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An online Master’s in Human Resource Management degree program is often the best option for working professionals who are pursuing their higher educational goals in the human resources industry. ACU was established in 1906 as a center for higher education focusing on developing strong Christian leaders who will have a positive impact on the global marketplace.
CIU is strictly an online university that provides training in the area of business management. CIU is currently recognized within the top 20 percent of “Military Friendly” schools in the United States for veterans by GI Jobs magazine. Tuition Students can expect to pay $295 per credit hour to attend CIU, making it one of the most affordable online human resources degree programs available. Capella is strictly an online university that offers its students an option to earn a Master’s in Business Administration with a concentration in Human Resources Management.
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As one of the most elite institutions to offer an accredited human resources degree, Penn State is ranked as the 37th best college, 8th top public school, and 1st top university for veterans with the 49th best business school in the nation by the U.S. Mercy College, located in New York, offers a Master of Science in Human Resource Management in a hybrid online and in class room learning environment. This university offers an online Master’s in HR Management degree program that was developed using the industry standard human resources body of knowledge. Along with having the 51st best online graduate business programs, the University of Scranton is recognized as the 8th best college, 15th top value school, and 2nd best up-and-coming university in the North by the U.S. Walden is nationally acclaimed for having the 161st best online graduate business programs in the entire United States by the U.S.
For more information on this and related degrees, see the Master’s in Human Resources degree homepage. Septuagint from the Latin word septuaginta, meaning seventy, is a translation of the Hebrew Bible and some related texts into Koine Greek in the 3rd century B.C., that is over 200 years before the birth of our Sovereign Lord Jesus Christ!
Philo of Alexandria, who relied extensively on the Septuagint, says that the number of scholars was chosen by selecting six scholars from each of the twelve tribes of Israel. In the Old Testament (Septuagint), every occurrence of ecclesia in the Word of God is translated assembly.
The exception to the rule is in the book of Ecclesiastes where the word with the root of ecclesia has not been translated to the word assemble, rather it has been translated ecclesiastic (Solomon referring to himself). The first two letters have one meaning, these are the first root word, and the last six letters have another meaning, and these are the second root word.
Further, let's examine Acts 19 in the New Testament, which was originally penned in Koine Greek. Paul, the former persecutor of Christians named Saul, provides a definition of ecclesia in 1 Timothy 3:15. To help examine ecclesia occurrences, the New Testament can easily be viewed by those that hunger and thirst for righteousness! The definition of ecclesia is out-called, called out assembly, community, and congregation. An exhaustive analysis of New Testament occurrences of ecclesia is due, so please find it at this link, "Table of Every Occurrence of Ecclesia in the New Testament". The Assembly of God is the group of people that experience the sanctifying power of the Holy Spirit and believe on the Lord Jesus Christ secure in the faith delivered to the saints (Jude 3, Ephesians 2:8-10), including those asleep and living. But know this first of all, that no prophecy of Scripture is a matter of one's own interpretation, for no prophecy was ever made by an act of human will, but men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God. The sacred writings which are able to give you the wisdom that leads to salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus. Yahúwah Yahushua haMashiyach established His ecclesia on the Ledge of Truth, that is, Himself. It is this Man without sin and having committed no crime, Who was crucified as a substitutionary offering for the crimes and sin of men against the eternal God, that established the ecclesia! In the book of Esther, we find Ahasuerus, king of the Medes and the Persians, as a remote picture of King Jesus. Not by flesh nor blood, but by God: And Jesus said to His disciples, "Truly I say to you, it is hard for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven.
Not by flesh (man's determination?) nor blood (heritage?) nor the will (of man), but by God: But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, even to those who believe in His name, who were born, not of blood nor of the will of the flesh nor of the will of man, but of God.
The unbeliever does not choose nor accept Jesus, rather Jesus OPENS EYES or closes eyes (John 9). For clarity, the English word sin which is the Greek word hamartA­a, should also be defined. Sin is "not a part" of God, or said another way, "missing the mark" established by God, like missing the bull's eye of a target, sin is when a person does not do as God commands whether ignorantly or not. The following indented section is based on assertions from documents and claims made by others about history. The earliest known reference to the term "pulpit" as it pertains to the church is found in the writing of Cyprian (c. When this man, beloved brethren, came to us with such condescension of the Lord, illustrious by the testimony and wonder of the very man who had persecuted him, what else behoved to be done except that he should be placed on the pulpit, that is, on the tribunal of the Church; that, resting on the loftiness of a higher station, and conspicuous to the whole people for the brightness of his honour, he should read the precepts and Gospel of the Lord, which he so bravely and faithfully follows? It is claimed that the day before the battle of Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312, that Roman Emperor Constantine had a vision of a symbol about Christ with a voice telling him "In this sign, [you shall] conquer". Jesus perceived that the multitude moved with the intention to seize Him to make Him king, and He withdrew to the mountain by Himself, alone (John 6:15). Jesus said the rulers of the gentiles lord it over, but no so with the children of God (Matthew 20:25-28). Jesus Christ responded about the Galileans whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices "Do you suppose that these Galileans were greater sinners than all other Galileans because they suffered this fate? Jesus Christ proclaimed His eternal Kingdom in front of Pontius Pilate by Jesus saying these powerful words, "My kingdom is not of this world.
