addon for Nagios and found it pretty helpful for monitoring multiple hosts around the world.
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Students computer rooms (CIP Pools)The campus offers students five rooms (so-called Computer Investment Program or CIP rooms) which are equipped with computers.
The web browser is becoming the single most important piece of desktop software, if it isn't already.
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The software was built with PHP4 and is now deployed on a Windows NT server under IIS and SQL server. We had to build a site for industrial use which would allow a database of products, prices and discount matrices to be accessed by registered users. The situation was politically sensitive (spot the understatement) and whilst we would have been happy with either choice, the art of the possible pointed towards PHP. At least one useful starting point is: Michael Peceny's site and of course, after all the struggling, others came to light as well. Whilst there are probably thousands of similar solutions to what we did (and most of them probably better), we built our own extremely simple interface so that the bulk of the software wouldn't have to call functions conditionally depending on the target database. Switching our configuration files to tell each server which database to use allowed us to ensure that the software operated properly with both SQL Server and MySQL. A small number of places in the software discovered irritating inconsistencies which had be dealt with. When retrieved from the database by the version of PHP we were using, it would ignore the fractional part.
Apart from noticing that MySQL is a good deal nippier than SQL Server at most of the tasks, database performance hasn't been a big concern. These are all great no cost options for putting content online, but a poor substitution for a feature rich web server. This document provides hardware and software recommendations for building your very own Web Server all for under $250.
If you're not comfortable doing so, I would suggest having a friend help you out, or refer to one of the many tutorials available online.
So for the benefit of anyone seeking some related hardware recommendations, here is my list.
Best thing of all is that there isn't a need to purchase a processor, video card, network adapter or heatsink with fan, everything we need comes with the Intel D525MW Mini-ITX Motherboard. So I've focused my efforts on selecting a Solid State Drive (SSD) that will provide better performance, low power consumption and generate no heat compared to a conventional mechanical hard drive with a large amount of disk space. Vertex 2 features the popular high speed Sandforce controller and high performance MLC flash memory.
These 2GBx2, 204-pin SODIMM, DDR3 PC3-10600 memory modules will fully populate the dual in-line memory module slots on the motherboard with a maximum 4GB of system memory. With that in mind it was important for me to select products that conformed to our objectives. Not only does lessen physical footprint, but the heat generated is outside of the box, thus in turn providing better cooling and near silent operation.
A Broadband DSL, Cable or Fiber to the Home (FTTH) connection to the Internet is required to host your own web server. If your Internet connection uses dynamic addressing and you have a domain name, I would suggest taking a look at a free dynamic DNS service. Simply use a USB thumb drive to install an Operating System, or temporarily connect a SATA CD-ROM drive and remove once installation completes.
A graphical desktop is not required as you'll most likely want to remote SSH into the server. Unfortunately the installation and configure of Apache is beyond the scope of this article. Licensed under GPL Nagios is available for everybody free of charge and allows to monitor availability and response time of network services, usage of system resources like CPU load, RAM allocation etc., number of logged in users and many-many more. It’s important that Nagios suports wide range of alerts including e-mail, sms, chat messages and phone call notifications. Unlike Nagios describe above Cacti was designed mainly fo the graphs — in brief, Cacti polls various services and then graphs resulting data. As well as Nagios Cacti supports SNMP that makes it possible to monitor almost any device in your network: Linux hosts, *BSD hosts, Windows hosts, Cisco devices, Juniper equipment, voip phones, routers, switches whatever. Zabbix shows various kinds of graphs including network statistics, CPU load and so on (just like Cacti). But MRTG is much more simple than Cacti, Nagios or Zabbix so it may be a good choice for small projects. It differs from monitoring tools described here — Nfsen collects only network usage data and shows the interactive graphs based on that data. Using Nfsen you can see the graphs showing network traffic on various hosts or networks, configure alerts (for example if bandwidth usage is lower or higher than average) and what it more important to digg into collected traffic.
If you feel that it makes sense to extend this list with other monitoring system just leave a comment here with brief description of suggested Linux monitoring system. People default to Nagios since it's the big name in this space, but for us Zabbix was the clear winner. In 2007 I started LinuxScrew to share my personal notes on anything related to Linux and Open Source on the whole and found this pretty interesting.
Not only is the web a huge source of information, but also the conduit to a huge world of hosted apps and interconnected cloud services covering a range of new computer-based experiences.
On top of this, most websites employ client-side JavaScript and Ajax technologies, placing an extra processing burden on the browser. You can unsubscribe at any time and we'll never share your details without your permission. The users should be able to place orders, review order status and carry out typical shopping-basket operations of the kind you would see on a many on-line ordering sites. A particular concern of the implementation was that the database would NOT be local to the web server, but instead accessed physically remotely via the corporate internal WAN.
We persuaded the PHP code to talk across our network to MySQL without the slightest difficulty. Our biggest performance problem was having to to deal (on the deployed system) with a WAN separating the web front-end from the database. I assume you have such a service and fully understand that performance will vary based on connection speeds. Also while we're on the topic of connectivity, be sure to forward port 80 to the web server if using a router. Also, for the sake of security, I'd strongly advise you to use SSH public key authentication and change the default SSH port.
However, I do plan on writing a HowTo install & configure Apache document at a later date. It doesn’t makes sense to list here everything that can be monitored by Nagios but its nature implies that main Nagios instance (server) collects information from either local system or Nagios clients (agents).
Large number of official and third party plugins can extend Nagios’ functionality dramatically. It uses RRDTool to build graphs so if you can some graphs in .rrd files you can easily attach them to Cacti and have everything in one place.
