Create map countries visited,team leadership training exercises examples,leadership classes orlando fl,how to be a head coach - For Begninners

Due to popular demand, African Sweetheart bring you another does of elegantly sown Ankara styles. Some amongst us are getting it seriously wrong when it comes to Traditional wear!  Why shouldn't ones ankara and kente report? Yet we are constantly being told how great and wonderful all these other places are and how we are a bunch of rubes, except for the enlightened liberals. Another way to look at it is that the US GDP is greater than ALL of those countries put together. Washington’s population is FOUR TIMES LESS than Venezuela ( just 7 million ), with only parts of the state with reasonable potential for oil discoveries. It’s looking like Texas is more productive than Canada ( more GDP produce with less population ), but it a little less productive than Australia ( less GDP produced with more population ). Now I am self-employed, and you can read more about my story here, or visit my other blog: The Everyday Minimalist. I?ve been to Germany, the Czech Republic, Austria,Switzerland, France, Liechtenstein, Spain, Italy, Turkey, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Taiwan, Thailand, Indonesia, the Dominican Republic, Cuba, and the USA. I did spend a lot of time traveling in the United States when I was a kid, I've lived in 3 states and visited 30 others. We probably won't do much traveling until we pay off our student debt, but I guess some new states are possible before then because my husband has family in a few states I've never visited, and we might be able to visit them for cheap!
I am MUCH more travelled within the states than internationally (I'm 25-so I do plan to see ALOT in the next 20 years. I have been to 30 US states, 1 Candadian province (well, actually two but I was a baby for the first one so I don't count it), Israel, Mexico, St. After this I have not booked anything else but will today or this week will book Indonesia to Singapore to Malaysia to Sri Lanka to India. After India, I'm wanting to go to Nepal, Tibet, South East Asia, contemplating Bangladesh and Burma, probably skipping the Philippines (I really want to go but would probably want to go for a while and not sure if I will have the time if I want to attempt to make Oktoberfest 2011 and miss the Trans-Sib in the dead of winter), China, Mongolia, Russia, Scandinavia, and Germany, roughly in that order. My brother is also kind of blowing up in Shanghai and I kind of want to go there for a while now.
I did the obligatory post-college backpack around Europe thing, so I have most of those covered. Fabulously Broke in the CityContent on Fabulously Broke in the City is for entertainment purposes only.
Please do not take any advice given either in the post or in the comments before consulting a third party of your own to assess your own individual situation. This website may be compensated by companies mentioned through advertising, affiliate programs or otherwise. DESCRIPTION: The world maps made by the European Church Fathers were a legacy taken over from the ancient world, and they were gradually expanded and adapted in accordance with the texts which they accompanied. Maps gradually came to stand on their own as independent works, instead of mere supplements to texts.
Among the first maps in Christian Europe to reveal a new character are those by Pietro Vesconte (fl. These maps of Italy use the coastal outline from portolan charts as the basis for a general map of the area, showing mountains, rivers and inland towns. The world map included in this volume was made by Vesconte who used his knowledge of sea charts in the crafting of this work. Pietro Vesconte, in his mappamundi drawn for Marino Sanudoa€™s Secreta fidelium crucis, tried to combine the two types into one image. The Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts, with (in the east) the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, are no longer an unrecognizable pattern of shapes that can be identified only by names attached to them; instead they are drawn just as in a normal portolan chart. The map however cannot be considered as a T-O type but akin to the Ptolemaic model of the world, having been rotated 90 degrees. Northern Europe is show as a densely populated area with many legends of towns and provinces. The flat-bottomed circular sea enveloped by mountains is named Mare Caspiu [the Caspian Sea].
The unnamed mountain range running between the Black Sea and the arrow-like Caspian Sea can only be the Caucasus Mountain range.
To the left of the red inscription Asia there is a vertically standing rectangle resting on the mountain range, bearing the label Archa Noe [Noaha€™s Ark]. To the west of Armenia, south of the Black Sea the region is divided into various strips of land starting at the top with Persida, Asia Minor and followed by Bitia [Bithynia]. Africa occupies most of the southern hemisphere and does bear the basic geographical features such as the Gulf of Guinea and the Cape despite its inaccurate shape. From Rouben Galichiana€™s Countries South of the Caucasus in Medieval Maps: Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan the text surrounding the map provides explanatory comments about various provinces and their features.