The servants of this world fight and engage in violence (this includes military service [see Luke 3:14 for John the Baptist's response to the soldiers asking "What shall we do?" in the KJV as well as the YLT, John answered "Do violence to no one", and the word violence came from a Greek word which occurs a single time in the New Testament, and this is the occurrence]). If Jesus' servants did not fight for Him, the King of Glory, the Ruler of rulers, the Lord of lords, the epitome of a potential reason to fight, then what else could possibly qualify? Jesus repeats the first part of what He said as the conclusion, thus adding emphasis and intensity to His saying of "but as it is, My kingdom is not of this realm".
People in leadership of the Church tacitly approved the role of vicar of Christ to Constantine, or said another way, the pontus of Christos, the Pope by act.
The integration of Church and State under Constantine exceeded Holy Scripture, and it violated the Word of God.
Later in Constantine's reign, persecution of people that claimed to be Christian, yet rejected subscribing to Constantine's beliefs underwent brutal destruction of life. It was under Theodosius I's successor, Theodosius II, that pagans were denied public employment, that is civil and military administration. Prior to the 12th century, execution was rare for heresy, rather ecclesiastical proscription or imprisonment were the tools of the Church. Dominic said of the Albingeneses, "It is not the display of power and pomp, cavalcades of retainers, and richly-houseled palfreys, or by gorgeous apparel, that the heretics win proselytes; it is by zealous preaching, by apostolic humility, by austerity, by seeming, it is true, but by seeming holiness.
About the year 1384, John Wycliffe translated the Bible from Latin into Middle English, so people could read the Scriptures! In 1526, William Tyndale completed the translation of the New Testament based on Greek text "compiled by Erasmus from several manuscripts older and more authoritative than the Latin Vulgate" of Jerome (A.D. About one year later, King Henry VIII ordered that each Church of England display the largest book of the Bible. Contemporary with William was Martin Luther, Menno Simmons, John Calvin, and Huldrych Zwingli.
While it is difficult to place a specific timeframe on the Roman Catholic Church's nearly unchecked reign, we can deduce that it was about 1,200 years (roughly 300 A.D. Definitions are important, without them, we are each left to our own devices, and misunderstanding is almost certain to ensue.
Also picked up by Slavic, probably via Germanic (Old Church Slavonic criky, Russian cerkov).
It is unsettling to see the similarity between the Old English word "circe", the Latin word "circe", and the Greek word "circe"! A goddess who turned Odysseus's men temporarily into swine but later gave him directions for their journey home. That the English word "circus" derives from Greek word "kirkos" (which is very similar to the Old Norse word "kirkja" that may have later developed into the English word "church") should be alarming. Topikos, the Greek word for local, does not appear in the New Testament; therefore, "local church" does NOT appear in the New Testament.
If God Almighty wanted a "local" anything, then He Who knows all things would have used a Greek word meaning "local" such as the Greek word "topikos", but topikos is NOT in the New Testament!
It is important to read both columns in each of these boxes throughout this essay in order to get a clear view. Young's Literal Translation (YLT) (opens to Wikipedia) is a translation of the Bible into English, published in 1862.
As Jesus went on from there, He saw a man called Matthew, sitting in the tax collector's booth; and He said to him, "Follow Me!" And he got up and followed Him. And Jesus passing by thence, saw a man sitting at the tax-office, named Matthew, and saith to him, 'Be following me,' and he, having risen, did follow him. It is a trustworthy statement: if any man aspires to the office of overseer, it is a fine work he desires to do. DESCRIPTION: This is the largest map of its kind to have survived in tact and in good condition from such an early period of cartography. These place names are in Lincolnshire (Holdingham and Sleaford are the modern forms), and this Richard has been identified as one Richard de Bello, prebend of Lafford in Lincoln Cathedral about the year 1283, who later became an official of the Bishop of Hereford, and in 1305 was appointed prebend of Norton in Hereford Cathedral.
While the map was compiled in England, names and descriptions were written in Latin, with the Norman dialect of old French used for special entries. Here, my dear Son, my bosom is whence you took flesh Here are my breasts from which you sought a Virgina€™s milk. The other three figures consist of a woman placing a crown on the Virgin Mary and two angels on their knees in supplication.
