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Climate change is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. Books denying climate change evidence are a potent means of manufacturing uncertainty. Most are linked to conservative think tanks, with few authored by individuals with scientific credentials, and fewer still having undergone peer review. The disinformation campaign against AGW has used the well-tested strategy of manufacturing uncertainty, constantly asserting that the scientific evidence is too uncertain to warrant regulatory action. A growing body of research has documented the multiple roles CTTs play in promoting climate change denial, including sponsoring and amplifying the voices of contrarian scientists and producing a vast range of media material.
The authors’ recent study analyzed 108 English-language books espousing climate change denial published through 2010.
The ratio of climate change books (back row) to climate change denial books (front row) is illustrated by this chronological sorting of one individual’s extensive, but not all-inclusive, personal collection. A notable aspect of the recent rise in denial books is the growth of self-published volumes.
CTTs have clearly played a central role in the explosion of books promoting climate change denial. A key strategy of CTTs is to enlist contrarian scientists to help manufacture uncertainty, as their scientific credentials (PhDs) help legitimate CTT critiques of climate science. Diffusion over time is again apparent, as natural science doctorates are involved in 80 percent of the small number of books coming out in the 1980s (four of five), 53 percent (ten of 19) in the 1990s, but only 33 percent (28 of 84) since 2000. Editorial ReviewProduct DescriptionLong known for her insightful and thought-provoking political journalism, author Elizabeth Kolbert now tackles the controversial and increasingly urgent subject of global warming. The book I ordered was supposed to be hardcover but when I got it in the mail it turned out to be paperback. In 2006, it was estimated that nearly 29 million pounds of carbon dioxide were emitted into Earth's atmosphere.This number is extremely alarming in terms of the issues of global climate change. I don't usually read environmental books but I couldn't put this down.Kolbert explores the issues facing the environment today, forcing the reader to consider what needs to be done to save the planet. If you were to read one and only one book regarding climate change, this should be that one. I had a nazi austrailian English 1102 teacher who based the whole class on global warming and this was required for the class. Editorial ReviewProduct DescriptionClimate change is changing the context of planning and shaping its priorities. Editorial ReviewProduct DescriptionThe Middle Holocene epoch (8,000 to 3,000 years ago) was a time of dramatic changes in the physical world and in human cultures. Editorial ReviewProduct DescriptionThe third volume of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides an in-depth analysis of the costs and benefits of different approaches to mitigating and avoiding climate change. Editorial ReviewProduct DescriptionThe United States, once a world leader in addressing international environmental challenges, became a vigorous opponent of action on climate change over the past two decades, repudiating regulation and promoting only ineffectual voluntary actions to meet a growing global threat. Editorial ReviewProduct DescriptionA breakout bestseller on how the earth’s previous global warming phase reshaped human societies from the Arctic to the Sahara—a wide-ranging history with sobering lessons for our own time.
Archeologist Brian Fagan has been in the forefront of studying how climate affects civilization for more than two decades. I procured this book, The Great Warming, because I was fascinated to learn that there actually was another period in recordable history during which the climate was warmer for a marked period of years.
Yes, this is *not* about current climate change, but historical climate change, centering on the warming period from around 900 to 1300 (if I remember correctly) and how it affected different societies. Along with "The Long Summer" and "The Little Ice Age", this book gives the reader glimpses into how weather has affected humanity. If history and weather are not interesting to the reader, this book is not for you. Editorial ReviewProduct DescriptionWhat the ice tells us about the past may help us understand the future of ice, and us, on Earth. Editorial ReviewProduct DescriptionDiscusses the increasing importance of accurate climate forcasting and its effect on many facets of human life, particularly as the demand for food and fiber continues to rise, fueled by population growth and incomes primarily in developing countries. Editorial ReviewProduct DescriptionSmall Island Developing States are often depicted as being among the most vulnerable of all places to the effects of climate change, and they are a cause celebre of many involved in climate science, politics and the media. Editorial ReviewProduct DescriptionAwareness that many key aspects of public health are strongly influenced by climate is growing dramatically, driven by new research and experience and fears of climate change and the research needed to underpin policy developments in area is growing rapidly. Editorial ReviewProduct DescriptionA new national policy on climate change is under debate in the United States and is likely to result in a cap on greenhouse gas emissions for utilities.