The map sees the first mention of the name Georgia, though there is a reference to Colchis (or Abkhazia), indicating that the latter may not yet have been entirely annexed with the kingdom of Georgia. The chronicle compiled by the Minorite friar Paulinus dates from about the same time (ca.1320). Besides his world map, the most interesting of the medieval maps of Palestine was also drawn by Vesconte in about 1320. Fine example of this rare portolan map of the World, the earliest surviving printed evidence of Pietro Vescontea€™s world map created circa 1311, generally considered to be one of the earliest surviving examples of a modern map of the world. This mappamundi is, in essence, a portolano of the Mediterranean world combined with work of pre-portolan type in remoter regions.
Its basic form also conforms to fundamental medieval conceptions of geography, in that it is oriented with East at the top and shows Jerusalem at the center of the World. The present printed version of the map shown above appeared in Germany in the early 17th century. Vescontea€™s portolan of the eastern Mediterranean (1311), is the oldest known signed and dated map. Twenty-three surviving examples of Sanudoa€™s manuscript work are known to exist, all of which date from the 14th Century.
Vescontea€™s most important sea chart atlases were produced in 1313, 1318, 1321 and 1322 and are kept in Bibliotheque National de France, Rel. Brincken, Anna-Dorothee van den, a€?Das geographische Weltbild um 1300,a€? in Peter Moraw (ed.), Das geographische Weltbild um 1300. Vesconte world map, 1320, 35 cm diameter, oriented with East at the topa€?British Library, Additional MS. This world map is painted using colors fairly typical of the medieval period.A  The oceans, seas and rivers are in green, the saw-tooth mountains in brown, the major cities represented by crowns and castles are in red, and the landmasses are in white.
Vesconte world map, 1320, 35 cm diameter, oriented with East at the topBritish Library, Additional MS. The world map shown here is reproduced in this manuscript of the work of Ahmad ibn Yahya Ibn Fadlallah al-a€?Umari. Map historian Cyrus Alaa€™i presented the following article in Mercatora€™s World that discusses the cartographic tradition of this map. Caliph al-Maa€™mun commissioned projects of physical and mathematical geography in order to create a world map that accurately depicted the shape of the world.
In pursuing his precise map of the world, Caliph al-Maa€™mun commissioned a geodetic survey that would update the locations and longitudes of major cities like Baghdad and Mecca. Shape of the Earth provides longitudinal and latitudinal positioning of the known world using coordinate tables (Zij). When Maa€™mun defeated the Eastern Roman army, taking the city of Angora [Ankara], he forced the Roman emperor to cede him a large number of important Greek scientific books previously unknown in the Islamic countries. Consequently, a harmonious blending of cultural factors, borrowed from Greece, Persia, India, and other regions, enabled Islamic culture to rise to a high degree of refinement in many fields, including geography and cartography. Within such an environment, after an interval of more than six centuries during which Ptolemaic geography had remained essentially stagnant, Maa€™mun directed a large group of scientists to construct a new world map.
I have seen these climates depicted in various colors, without a text, and the best I have seen has been in Jughrafiya [Geography] of Marinus, and the commentary to Jughrafiya of the division of the Earth, and in Surat-al-Mamuniyah [the Map of Maa€™mun] that Maa€™mun ordered to be constructed by a group of contemporary scholars to depict the world with its spheres, stars, lands, and seas, the inhabited and uninhabited regions, settlements of peoples, cities, etc. Tibbetts wonders why Zuhri, who claimed to have based his book on the Mamunic geography, did not follow the Ptolemaic climate system but opted for the Persian Kishwar system. Fuat Sezgin, a renowned scholar of Arabic-Islamic sciences at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt, believes this unique extant manuscript comprises the Mamunic tables of the geographical coordinates. Jokhosha, a young researcher working with Sezgin, has recently reconstructed the Mamunic world map by plotting according to the tables of coordinates contained in the Khwarizmi manuscript without any correction or alteration.