Still within this decorative border, in the left-hand bottom corner, the Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus is enthroned and crowned with a papal triple tiara and delivers a mandate with his seal attached, to three named commissioners.
In the right-hand bottom corner an unidentified rider parades with a following forester holding a pair of greyhounds on a leash. The geographical form and content of the Hereford map is derived from the writings of Pliny, Solinus, Augustine, Strabo, Jerome, the Antonine Itinerary, St. As is traditional with the T-O design, there is the tripartite division of the known world into three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. EUROPE: When we turn to this area of the Hereford map we would expect to find some evidence of more contemporary 13th century knowledge and geographic accuracy than was seen in Africa or Asia, and, to some limited extent, this theory is true. France, with the bordering regions of Holland and Belgium is called Gallia, and includes all of the land between the Rhine and the Pyrenees.
Norway and Sweden are shown as a peninsula, divided by an arm of the sea, though their size and position are misrepresented. On the other side of Europe, Iceland, the Faeroes, and Ultima Tile are shown grouped together north of Norway, perhaps because the restricting circular limits of the map did not permit them to be shown at a more correct distance.
The British Isles are drawn on a larger scale than the neighboring parts of the continent, and this representation is of special interest on account of its early date. On the Hereford map, the areas retain their Latin names, Britannia insula and Hibernia, Scotia, Wallia, and Cornubia, and are neatly divided, usually by rivers, into compartments, North and South Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, England, and Scotland. THE MEDITERRANEAN: The Mediterranean, conveniently separating the three continents of Asia, Africa and Europe, teems with islands associated with legends of Greece and Rome. Mythical fire-breathing creature with wings, scales and claws; malevolent in west, benevolent in east. 4.A A  For bibliographical information on these and other (including lost) cartographical exemplars, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p. 10.A A  For bibliographical information for editions and translations of the source texts, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p. 11.A A  More detailed analysis of these data can be found in my a€?Lessons from Legends on the Hereford Mappa Mundi,a€? Hereford Mappa Mundi Conference proceedings volume being edited by Barber and Harvey (see n. 16.A A  Danubius oritur ab orientali parte Reni fluminis sub quadam ecclesia, et progressus ad orientem, . 23.A A  The a€?standarda€? Latin forms of these place-names and the modern English equivalents are those recorded in the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, ed.
From the time when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography.
FROM THE TIME when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography. Details from the Hereford map of the Blemyae and the Psilli.a€? Typical of the strange creatures or 'Wonders of the East' derived by Richard of Haldingham from classical sources and placed in Ethiopia.

Equally important work was also being done on medieval and Renaissance world maps as a genre, particularly by medievalists such as Anna-Dorothee von den Brincken and Jorg-Geerd Arentzen in Germany and by Juergen Schulz, primarily an art historian, and David Woodward, a leading historian of cartography, in the United States. The Hereford World Map is the only complete surviving English example of a type of map which was primarily a visualization of all branches of knowledge in a Christian framework and only secondly a geographical object.
After the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, monks and scholars struggled desperately to preserve from destruction by pagan barbarians the flotsam and jetsam of classical history and learning; to consolidate them and to reconcile them with Christian teaching and biblical history.
There would have been several models to choose from, corresponding to the widely differing cartographic traditions inside the Roman Empire, but it seems that the commonest image descended from a large map of the known world that was created for a portico lining the Via Flaminia near the Capitol in Rome during Christ's lifetime. Recent writers such as Arentzen have suggested that, simply because of their sheer availability, from an early date different versions of this map may have been used to illustrate texts by scholars such as St. Eventually some of the information from the texts became incorporated into the maps themselves, though only sparingly at first.
A broad similarity in coastlines with the Hereford map is clear in the Anglo-Saxon [Cottonian] World Map, c.1000 (#210), but there are no illustrations of animals other than the lion (top left). The resulting maps ranged widely in shape and appearance, some being circular, others square.
A few maps of the inhabited world were much more detailed, though keeping to the same broad structure and symbolism.
Most of these earlier maps were book illustrations, none were particularly big and the maps were always considered to need textual amplification. From about 1100, however, we know from contemporary descriptions in chronicles and from the few surviving inventories that larger world maps were produced on parchment, cloth and as wall paintings for the adornment of audience chambers in palaces and castles as well as, probably, of altars in the side chapels of religious buildings.
A separate written text of an encyclopedic nature, probably written by the map's intellectual creator, however, was still intended to accompany many if not all these large maps and one may originally have accompanied the Hereford world map. These maps seem largely to have been inspired by English scholars working at home or in Europe. The most striking novelty, however, was the vastly increased number of depictions of peoples, animals, and plants of the world copied from illustrations in contemporary handbooks on wildlife, commonly called bestiaries and herbals. Mentions in contemporary records and chronicles, such as those of Matthew Paris, make it plain that these large world maps were once relatively common. At about the same time that this map was being created, Henry III, perhaps after consultation with Gervase, who had visited him in 1229, commissioned wall maps to hang in the audience chambers of his palaces in Winchester and Westminster. The Hereford Mappamundi is the only full size survivor of these magnificent, encyclopedic English-inspired maps. An inscription in Norman-French at the bottom left attributes the map to Richard of Haldingham and Sleaford.