Editorial ReviewProduct DescriptionThe impact of climate change on seven regions of the United States is studied in this new collection.
The Weather of the Future: Heat Waves, Extreme Storms, and Other Scenes from a Climate-Changed Planet offers a fine, serious look at how the world will look in 2050 if the current levels of carbon emissions are maintained. Even before the IPCC report was released, the denialist universe had a flurry of activity across the blogosphere denouncing it and attempting to muddy the waters, however, with a number of glaring exceptions, the mainstream press rightly reported this campaign of confusion for what it was, and a number of scientists associated with the IPCC process were available to quietly demolish each of the denialist arguments.  Otherwise, however, response to the release in the media has been definitely muted, and its perhaps not surprising why – the report did not contain radical revisions of prior information and therefore was technically not really important news. And as for the rest of us deer in the headlights … We need to recognize that our governments are unlikely to lead us to safety until we start demanding more accountability from them.  Canadians should be asking why our national government refuses to discuss climate change while continuing the pretense that Canada is acting responsibly on greenhouse gases. Download Reef Reminiscences to learn what coral reefs were like in the 1960s and early 70s. The early campaign was centered in corporate America, symbolized by the Global Climate Coalition.
The remaining 107 books started coming out in 1989, the year after AGW had become a highly visible issue in the USA and the IPCC was established, with four being published that year. Seventy-eight of the 108 volumes, or 72 percent, have a verifiable link with a CTT, but underlying this figure are two interesting trends.
Second, the large decline in the percentage of CTT links since 2000 is the result primarily of the preponderance of self-published books appearing over the eleven years, as only one-third of the 30 self-published books coming out since 2000 are linked to a CTT.
More generally, of the 75 denial books issued by a publishing house, 87 percent are linked to a CTT, whereas of the 33 self-published denial books, only 39 percent have such a link.
Yet, on average, books affiliated with CTTs receive far more publicity, sell much better, and reach larger audiences than do self-published titles. As denial evolved over time and spread throughout a larger segment of American society (particularly among conservatives) and to other nations, the seeds sown by the contrarians (78 percent of whom have ties to a CTT) have germinated. Unlike mainstream climate scientists who publish primarily in scholarly journals, where peer review is designed to weed-out unscientific claims, these critics use a range of non-peer-reviewed outlets, ranging from blogs to newspaper editorials to the books studied here.
Like the vast range of other non-peer-reviewed material produced by the denial community, book authors can make whatever claims they wish, no matter how scientifically unfounded.
Regardless of how thoroughly denialists’ claims are discredited in the scientific literature, their advocates retain and reuse them whenever convenient.
Dunlap is Regents Professor and Dresser Professor in the Department of Sociology at Oklahoma State University, and Peter J. Presented here are nearly 200 books on climate change (the back row) and 29 books by climate skeptics (the front row). With some allowance for the much longer lead time necessary for writing and publishing a book versus a news story, the curve resembles Maxwell Boykoff’s annually updated review of climate change coverage by major newspapers. With books, however, the drop in response to the failure of Copenhagen was delayed; the number drops only in 2011 and then drops again in 2012.
In what began as groundbreaking three-part series in the New Yorker, for which she won a National Magazine Award in 2006, Kolbert cuts through the competing rhetoric and political agendas to elucidate for Americans what is really going on with the global environment and asks what, if anything, can be done to save our planet.
It is now widely believed that greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, are trapped within the Earth's atmosphere therefore resulting in dangerous effects to life on the planet. It is a quick read and explains global warming pretty well, I got it here because it was cheaper than the bookstore.
It has strengthened the environmental dimension of spatial planning and has become a new rationale for coordinating actions and integrating different policy priorities.This book provides authoritative guidance for spatial planners on how to meet the economic, social and environmental challenges that climate change raises for urban and regional development. Across this span, climatic conditions changed rapidly, with cooling in the high to mid-latitudes and drying in the tropics.