However, the reconstructed world map would be of little value if it could not be compared with an early copy of the map itself. It is notable that the reconstructed Mamunic world map and its newly discovered manuscript version are very similar, which strengthens the authenticity of both Khwarizmia€™s and Umaria€™s manuscripts.
In his monograph Sezgin reviews aspects of Mamunic geography and how it contributed to world cartography.
Secondly, the Muslims inherited the mathematical geography available to the Greeks mainly through several translations of the Almagest into Arabic. Although they were apparently relying on the two methods known to the Greeks for determining longitudes, namely observation of lunar eclipses and travelersa€™ reports, their results proved more accurate.
Tibbettsa€™ general impression is that the newly discovered Mamunic maps are derived from those of Idrisi (#219), the famous 12th century Arab cartographer.
A rather accurate graticule [scale] has been drawn over the world map, which is not common on Islamic maps of the 14th or even 15th centuries, but one cannot be certain of the origin of this graticule without seeing the original, but it looks as if the draftsman added the graticule when copying the map for this manuscript.
It is likely that the original would have had a series of straight parallels representing the climate boundaries and that these were changed by the draftsman into a kind of orthographic graticule with equidistant parallels of latitude, much as the climate boundaries probably were before (some manuscripts of al-Idrisia€™s world map have equidistant climate boundaries when drawn either as arcs or as straight lines). Tibbetts, receiving the Sezgina€™s monograph at a time when he had nearly finished his sections for The History of Cartography, in my view, has acted rather hastily in rejecting outright the authenticity of the newly discovered Mamunic maps. South At The Top: On Islamic maps a€?southa€? is normally at the top, as indicated by the Arabic inscriptions. The Climates: The northern seven climates (belts around the earth numbered 1-7 northward) are marked on the scale, shown on the right-side of the map.
Longitude: A total of thirty-six longitudinal lines are drawn on the map, each representing five degrees, for a total of 180 degrees. Major Lengths: On this map the lengths of the Mediterranean Sea and of the inhabited world from the westernmost shore of Africa to the easternmost island in China are about 52 degrees and 175 degrees, respectively. Geographical Names: Some major names such as Andalusia, Egypt, India, and China are inscribed on the map.
Indian Ocean: The Indian Ocean is depicted as an open sea connected to the western ocean round the south of Africa.
As mentioned above, the mapa€™s landmass contours, including the plausible, though inaccurate, longitudinal and latitudinal lines, roughly resemble reconstructions of al-Khwarizmia€™s geographic table, which was directly influenced by Ptolemya€™s geographic treatise. There is only one surviving copy of KitA?b a??A«rat al-Ara??, which is kept at the Strasbourg University Library. The book opens with the list of latitudes and longitudes, in order of a€?weather zonesa€?, that is to say in blocks of latitudes and, in each weather zone, by order of longitude. Neither the Arabic copy nor the Latin translation include the map of the world itself; however, Hubert Daunicht was able to reconstruct the missing map from the list of coordinates. Al-Khwarizmi set the Prime Meridian of the Old World at the eastern shore of the Mediterranean, 10a€“13 degrees to the east of Alexandria (the prime meridian previously set by Ptolemy) and 70 degrees to the west of Baghdad. Al-Umaria€™s report about the ruler of Mali resembles Herodotusa€™ story about the Phoenicians. Before the Portuguese, Muslims in North, West, and East Africa sailed far and wide throughout the Indian Ocean through their main access channels in the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. Sezgin, F., Mathematical Geography and Cartography in Islam and their Continuation in the Occident, Vol.
It is likely that the original would have had a series of straight parallels representing the climate boundaries and that these were changed by the draftsman into a kind of orthographic graticule with equidistant parallels of latitude, much as the climate boundaries probably were before (some manuscripts of al-Idrisia€™s world map have equidistant climate boundaries when drawn either as arcs or as straight lines).A  This graticule, with straight lines for parallels and arcs for meridians, appears similar to the projection of Roger Bacon suggested in his Opus Maius, ca. Description: This highly significant map of the world eluded examination by modern scholars for nearly four hundred years until its re-discovery in 1901 by the Jesuit historian, Joseph Fisher, in the library of Prince von Waldburg zu Wolfegg-Waldsee at the Castle of Wolfegg, WA?rttemberg Germany.