People who typically pursue an online Master’s in Human Resource Management are usually already working in the field and wish to gain a competitive advantage for career advancement in a variety of Human Resources positions.
This school offers students over 125 subjects from which to choose including, human resources management. News and World Report, ASU is ranked as the 19th best college, 13th best value school, 2nd top up-and-coming school, and 5th top university for veterans in the West. CIU offers a Master’s in Business Administration with a concentration in Organizational Development and Human Resource Management that requires just 45 credit hours. Capella University’s degree program areas include education and behavioral science in addition to business and technology. DeVry University offers an online Master’s in Business Administration with a specialization in Human Resources Management.
Its Master of Science in Management with a concentration in Human Resource Management may be earned through a hybrid online and in class room degree program. Its Master of Professional Studies in Human Resources and Employment Relations is for those who already have a strong working knowledge of human resources and wish to hone their skills through advanced studies in benefits package development, labor law, dispute resolution, and staffing recruitment. News and World Report, Drexel is currently ranked as the 97th best college, 7th best up-and-coming school, and 12th top university for veterans in the nation. News and World Report survey has currently ranked Mercy College as having the 148th best online programs, while GI Jobs magazine recognized it as a “Top Military Friendly School” for supporting veterans.
He placed them in 72 chambers, each of them in a separate one, without revealing to them why they were summoned. All Scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness; so that the man of God may be adequate, equipped for every good work. Ahasuerus' burning anger against those that do not obey the command of king, in this case, the king's wife as evidenced by her being cast out (Esther 1:15). Try reciting the words of Jesus, where he is commanding the people in Matthew 4:17, except, first, replace the word "repent" with "I change my mind", then, second, replace the word "repent" with "think differently afterwards".
For we are His workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand so that we would walk in them" (Ephesians 2:8-10).
As incredulous as it may sound, there was a gradual departure from the teachings of Christ Jesus that can be called antichrist.
Let the voice that has confessed the Lord daily be heard in those things which the Lord spoke. It is said that this event impacted Constantine's attitude toward Christianity in a positive fashion. This could mean one thing, that the Children of God are focused on the eternal realm, as opposed to the matters of this world's governments! Constantine insinuated himself as the head of the Church, and Church leadership was complicit, if not explicit in the act as Constantine called for synods and councils over which he presided over the results, such as the Nicene Council. Constantine exercised authority over the Church, and those people that agreed with Constantine had the peace of the world.
Ambrose, the Church bishop of Milan, exerted extraordinary dominance over Theodosius I, including leveraging the threat of excommunication. The Order of the Dominicans, founded by a Church priest Dominic Guzman, were the Pope's chief instrument in the evil inquisition. In humiliation at his failure, Dominic claimed to speak on behalf of Christ when he promised slavery and death to his opponents. About 50 years after John's death, the Church exhumed his decaying body, smashed it, and burned the bones for heresy. The first seminaries were by the Roman Catholic Church as part of the Council of Trent in response to the reformation!
John's Church burned Michael Servetus (opens to Wikipedia), a Spanish theologian, and Martin's friend and authority in the Church sent a letter of congratulation to John for executing a heretic (History of the Christian Church, Volume VIII: Modern Christianity. An example of the direct Greek-to-Germanic progress of many Christian words, via the Goths; it probably was used by West Germanic people in their pre-Christian period.
The translation was made by Robert Young (opens to Wikipedia), compiler of Young's Analytical Concordance to the Bible and Concise Critical Comments on the New Testament. An overseer, then, must be above reproach, the husband of one wife, temperate, prudent, respectable, hospitable, able to teach, not addicted to wine or pugnacious, but gentle, peaceable, free from the love of money.
The circle of the world is set in a somewhat rectangular frame background with a pointed top, and an ornamented border of a zig-zag pattern often found in psalter-maps of the period (#223). Show pity, as you said you would, on all Who their devotion paid to me for you made me Savioress.