It includes a detailed assessment of costs and potentials of mitigation technologies and practices, implementation barrier, and policy options for the sectors: energy supply, transport, building, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management. You can buy four or five terrific climate change books for the price of this one volume alone - for example, Hell and High Water by Joseph Romm, Heat by George Monbiot, Boiling Point by Ross Gelbspan, The Weather Makers by Tim Flannery, and With Speed and Violence by Fred Pearce. Why has the United States failed so utterly to address the most pressing environmental issue of the age?
Climate Change Policy,"edited by environmental policy writer and Syracuse University law professor, David Driesen. From the tenth to the fifteenth century the earth experienced a rise in surface temperature that changed climate worldwide—a preview of today’s global warming.
This important study suggests that in recorded history there is evidence of fundamental shifts in climate; he emphasizes here the manner in which the early Middle Ages were influenced by these changes. While his earlier books ("The Little Ice Age", "Floods, Famines and Emperors") were little more than examples strung together, "The Great Warming" is an attempt to look at things from a broader perspective and to build theories.
However, I was astonished to see in the first few pages of the book that the author wastes no time in taking a polarized view that yes, there are similarities to our current "warming" trend, but undoubtedly the current trend is caused by man's industrial endeavors (and the Great Warming Period was, of course, not). So this wasn't a book to dispel Goreisms or pseudo-scientific anti-industrialist climate soothsayings?
Planet Ice documents the beauty and the power of ice and its unique role in revealing the changing condition of the planet. The fifteen years that James Martin spent photographing ice, animals and the outdoors shows in this gorgeous account of the rapidly changing ice on earth. The book covers the fundamentals of the subject, discussing what energy is, why it is important, as well as the detrimental effect on the environment following our use of energy. Yet while small island developing states are much talked about, the production of both scientific knowledge and policies to protect the rights of these nations and their people has been remarkably slow.This book is the first to apply a critical approach to climate change science and policy processes in the South Pacific region. Seasonal Forecasts, Climatic Change and Human Health: Health and Climate (Advances in Global Change Research)by Madeleine C. This awareness has yet to translate into a practical use of climate knowledge by health policy-makers.



This and other developments will prompt utilities to undergo the largest changes in their history. I always wanted to read a book that provides a comprehensive view of the present and the future power industry with their new challenges.
The basic hypothesis of the study is that warming would be beneficial to the economies of the colder northern regions but harmful to the economies of the warmer more southern regions.
Over the past year or so, she has been led to believe, based on the writings of a few with an angry politically-based agenda, that global warming does not exist and that for example, ex-VP Al Gore and others are pushing this "unproven theory" because he has investments in technologies that would "profit" from global warming. Whew! My gut tells me their opinions are nonsense.
Climate change is no longer a future worry: it's a present-day phenomenon that affects current lives. Climate change is caused by factors such as biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions. But from the outset the conservative movement was also heavily involved — the two united by antipathy toward the prospect of government regulations to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Their books are frequently carried by major bookstore chains, many receive enormous publicity on CTT websites and from conservative and skeptical bloggers, and some are sold through the Conservative Book Club. They were followed by 19 denial books published in the 1990s, 13 in the last half of that decade when the Kyoto Protocol was attracting extensive attention. In addition, individuals affiliated with CTTs are especially likely to produce multiple denial volumes — most notably Fred Singer with six and Patrick Michaels with five.
Currently a wide range of individuals without backgrounds in natural science, and by that criterion lacking relevant credentials for evaluating climate science, write books criticizing the field. None of the books are published by academic presses, and only a handful by presses that specialize in scientific topics, suggesting that very few (if any) undergo peer review — especially from climate scientists. Non-peer-reviewed books espousing climate change denial offer an ideal means of presenting these claims, accounting for the growing use of such books in the campaign to discredit evidence-based climate science. Perhaps the release of IPCC’s upcoming Fifth Assessment Report, starting later this year, will spur another increase in books about climate change. Now updated and with a new afterword, Field Notes from a Catastrophe is the book to read on the defining issue and greatest challenge of our times. Rising temperatures, severe drought, extinction of certain species, and melting to ice sheets and glaciers are only a handful of negative consequences provoked by global climate change.