It had long been suspected that Martin WaldseemA?ller, a professor of cosmography at the school in St. The purpose of this little book is to write a description of the world map, which we have designed both as a globe and as a projection [tam in solido quam plano].
Martin WaldseemA?llera€™s Universalis Cosmographia secundum Ptholomei Traditionem et Americi Vespucci aliorum Lustrationes [A Map of the World According to the Tradition of Ptolemy and the Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci] was designed on a single cordiform projection and engraved on twelve wooden blocks (21 x 30 inches each; 54 x 96 inches overall) at Strasburg and printed at St. In Plate IX of the map, numbering the plates from left to right, the top row first, WaldseemA?ller re-asserts that he is particularly delineating the lands discovered by Vespucci. A general delineation of the various lands and islands, including some of which the ancients make no mention, discovered lately between 1497 and 1504 in four voyages over the seas, two by Fernando of Castile, and two by Manuel of Portugal, most serene monarchs, with Amerigo Vespucci as one of the navigators and officers of the fleet; and especially a delineation of many places hitherto unknown.
Vespucci claimed that on his first voyage he made discoveries along the coasts of Honduras and the Gulf of Mexico. In describing the general appearance of the world, it has seemed best to put down the discoveries of the ancients, and to add what has since been discovered by the moderns, for instance, the land of Cathay, so that those who are interested in such matters and wish to find out various things, may gain their wishes and be grateful to us for our labor, when they see nearly everything that has been discovered here and there, or recently explored, carefully and clearly brought together, so as to be seen at a glance.
This mapa€™s greatest claim to immortality, however, is contained in the simple word of seven letters, America, the earliest known use of that name to describe the newly found fourth part of the world, placed on the southern continent (present-day South America) of the world map only by WaldseemA?ller.
More than four years had elapsed since Amerigo Vespucci announced what he claimed to be the discovery of an entirely new continent, and as yet that new continent had no satisfactory name. In the first years of the new century, a group of scholars decided to produce a revised edition of the Cosmography of Ptolemy (#119) to meet the urgent need for new maps, according to the new discoveries. Martin WaldseemA?ller, a native of Freiburg in the Breisgau and appointed Professor of Geography at St. Toward the South Pole are situated the southern part of Africa, recently discovered, and the islands of Zanzibar, Java Minor, and Seula. The name appeared in Halmal, a semi-divine mythical forefather or ancestor of the Amelungen, or royal tribe of the Ostrogoths, which was called A–mlunger. Returning to the map, it is curious to note that while the name America appeared on the new continent (South America) of the new hemisphere on the world map, WaldseemA?ller did not choose to use it on the small inset map of the western hemisphere, where South America is labeled Terra Incognita. By selecting the name America for a major portion of the new discoveries, WaldseemA?ller was not unaware of the contributions of Columbus and intended no denial of the credit properly due him.
Plate I, in the upper left-hand corner, contains an inscription that explains WaldseemA?llera€™s ideas as to the location of the lands discovered by Vespucci and Columbus.
Many have regarded as an invention the words of a famous poet [Virgil] that a€?beyond the stars lies a land, beyond the path of the year and the sun, where Atlas, who supports the heavens, revolves on his shoulders the axis of the world, set with gleaming starsa€?, but now finally it proves clearly to be true. Instead of a€?19 degreesa€? he should have written a€?29 degreesa€? which, when added to the 23 degrees of the tropic, would have made the a€?52 degreesa€? given in the a€?thirda€? voyage as Amerigo Vespuccia€™s farthest south. The remarkable geographical features of the WaldseemA?ller map are, however, more important than the giving of a name to one of them. These close approximations to geographical actualities were natural corollaries of Amerigoa€™s great a€?discoverya€™ of a a€?fourth part of the worlda€?. WaldseemA?ller places a land to the west of Isabella Insula [Cuba], as do many of the other mapmakers of his time, La Cosa, Cantino, Ruysch and Caveri (#305, #308, #313, #307).