Olympus and such cities as Athens and Corinth; the Delphic oracle, misnamed Delos, is represented by a hideous head. James (Roxburghe Club) 1929, with representations from manuscripts in the British Library and the Bodleian Library, and a€?Marvels of the Easta€?, by R. The upper-left corner of the Hereford Map, showing north and east Asia (compare to the contents on Chart 3). 1), however, call attention to a remarkable degree of accuracy in the relationship of toponymsa€”for cities, rivers, and mountainsa€”both in EMM and in Hereford Map legends.A  On the Asia Minor littoral, for example, one passage in EMM links 39 place-names in a running series, 23 of which are found in Chart 4 (and visible, in almost exactly parallel order, on Fig. 5, above).A  Treating islands separately from the eartha€™s three a€?partsa€? follows the organizational style adopted by Isidore of Seville, Honorius Augustodunensis, and other medieval geographical authorities. Note Lincoln on its hill and Snowdon ('Snawdon'), Caernarvon and Conway in Wales, referring to the castles Edward I was building there when the map was being created. In England, a detailed study of its less obvious features, such as the sequences of its place names and some of its coastal outlines by G.
The Psilli reputedly tested the virtue of their wives by exposing their children to serpents. The cumulative effect has been to enable us at last to evaluate the map in terms of its actual (largely non-geographical and not exclusively religious) purpose, the age in which it was created and in the context of the general development of European cartography. The Old and New Testaments contained few doctrinal implications for geography, other than a bias in favor of an inhabited world consisting of three interlinked continents containing descendants of Noah's three sons.
This now-lost map was referred to in some detail by a number of classical writers and it seems to have been created under the direction of Emperor Augustus's son-in-law, Vipsanius Agrippa (63-12 BC) for official purposes. As the centuries went by, more and more was included with references to places associated with events in classical history and legend (particularly fictionalized tales about Alexander the Great) and from biblical history with brief notes on and the very occasional illustration of natural history.
Note also the Roman provincial boundaries, the relative accuracy of the British coastlines (lower left) and the attention paid to the Balkans and Denmark, with which Saxon England had close contacts. Some, often oriented to the north, attempted to show the whole world in zones, with the inhabited earth occupying the zone between the equator and the frozen north. They were never intended to convey purely geographical information or to stand alone without explanatory text.
Often a 'context' for them would have been provided by the other secular as well as religious surrounding decorations. For many maps continued to be used primarily for educational, including theological, purposes. They reached their fullest development in the thirteenth century when Englishmen like Roger Bacon, John of Holywood (Sacrobosco), Robert Grosseteste and Matthew Paris were playing an inordinately large part in creative geographical thinking in Europe. In most, if not all of these maps, the strange peoples or 'Marvels of the East' are shown occupying Ethiopia on the right (southern) edge, as on the Hereford map.
Exposure to light, fire, water, and religious bigotry or indifference over the centuries has, however, led to the destruction of most of them. Both are now lost but it seems quite likely that the so-called 'Psalter Map', produced in London in the early 1260s and now owned by the British Library, is a much reduced copy of the map that hung in Westminster Palace. Despite some broad similarities in arrangement and content, however, there are very considerable differences from the Ebstorf and the 'Westminster Palace' maps in details - like the precise location of wildlife, the portrayal of some coastlines and islands, or in the recent information incorporated.
The Online Master’s in Organizational and Human Resource Development integrates courses in communications, psychology, management sciences and conflict resolution. The Father in Heaven's banquet is for His Son, and the purpose of this feast is to celebrate the marriage to His Chosen Bride, and she has the favor of the Father because of the Son (Matthew 22:1-14)! Or, is church a man-made organization that is outside the dictates of the Father in heaven for the Bride of His Son? In this, we find the nuance of ecclesiastic meaning one of the assembly, that is, Solomon, one of the assembly, became king over Israel. Luke, the author under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, used the word ecclesia to describe the mob of unbelievers in Ephesus! That would be inconsistent with the use of ecclesia in the Law (Old Testament - in particular the Septuagint). All people that entered the inner court without being summoned by the king would be executed, unless the king holds out his scepter (Esther 4:11).
Or does not the potter have a right over the clay, to make from the same lump one vessel for honorable use and another for common use? Nevertheless, God continues to preserve a people unto Himself, and one such account of a person is Polycarp, an elder in the assembly of God that was discipled by John (as in the Gospel according to John), is depicted in this excellent movie, Polycarp available on DVD as well as several sources of accounts of his life, and death, that centered on Christ around 150 A.D. Let it be seen whether there is any further degree to which he can be advanced in the Church. God forbade the kings from usurping the role of priest, and the priests were to be dedicated to God's service.
The effective result of Theodosius' edict made the Church the state religion of the western empire. Two years later, after the formation of the Order of the Dominicans, Pope Innocent III ordered the crusade against the Albingenses. At that time, the leaders of the churches opposed the publication of the Bible in the common language of the land; in other words, the clergy only wanted the Bible in Latin to be produced, anywhere! Entopios occurs once in the New Testament, and it is translated place in Acts 21:12, "they of that place, besought him not to go". Young used the Textus Receptus (TR) and the Majority Text (MT) as the basis for his translation. He must be one who manages his own household well, keeping his children under control with all dignity (but if a man does not know how to manage his own household, how will he take care of the church of God?), and not a new convert, so that he will not become conceited and fall into the condemnation incurred by the devil.