In many parts of the world, human groups became more complex, with early horticultural systems replaced by intensive agriculture and small-scale societies being replaced by larger, more hierarchial organizations. This volume will be an essential reference to all those concerned with climate change, including students and researchers, analysts and decision-makers in governments and the private sector. This book argues that the failure arose from an unyielding ideological stance that embraced free markets and viewed government action as anathema.
In some areas, including western Europe, longer summers brought bountiful harvests and population growth that led to cultural flowering.
Based on a variety of sources ranging from historical documents to analysis of tree rings and deep ice cores, the period from the tenth to fifteenth centuries was marked by a warming trend around the world.
The examples in this book are fewer and more detailed than in his previous books, and this helps gives us a better understanding of what is going on, rather than the mere fact that it happened. If you're new to this area, I would suggest starting with this book and then moving to his earlier books to supplement this one.
Glaciers and ice fields are critical to the health of our world--and we are making them disappear. This book provides a comprehensive - and stunning - visual view of the true nature of climate change, supported by leaders in the fields on paleoclimatology, glaciology, ice climbing, polar bears and etc.
Energy is placed at the front of a discussion of geo-systems, living systems, technological development and the global environment, enabling the reader to develop a deeper understanding of magnitudes.Learning is re-enforced, and the relevance of the topic broadened, through the use of several conceptual veins running through the book. It shows how groups within politically and scientifically powerful countries appropriate the issue of island vulnerability in ways that do not do justice to the lives of island people. Two aspects stand out: His dissection of the business model of utilities, and his detachment. I have been somewhat desperate to find a non-technical book that would explain the science and the documented climate record and the possible future effects on the planet in a way I can understand. Harper has gone on record stating he “will not take ‘no’ for an answer” to the Keystone XL pipeline, and has raced off to Malaysia, no doubt to sign deals with Petronas concerning pipelines to the British Columbian coast.  In sum, Harper and Aglukkaq are not quite like deer in the headlights, they are more like deer ignoring the headlights, assuming that the problems will fade quietly away while they get on with the real business of digging up Canada and selling it cheap overseas. Certain human activities have also been identified as significant causes of recent climate change, often referred to as "global warming". Conservative think tanks (CTTs), core components of the conservative movement, have increasingly become central actors in the campaign, forming the Cooler Heads Coalition as flagging corporate support led to dissolution of the Global Climate Coalition. In short, books are a potent means for diffusing skepticism concerning AGW and the need to reduce GHG emissions.
Another 15 were published during the first half of the next decade, and a veritable explosion of 54 in the second half (especially 2007 to 2009), making a total of 69 from 2000 to 2009. Indeed, 14 of the 15 individuals who have published two or more denial books are affiliated with CTTs. It extends prior analysis by Dunlap and Jacques of books espousing environmental skepticism, challenging the evidence of a wide range of environmental problems. Climate Change and Cultural Dynamics explores the cause and effect relationship between climatic change and cultural transformations across the mid-Holocene (c. The most notorious result of this hands-off approach was the financial meltdown of late 2008; but strict reliance on free markets also hobbled government policymakers' response to the challenge of global warming. In the Arctic, Inuit and Norse sailors made cultural connections across thousands of miles as they traded precious iron goods. Before I indulged myself with what I hoped to be medieval wind speed gauging and seal cloth farming documentations, I was hit with a half-finished graph of recent "climate data" showing variances from the current age right alongside the age in question. Sometimes it's a bit too florid in my opinion, he describes mini-scenes centering on an example e.g. Pairing the striking glacier photography of James Martin with essays by Patagonia founder Yvon Chouinard, polar bear expert Ian Stirling, ice scientist Richard Alley, glaciologist Gino Casassa, and noted writers Gretel Ehrlich, Nick Jans, and Broughton Coburn, Planet Ice examines the characteristics of polar, mountain, and tropical ice. With essays by such voices as Patagonia founder Yvonne Chouinard, glaciologist Gino Casassa, and ice scientist Richard Alley, a well-formed picture of the disturbing truth about our rapidly changing earth is painted and elegantly documented in Martin's images. One of these is an attempt to demonstrate how systems are related to each other through energy and energy flows.