To the south, the long attenuated form given to both Terra Ulteria€? Incognita and to America, the west coasts of which are, as it were, rolled back to indicate WaldseemA?llera€™s lack of knowledge of these areas. Leaving the New World discoveries, one cannot help but notice the striking resemblance between WaldseemA?llera€™s a€?Old Worlda€? outline and that presented by Henricus Martellus Germanus in his map of 1490 (#256). Although many of the ancients were interested in marking out the circle of the land, things remained unknown to them in no slight degree; for instance, in the west, America, named after its discoverer, which is to be reckoned a fourth part of the world. In addition to Caveri, Martellus and Ptolemy, other sources synthesized by WaldseemA?ller include the narratives of Marco Polo, whose data concerning the geography of eastern China and the adjacent islands, though already known to the world in the map of Fra Mauro (#249), the Catalan Atlas (#235) and in globes such as those of Behaim (#258), are now for the first time embodied in a popular printed sheet map; and the Northmen, whose explorations in Mare Glaciale and in the neighborhood of Greenland were known from the maps of Claudius Clavus and those of Donnus Nickolaus Germanus.
Thus, derived chiefly from Caveria€™s map (#307), itself based in many particulars upon the Cantino world map of 1502 (#308), the WaldseemA?ller production of 1507 transmitted the features of both to an impressive list of succeeding maps, globes and globe gores reaching to 1520 and well beyond.
Of the same year as the map itself, and displaying its features, was the previously alluded to printed globe issued by WaldseemA?ller, known today only by two sets of globe gores on uncut sheets. WaldseemA?ller, himself, continued his cartographic production beginning with a revised edition of Ptolemya€™s Geographia (eventually published by others), which included a Supplement composed of 20 maps claimed by some scholars to be a€?the first modern atlas of the worlda€™. The regression of WaldseemA?ller to the Columbian conception of Cuba as a part of the continent of Asia was without question confusing to those who saw the map of 1516 with its specific legend. One can hardly overemphasize the significance in cartographic history, therefore, of the printed WaldseemA?ller productions of 1507 - world map, insets, and globe gores. The name America (applied to present-day Brazil) appeared for what is believed the first time on Martin WaldseemA?ller's 1507 world map a€” the so-called Baptismal Certificate of the New World.
AMERICA, we learn as schoolchildren, was named in honor of Amerigo Vespucci a€” for his discovery of the mainland of the New World. Traditional history lessons about the discovery of America also raise questions about the meaning of discovery itself. And yet, despite the issue of who discovered America, we are still confronted with the awesome fact that it was the voyages of Columbus, and not earlier ones, that changed the course of world history.
Carew is resurrecting the ideas of Jules Marcou, a prominent French geologist who while studying North America argued, as did other 19th-century writers, that the name America was brought back to Europe from the New World; and that Vespucci had changed his name to reflect the name of his discovery.
Like Marcou, Carew wants us to believe that America was not named after Vespucci, but vice versa; that Vespucci had, so to speak, re-named himself after his discovery, gilding his given name by modifying it to reflect the significance of his discovery.
Some scholars believe Vespucci was named after Saint Emeric, son of the first king of Hungary. As was the custom of the Florentine nobility, Vespucci received an education that featured special instruction in the sciences connected with navigation a€” natural philosophy, astronomy, and cosmography a€” in which he excelled. During the first half of the 20th century, scholars discovered further evidence that clears away the cloud of misunderstanding and ignorance by which Vespucci has long been obscured.
The voyage completed by Vespucci between May 1499 and June 1500 as navigator of an expedition of four ships sent from Spain under the command of Alonso de Hojeda is certainly authentic. Under Portuguese auspices he completed a second expedition, which set sail from Lisbon on May 31, 1501. Vespucci not only explored unknown regions but also invented a system of computing exact longitude and arrived at a figure computing the earth's equational circumference only fifty miles short of the correct measurement. The new geography included in its appendix WaldseemA?ller's large, stunning map of the world, on which the New World is boldly labeled AMERICA a€” in the middle of present-day Brazil. The baptismal passage in the Cosmographiae Introductio has commonly been read as argument, in which the authors said that they were naming the newly discovered continent in honor of Vespucci and saw no reason for objections.