In this we see that these Greek words are nearly interchangeable because the same group of elders are being addressed.
In Phrygia there is born an animal called bonnacon; it has a bulla€™s head, horsea€™s mane and curling horns, when chased it discharges dung over an extent of three acres which burns whatever it touches.
India also has the largest elephants, whose teeth are supposed to be of ivory; the Indians use them in war with turrets (howdahs) set on them. The linx sees through walls and produces a black stonea€” a valuable carbuncle in its secret parts.
A tiger when it sees its cub has been stolen chases the thief at full speed; the thief in full flight on a fast horse drops a mirror in the track of the tiger and so escapes unharmed.
Agriophani Ethiopes eat only the flesh of panthers and lions they have a king with only one eye in his forehead. Men with doga€™s heads in Norway; perhaps heads protected with furs made them resemble dogs. Essendones live in Scythia it is their custom to carry out the funeral of their parents with singing and collecting a company of friends to devour the actual corpses with their teeth and make a banquet mingled with the flesh of animals counting it more glorious to be consumed by them than by worms.

Solinus: they occupy the source of the Ganges and live only on the scent of apples of the forest if they should perceive any smell they die instantly. Himantopodes; they creep with crawling legs rather than walk they try to proceed by sliding rather than by taking steps. The Monocoli in India are one-legged and swift when they want to be protected from the heat of the sun they are shaded by the size of their foot. Flint, a€?The Hereford Map:A  Its Author(s), Two Scenes and a Border,a€? Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser.
Nevertheless, it placed a somewhat misleading emphasis on the map's geographical 'inaccuracies', its depiction of fabulous creatures and supposedly religious purpose, all clothed in what for the layman must have seemed an air of wildly esoteric learning and near-impenetrable medieval mystery.
Recent research suggests this is a reference to African traders in medicinal drugs who visited ancient Rome. Today, with the map in the headlines of the popular press, it may be time to give a brief resume of what is currently known about it and to attempt to explain some of its more important features in the light of recent research. In the eyes of some (but by no means all) theologians, a fourth inhabited continent, the Antipodes, would implicitly have denied the descent of mankind from Noah, and the depiction of such a continent was deemed to be heretical by them.
It was based on survey and on military itineraries and reflected the political and administrative realities of the time. Where space allowed, reference was also made to important contemporary towns, regions, and geographical features such as freshly-opened mountain passes. Most of the maps, however, like the Hereford Mappamundi, depicted only that part of the world that was known in classical times to be inhabited and they were oriented with east at the top.
Traces of the maps' classical origins could regularly be seen in, for instance, the continued depiction of the provincial boundaries of the Roman Empire (which are partly visible on the Hereford map) and for many centuries by the island of Delos which had been sacred to the early Greeks being the centre of the inhabited world. They and the texts that they adorned continued to be copied by hand until late in the 15th century and are to be found in early printed books. God dominates the world and the 'Marvels of the East' occupy the lower right edge of the map, as they do on the Hereford map. Together they would have provided a propaganda backdrop for the public appearances of the ruler, ruling body, noble or cleric who had commissioned them, and some may have been able to stand alone as visual histories.
The Hereford map, as an inscription at the lower left corner tells us, was certainly intended for use as a visual encyclopedia, to be 'heard, read and seen' by onlookers. Because of the maps' size, they were able to include far more information and illustration than their predecessors. More space was also found for current political references and information derived from contemporary military, religious and commercial itineraries.
Today, the earliest survivor, dating from the beginning of the thirteenth century, is a badly damaged example now in Vercelli Cathedral, probably having been brought to Italy in about 1219 by a papal legate returning from England. We know from Matthew Paris that the Westminster map was copied by others, and it is likely to have had a lasting influence even though the original was destroyed in 1265.
A Latin legend in the bottom right corner of the Hereford map refers to the 5th century Christian propagandist Orosius as the main source for the map, but as we have already seen, it incorporates information from numerous ancient and thirteenth century sources and adds its own interpretations of them. The map is an outstanding example of a map type that had evolved over the preceding eight centuries.
Ecclesia occurs 7 times in Ecclesiastes, and this number is included in the 107 Bible verses mentioned above. Should the people translating to English have employed "church" as the term for the enraged, lost, unsaved mob in Ephesus? After all, synagogue was translated congregation as is shown again and again in the Holy Spirit inspired writings of Moses!