It argues that the ways in which islands and their inhabitants are represented in climate science and politics seldom leads to meaningful responses to assist them to adapt to climate change. If climate scientists are to contribute effectively to health policy at local and global scales then careful empirical studies must be undertaken focused on the needs of the public health policy and decision-makers. Fox-Penner's book is so well organized that those who are not familiar with the power industry can understand where it was, where it is now, and where it is going.
I needed a book I could understand while tired at night with one elbow on the pillow and eyelids growing heavy. This is just the book. The book consists of two sections: the first segment`s focal point is evidence of the phenomenon occurring in nature.
Kyoto, cap and trade, the effect of the neo-liberals, Republican obstructionism), "Economic Thought" portrays a heavy-duty, multi-faceted attempt to limit restrictions on pollution controls and fossil fuel policies to achieve results that are often less than surface appearances would suggest. Polynesian sailors, riding new wind patterns, were able to settle the remotest islands on earth. In terms of positive results, the Norse was able to settle parts of Greenland and engage in similar agriculture to what they had engaged in while living in Scandinavia.
At first I thought this was "cute" but now given the recent surfacing of bogus data, I can't believe a word of this man's scholarship, documented or not. Whether your desire is to have a deepened understanding of global climate change or to admire exquisitely captured pictures of ice formations, wildlife and wild lands, you're sure to find something special in Planet Ice. Throughout, the authors focus on the hitherto largely ignored social impacts of climate change, and demonstrate that adaptation and mitigation policies cannot be effective without understanding the social systems and values of island societies. Results presented at the Wengen conference make clear that the science and art of integrating climate knowledge into the control of climate sensitive diseases on a year to year time frame as well as careful assessments of the potential impacts of climate change on health outcomes over longer time frames is advancing rapidly on many fronts. In thorough but non-technical terms it explains the revolutionary changes that the Smart Grid is bringing to utility operations. This naturally leads to the discussion of smart grid and how it relates to the new challenges in the power industry.
Agriculture is analyzed using both an agronomic-economic simulation model and a cross-sectional Ricardian analysis. Cullen is a seasoned journalist and researcher who writes clearly and piles up her facts well.
The second half of the book explores the human activity that has contributed to global warming and whether or not the proper action is being taken to reduce what has already occurred. A prevailing theme throughout the book reveals how the public is constantly led to believe that laws representing one thing are in effect (cap and trade being a large culprit) when reality dictates a substantially different result (the examples of companies receiving trade credits when polluting factories are taken off line vs. Equally important, in many parts of Europe longer summers, and growing seasons with bountiful harvests, as well as milder winters led to a rise of population, the development of more urban areas, and the development of more sophisticated culture. The "meat" of the book, if you can find it, provided me little other than "no-duh" knowledge about the era. This includes advances in the empirical understanding of mechanisms, methodologies for modeling future impacts, new partnership developments between the health and climate community along with access to relevant data resources, and education and training. It also examines the options for low-carbon emissions along with the real-world challenges the industry and its regulators must face as the industry retools and finances its new sources and systems. Throughout the book, Peter Fox-Penner provides insights into the policy choices and regulatory reform needed to face these challenges. The author's description and opinions are very convincing, and his view serves as a good guide to the future of the power industry, not only in the U.S.
The two capital-intensive sectors affected by climate are analyzed with explicit dynamic models. Personally, I never felt I needed to be convinced about the "reality" of global warming, but if I had some doubts as the rising tide of conspiracy theory emails arrived in my email in-basket, this book put those little doubts to rest. I recommend this book to the intelligent (like me), informed, but non-science-oriented reader who needs to have a basic understanding of this issue and how it will become ever more pressing and crucial in the days to come.