In brief Zabbix can do the same tasks as Nagios and Cacti by default: Zabbix easily graphs monitored data and sends alerts to user in case of any problem. Probably Zabbix may seem rather complicated for beginners but I’d recommend to take some time and get familiar with this monitoring system.


Either way keep up the nice quality writing, it is rare to see a great blog like this one today. Building a browser that can cope with all this and be easy to use while offering a great experience is quite a tall order. Although the site wouldn't be allowed to connect to the live enterprise resource planning system (security concerns were amongst some of the reasons) it would receive regular stock updates and should try to provide a good indication of current stock levels. Customers searching for particular types of component could easily generate queries that returned record sets with thousands of entries and the first version of the software was appallingly slow when that happened.
Our concerns about the insistence of running the database via a low bandwidth connection from the web server proved to be valid, but a workaround has been found. Some common considerations when building a Web Server are performance, form factor (size) of components, cooling, storage capacities, minimal acoustics (noise reduction), compatibility and cost. Front panel features two USB 2.0 ports, 1 eSATA, and an audio (AC'97 and HDA compatible) In and Out.
You may also want to check out our learing about Linux guide or reference some of our easy to follow Linux HowTos.
It means you can install client software on number of Linux, BSD, Windows hosts or Cisco devices, point them to Nagios server and see states of their services or processes in one place: Nagios web based monitoring tool (see the screenshot below). Using Zabbix you can create maps of the hosts, group hosts by various categories and so on. Our rules of testing only stable, released software have to be suspended in this case, because many of the browsers are in permanent beta.
By paging through record sets using MySQL's limit and SQL Server's equivalent of it we got up to an acceptable level of performance and that was enough. Our client has taken significant order volumes using this system and has now commissioned several extensions. There is also a half height expansion slot in the back with side cooling vented by an 80mm TriCool 3 speed exhaust fan. Some of these libraries handle tasks related to graphics, multimedia codecs, database and browsers (WebKit). This is because of the reason that native Android Java libraries are different from standard Java or Java Mobile Edition (JME) libraries. The way we chose which applications to include in this Roundup was quite simple – they're the most popular Linux browsers currently developed and in use.
JME is an adaptation of Java Standard Edition to allow Java to run on embedded devices such as mobile phones.Application framework provides various managers to access all hardware related services.
We're including only proper versions of the browsers available now, with no pre-alpha or nightly builds allowed. A detail overview about application framework is given below.Before we dive in to Application Framework layer, note that the Application layer is the tip of Android iceberg. There is a description of Firefox as a flashy sports car, hampered by all sorts of esoteric hardware welded to the outside. This is where a user interacts with the phone while unaware of all the action taking place beneath this layer. Some applications are pre-installed on a phone while most are developed and placed on the Android market for free download or for a small price. The original impetus for developing Firefox was to create a sleek, fast and efficient browser that didn't carry a lot of complicated UI features and speed-hogging code that only a minority would use. Our objective is to develop a application and put it on the Android market for free download.
Of course, the outcome of that is that the browser soon garnered itself a gazillion extensions. The meteoric rise of Firefox (it managed to get around 20% of browser share in the first year, and is now thought to be the client of choice for nearly half of the web traffic in the world) shows that the sleek and unfussy style was a good call on behalf of the authors. Firefox's popularity was down to more than just speed, though – it innovated too, and strove for real standards compliance, in a world where browsers like Internet Explorer wanted the web to work their way. This framework come pre-installed with high-level building blocks that developers can use to program applications.
Following are the most important application framework components for our application and Android development in general.Fig. Most of the recent changes seem to be in terms of customisation, but there are also technical innovations. Support for the Web Open Font Format, for example – a recent development that simplifies embedding downloadable typefaces in a way that keeps font developers happy and reduces bandwidth.
Firefox is also pretty hot on the new HTML 5 technologies, with support for OGG containers and Google's WebM format, MathML and more. Coupled with an excellent security record and an amazing amount of customisation potential, Firefox makes a solid browser choice. Flock concentrates on what many people actually use the web for, so its world-view is centred around Facebook, YouTube, Flickr, MySpace and various webmail services. Android comes with a set of built in content providers to handle multi-media data or contacts etc.
Developers can make up their own providers for flexibility or they can incorporate their data in one of the existing providers. At first glance, this gives it the appearance of some sort of multimedia command centre, which isn't too far from the truth. Unfortunately, running the sidebar to keep track of Twitter or Flickr causes the responsiveness to drop as CPU power (and bandwidth) are drawn off to make sure you're seeing the latest tweets or pictures. Of course, there is no way around the fact that if you want to see web pages and Twitter feeds side by side, the information has to be downloaded and processed. Maybe the priorities could have been adjusted better, but for a user on a 1Mb link or slower, this is a poor compromise.
In terms of its rendering performance and compliance, Flock seems to be at the rear of the pack on many occasions.
Although ostensibly still in development and using the same Mozilla codebase as Firefox, a year of standing still has left it suffering. Designing UI related elements is done in the same fashion as HTML based web designing.Resource ManagerResource Manager handles all non-code things. Flock is neat if you spend your day worrying about what's happening on Facebook, but much of the functionality of Flock can be replaced by add-ons (albeit just as painfully slowly) or perhaps by dedicated apps.
It does have some interesting, and even innovative, UI features, but is also more than a little out of date. Such resources reside under res directory as can be seen under Eclipse Project Explore in the following figure 5.Fig. Eclipse Project ExplorerAll the icons and design work that we have done so far using Adobe Illustrator will reside under these layout directories.Location ServicesThis bundle supports fine-grained location providers such as GPS and coarse-grained location providers such as cell phone triangulation.



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