The king punishes people that oppose him as well as people that oppose his loved ones (Esther 7:9). What if God, although willing to demonstrate His wrath and to make His power known, endured with much patience vessels of wrath prepared for destruction? There is nothing in which a confessor can do more good to the brethren than that, while the reading of the Gospel is heard from his lips, every one who hears should imitate the faith of the reader. King Saul made sacrifices that did not keep the commandent of YHWH; rather, Samuel was authorized to make the sacrifices (1 Samuel 13). And he must have a good reputation with those outside the church, so that he will not fall into reproach and the snare of the devil. From its literal meaning in Greek it also signifies the plant ox-tongue, so called from its shape and roughness of its leaves.
Conventionally holds a mirror in one hand, combing lovely hair with the other According to myth created by Ea, Babylonian water god. The large city at the top edge is Babylon (its description is the map's longest legend [A§181). 12-30.A  The conservator Christopher Clarkson drew my attention to the gouge in the Mapa€™s former frame. Talbert (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), which I employ throughout my book, but with the caution that in dealing with the manuscript culture of medieval Europe, it is misleading and anachronistic to speak of a€?standarda€? or a€?correcta€? spellings, especially of geographical words.
Casual visitors to the dark aisle where it hung could see only a dark, dirty image which they were encouraged to view in a pious, but also rather condescending manner. Crone of the Royal Geographical Society, revealed that despite the antiquity of many of the map's sources much was almost contemporary with the map's creation and was secular. Much of the text that follows is an amplification of information panels and leaflets prepared for the British Library's current display of the map. Most medieval mapmakers seem to have accepted this constraint, but world maps showing four continents are not uncommon: notably the world maps created by Beatus of Liebana (#207) in the late 8th century to illustrate his Commentary on the Apocalypse of St. It may have incorporated information from an earlier survey commissioned by Julius Caesar and, to judge from some early references, it may originally have shown four continents. These texts owed much to classical writers, particularly Pliny the Elder (23-79), who himself derived much of his information from still earlier writers such as the fifth century BC Greek historian Herodotus. As befitted the encyclopedic texts that they illustrated, the maps became visual encyclopedias of human and divine knowledge and not mere geographical maps. Many were purely schematic and symbolic, showing a T, representing the Mediterranean, the Don and the Nile, surrounded by an 0, for the great ocean encircling the world, sometimes with a fourth continent being added.
It was only from about 1120 that Jerusalem took Oclos' place as the focal point of the map, as it does on the Hereford Mappamundi. They retained and expanded the geographical and historical elements of the older maps - coastlines, layout and place names on the maps frequently reveal their ancestry - but to them they added several novel features. Inscriptions of varying lengths amplified the pictures and sometimes contained references to their sources. Much better preserved, until its destruction in 1943, was the famous Ebstorf world map of about 1235.
It is difficult to account otherwise for the striking similarities in detailed arrangement and content between the Psalter world map, the recently discovered 'Duchy of Cornwall' fragment (probably commissioned in about 1285 by a cousin of Edward I for his foundation, Ashridge College in Hertfordshire) and the Aslake world map fragments of about 1360.
In many of its details it particularly resembles the Anglo-Saxon World Map of about 1000 and the twelfth century Henry of Mainz world map in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. After all, very frequently in the New Testament in the King James Version (KJV), New American Standard Bible (NASB), New International Version (NIV), English Standard Version (ESV), etc, the word ecclesia is translated church. The word "assembly" fits wonderfully with ecclesia, after all, Jesus and the disciples were people walking and talking in a growing assembly! Also, we find a picture of angels (messengers) in the eunuchs, that the eunuchs humbly go in and out of the presence of the king; as an aside, the eunuchs were the means that people could request an audience with the king. And He did so to make known the riches of His glory upon vessels of mercy, which He prepared beforehand for glory" (Romans 9:20-23).
While this is the Old Testament, there is a picture for Christians living in the time of the New Testament (1 Corinthians 10:11) because Constantine's was an attempt to meld the clean, heavenly realm with the profane and worldly, after all, Constantine was a worldly governmental representative; more importantly, our Lord Jesus Christ did not do this, even though He had the power, He did not do this! In the course of a dispute with a promminent clergyman who disparaged this proposal to translate the Scriptures into English, there is a keen statement by William. Crone points out that this reference has special significance because Augustus had also entrusted his son-in-law, M. Sometimes identified with Sirens, the mythical enchantresses along coasts of the Mediterranean, who lured sailors to destruction by their singing. Amazon means a€?without a breast,a€? according to tradition these women removed the right breast to use the bow. At the right edge, a looping line shows the route of the wandering Israelites in their Exodus from Egypt; it crosses the Jordan to the left of a naked woman who looks over her shoulder at the sinking cities of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Dead Sea (she is Lot's wife, turned into a pillar of salt [A§254]. 400), a text that was often attended during the Middle Ages by diagrammatic a€?mapsa€? illustrating the concept.A  See also David Woodward. Others delved into the question of its authorship, which had previously been assumed to be obvious from the wording on the map itself. The medievalized depiction on the bottom left corner of the Hereford world map of 'Caesar Augustus' commissioning a survey of the world from three surveyors representing the three corners of the world may be based on a muddled - and religiously acceptable - memory of these classical events. Even though the inscriptions on the maps gradually became more and more garbled and the information more and more embellished, distorted, and misunderstood, they nevertheless retained their tenuous links with ancient learning.