Despite the issues' complexity, the book is simplistic enough for first time exposure to the issue, yet still provides great insight for those well informed on the topic. As previously mentioned, the first half of the book focuses the causes and effects from global climate change. Elaborate societies in western and central America collapsed, and the vast building complexes of Chaco Canyon and the Mayan Yucatan were left empty. This author should be co-starring with Al Gore writing poetry about his "passions" instead of wasting some poor country's tax dollars in a library with an Encyclopaedia Brittanica. Together, these authors illuminate the profound connection between ice--a substance that is at once mutable and forceful--and the wellbeing of our global community. He not only weighs the costs and benefits of every option, but presents interviews with informed experts, including economists, utility CEOs, and engineers. A dynamic ecological-economic model is applied to forestry and a dynamic sea-level rise model is applied to study coastal impacts.
Imagine that we just continue to emit carbon at our current levels or even exceed those levels. Kolbert takes a trip around the world to experience the direct effects of climate change firsthand. The history of the Great Warming of a half millennium ago suggests that we may yet be underestimating the power of climate change to disrupt our lives today—and our vulnerability to drought, writes Fagan, is the “silent elephant in the room.”Brian Fagan is emeritus professor of anthropology at the University of California, Santa Barbara. These droughts led to the collapse of society in the American Southwest, which had enjoyed a high culture previously, decimated civilizations in the Mayan Yucatan and Central America, and restricted the impressive Polynesian society of the Pacific, including the settlers of Easter Island. He gives a brief history of the development of the current utility business model and examines possible new business models that are focused on energy efficiency. Smart Power explains every aspect of the coming energy revolution for utilities in lively prose that will captivate even the most techno-phobic readers.
A hydrologic-economic simulation model of selected watersheds is used for water and a cross-sectional empirical approach is used for energy. Her journey begins in Shishmaref, Alaska where she encounters two main positive feedback loops that have become detrimental to the environment. His books on the interaction of climate and human society have established him as a leading authority on the subject; he lectures frequently around the world. In the steppes of Central Asia, prolonged drought forced Genghis Kahn and the Mongol Hordes to the West in search of water, food, and the necessities of its nomadic existence. In each case, a national model is estimated and results are desegregated to the regional level. Brian Fagan makes the case that Kahn and his followers were driven to conquest more by radical climate change than any other single factor. Because the study focuses on including efficient adaptation responses, the special role of adaptation is discussed in detail.The book concludes with a discussion of the impacts across the country and in each region. As the glaciers are continuing to melt, sea levels are rising and thus flooding the coastal regions. This is a fascinating and important observation. Brian Fagan's last chapter suggests lessons for the future from this "Great Warming" of the early Medieval period. Any reader interested in climate change and its impacts should find this book of detailed results enlightening. Humans who once inhabited these areas have now been forced to find homes farther inland.The second loop is a product of the melting permafrost which is releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, increasing the greenhouse effect. He concludes: "Whether the Medieval Warm Period was warmer than today, and why, is still a matter of much debate.
A similar occurrence is taking place in Greenland where glaciers are rapidly melting as well. The author discusses those problems and presents a lot of information and statistics, to my satisfaction. Heidi Cullen, one of the world's foremost climatologists and environmental journalists, puts a vivid face on climate change, offering a new way of seeing this phenomenon not just as an event set to happen in the distant future but as something happening right now in our own backyards. This fresh water released from these glaciers is altering ocean currents and thus causing climates to be colder or warmer.
Then on the basis of the vast amount of data and information he collected and analyzed, the author predicts two types of future utilities, namely, SI and ESU.
Arguing that we must connect the weather of today with the climate change of tomorrow, Cullen combines the latest research from scientists on the ground with state-of-the-art climate-model projections to create climate-change scenarios for seven of the most at-risk locations around the world.
In addition to melting of glaciers, Kolbert emphasizes the migration of animal's species northward and the extinction of others due to increased temperatures.