More than simple geographical shorthand, such maps were also meant to symbolize the crucifixion, the descent of man from Noah's three sons and the ultimate triumph of Christianity.
Palestine itself was usually enlarged far beyond what, on a modern map, would have been its actual proportions. A note on one of the most famous of them, the Ebstorf, says that it could be used for route planning. Although the maps were still dominated by biblical and classical history and legend, most other information seems to have been acceptable and was accommodated within the traditional framework. Far larger than the Hereford Word Map and much more colorful, it was probably created under the guidance of the itinerant English lawyer, teacher and diplomat, Gervase of Tilbury. In transmission some facts and text became garbled and some inscriptions are gobbled gook or wrong. Jesus keeps us focused on His eternal Kingdom, for example, He replied to a Pharisee lawyer that attempted to test Christ by asking "Teacher, which is the great commandment in the Law?", yet Jesus replied "'You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.' This is the great and foremost commandment. The priest said "We are better to be without God's laws than the Pope", to which William replied "I defy the Pope and all his laws. In the Old Testament (Septuagint) presbuterous (presbyt) is found referring to elders while episkopous is not. The circle one-third of the way from the bottom is Jerusalem, the Map's central point, with a crucifixion scene above it ([A§387-89]). Its images and decoration have been examined from a stylistic standpoint by Nigel Morgan and put into the context of their time, while the late Wilma George examined the animals in the light of her own zoological knowledge [2] The chance discoveries of fragments of other English medieval world maps in recent years [3] have expanded the context within which the Hereford World Map can be examined, and the Royal Academy exhibition, 'The Age of Chivalry' of 1987 enabled the map to be displayed in the company of other non-cartographic artifacts of its own time. Generally, though, it was not difficult to adapt surviving copies of existing, secular world maps to suit the purposes of Christian writers from the 5th century onwards. This was in order to match its historical importance and to accommodate all the information that had to be conveyed. Christ would, for instance, be shown dominating the world, or the world might even be depicted as the actual body of Christ. The world was shown as the body of Christ and much space was devoted to the political situation in northern Germany: an area of particular concern to the Duke who may have commissioned it.
Carte marine et portulan au XIIe siA?cle:A  Le Liber de existencia riveriarum et forma maris nostri Mediterranei. The amount of space dedicated to the other parts of the world varied according to their traditional historical or biblical importance and the preoccupations of the author of the text that the map illustrated. And, another time, Jesus said "Do not think that I came to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I did not come to abolish but to fulfill. Martin rejoiced over the death of Huldrych (Martin Luther [opens to Wikiquote] then search the page for Zwingli), of whom, Martin wrote of Huldrych "We are not of the same spirit" after the Colloquy at Marburg (ZWINGLI AND LUTHER: THE GIANT VS.
Behind the blue band of the river is a grim array of grotesque figures to indicate the existence of primitive peoples. There may be significance in the soulless mermaid placed in the map close to the unattainable Holy Land, or she may be a possible temptation to sea-faring pilgrims.
Phillott, wrote that it shows a a€?rejection of all that savoured of scientific geography, . Because of this, space devoted to the author or patron's homeland was often much exaggerated when judged by modern standards, as in the case of England, Wales and Ireland on the Hereford Mappa Mundi.
Crone demonstrated, the Hereford also contains sequences of the more important place names along some major thirteenth century commercial and pilgrimage routes.
For truly I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest letter or stroke shall pass from the Law until all is accomplished. On a world map, though, as opposed to the strip itinerary maps produced by Matthew Paris in about 1250, the route planning could only have been very approximate and very much incidental to the main purposes. Whoever then annuls one of the least of these commandments, and teaches others to do the same, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but whoever keeps and teaches them, he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. For I say to you that unless your righteousness surpasses that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will not enter the kingdom of heaven" (Matthew 5:17-20). 14), which may have resulted from the survey of the provinces ascribed by tradition to Julius Caesar. In the Hereford map they could revel in this pictorial description of the outside world, which taught natural history, classical legends, explained the winds and reinforced their religious beliefs. And, another time, while reading this please recall that mammon is not just wealth, rather it is something, anything that the devil uses to try to deceive people's trust away from Godly treasure (Strong's Greek: 3126. The two upright fingers branching up from the Mediterranean are the Aegean and the Black Sea with the Golden Fleece at its extremity.

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