And unlike the situation a millennium ago, humans are numerous enough, and our outputs profuse enough, to push the trend further and faster. What is not debatable is that if we reenact the climate history of a millennium ago--let along see the earth get even warmer--we will see how vulnerable humans are to the forces of their environments" (p.
Carbon emissions from humans were historically stable until we reached our industrialized era.
232). Fagan notes that we are already starting to see catastrophic repercussions from the current warming trend. What emerges is a mosaic of changing weather patterns that collectively spell out the range of risks posed by global warming—whether it's New York City, whose infrastructure is extremely vulnerable to even a relatively weak category 3 hurricane, or Bangladesh, a country so low-lying that millions of people could become climate refugees due to rising sea levels. Droughts are more common every year, populations are being displaced, natural phenomena such as hurricanes, cyclones, tornadoes, and tsunamis are more devastating than we have seen in recorded history. This is detrimental to life on Earth since this carbon is trapped inside our atmosphere and not only increasing global temperatures but also burning a hole in our ozone layer. He comments that "we not confront a future in which most of us live in large and rapidly growing cities, many of them adjacent to rising oceans and waters where Category 5 hurricanes or massive El Ninos can cause billions of dollars of damage within a few hours. This is a huge concern since ozone absorbs harmful rays emitted from the sun that are detrimental to human life. We're at a point where there are too many of us to evacuate, where the costs of vulnerability are almost beyond the capacity of even the wealthiest governments to handle. The sheer scale of industrialized societies renders them far more vulnerable to such long-term changes as climbing temperatures and rising sea levels" (p. This half begins by exploring the theory that ancient civilizations, such as the Mayans and Shekhna, experienced the tragic effects of global warming as well. Evidence posed by scientists show patterns of droughts in these areas whose severity ultimately lead to wiping out the entire population of humans and species. Now that both current and historical evidence have been factored into proving the phenomenon, Kolbert asks what is exactly being done to combat this?
He believes that drought is the most far-reaching of the negative climatological effects we will experience in the twenty-first century.
The answer to this is complicated with remainder of the book highlighting various actions taken by different counties. Recently, the country has experienced reoccurring patterns of widespread flooding in which new innovations are being made to construct roads and homes that have the ability to float. It we look at how the chance to earn a better living has drawn millions from Latin America across U.S.
It has been recognized that humans need to give more room to rivers rather than trying to push them back.
Water, Fagan believes, is what will precipitate future wars far more than most are willing to acknowledge. When the Kyoto Protocol, a plan presented by the UN for industrialized countries to reduce emission of greenhouse gases, was introduced, the U.S.
Genghis Kahn and the Mongol Hordes swarmed into Europe during the Medieval Warm Period to escape drought and find food and water. As Fagan concludes, "The people of a thousand years ago remind us that our greatest asset is our opportunism and endless capacity to adapt to our circumstances. Bush have proposed plans that would help greenhouse emissions steadily decline, yet the United State's emissions have only shown patterns of continuous increase. Let us think of ourselves as partners with rather than potential masters of the changing natural world around us" (p. Kolbert's main argument about the reality of global warming is backed by strong, credible evidence. In visiting all these places, Kolbert proves that climate change is indeed a global issue that is in desperate need of more attention. In addition to traveling to such places Kolbert conducts many interviews with not only a number of experts but locals as well.
Between her personal experience, science, and other's observations Kolbert provides many different viewpoints on the issue that all have the same conclusions: global climate change is a real thing. In this, Kolbert offers an array of perspectives on the matter rather than just one to prove her point. The way in which Kolbert wrote the book breaks the problem down enough for the common reader to understand yet is still well written enough for even the informed reader.
As far as organization goes, Kolbert first focuses on global warming and its effects, then proceeds in the second half to talk about actions being taken to reduce the problem.
If the two sections were to have been reversed, solutions then problems, a reader would have been less connected with the problem and the book would have been much more difficult to get through. One additional factor that made the book appealing was the United State's reaction to the phenomenon. She makes an excellent point that the goal of every country is to modernize like the United State yet if they were to follow the same patterns as the United States, humankind and the Earth would be in tremendous trouble.



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