Even though the Latinization of Americus fits a pattern, why did the cosmographers not employ Albericus (hence the assumption that "Alberigo" was Vespucci's authentic Christian name), the Latinization that had already been used for Amerigo's name as the author of the Mundus Novus? Did America get its name through oral tradition when those who had sailed with Columbus or Vespucci circulated stories that gold was to be found in the Amerrique Mountains of Nicaragua? The coast at the foot of the Amerrique Mountains that faces the Caribbean Sea is called the Mosquito Coast, named for the Mosquito Indians, who live there still.
The Caribs, traveling far from their Carib or Cariay coast, could see the Amerriques in the distance, and these mountains for them could have signified the mainland. Rodney Broomea€™s recent book, Terra Incognita: The True Story of How America Got Its Name (2001), in which he argues for the Amerike theory, is a very good read, but ultimately lacks the hard evidence to support the authora€™s claim. An early version of this essay appeared in The American Voice (1988) and a section in Encounters (1991). In late May 2003, the Library of Congress completed the purchase of the only surviving copy of the first image of the outline of the continents of the world as we know them todaya€” Martin Waldseemullera€™s monumental 1507 world map. Martin Waldseemuller, the primary cartographer of the map, was a sixteenth-century scholar, humanist, cleric, and cartographer who had joined the small intellectual circle, the Gymnasium Vosagense, organized in Saint-DieI?, France. Thus, in northeast France was born the famous 1507 world map, entitled Universalis cosmographia secunda Ptholemei traditionem et Americi Vespucci aliorum que lustrationes (A drawing of the whole earth following the tradition of Ptolemy and the travels of Amerigo Vespucci and others).
While it has been suggested that Waldseemuller incorrectly dismissed Christopher Columbusa€™s great achievement in history by the selection of the name America for the Western Hemisphere, it is evident that the information that Waldseemuller and his colleagues had at their disposal recognized Columbus's previous voyages of exploration and discovery. By 1513, when Waldseemuller and the Saint-DieI? scholars published the new edition of Ptolemy's Geographiae, and by 1516, when his famous Carta Marina was printed, Waldseemuller had removed the name America from his maps, perhaps suggesting that even he had second thoughts in honoring Vespucci exclusively for his understanding of the New World. A reported one thousand copies of the 1507 map were printed, which was a sizeable print run in those days.
The Library of Congress's Geography and Map Division acquired in 1903 the facsimiles made of the 1507 and 1516 maps. Library of Congress and specialists in the Library were encouraged to investigate the opportunity. The 1507 world map is now the centerpiece of the outstanding cartographic collections of the Library of Congress, as it would be for any world class cartographic collection.
The Librarya€™s acquisition of the Waldseemuller map represents an important moment to renew serious research into this exceptional map, to determine the sources which made possible its creation, and to investigate its contemporary impact and acceptance. Through agreement with Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg and the government of Germany, the 1507 world map by Martin Waldseemuller is to be placed on permanent display in the Library of Congressa€™s Great Hall area in the Thomas Jefferson Building. DESCRIPTION: The existence of sets of gores for making into a globe had been surmised for some time from the discussion in WaldseemA?llera€™s CosmographiA¦ Introductio.
That which adds special significance to this young Germana€™s representations of the new lands, so far as a study of globes is concerned, is the repeated recurrence of his particular outlines or contours in the globe maps of the first quarter of the century, produced by such cartographers as Johann SchA¶ner of NA?rnberg (#328), and by those of his school.
In a little tract, printed in Strassburg in the year 1509, there appears to be a reference to a globe which may be that constructed by WaldseemA?ller.
The twelve such gores, measuring 18 x 34.5 cm, corresponding very closely to those described by WaldseemA?ller were for a long time in the Hauslab-Leichtenstein collection and are now in the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
The world outline is a simplified reduction of WaldseemA?llera€™s large map of 1507 (#310) with relatively few names but (when mounted) sufficient for illustrative purposes. Martin WaldseemA?ller, theologian and cosmographer, and Matthias Ringmann, a humanist poet, were brought to the monastery of St. Although it is likely that the simple globe gores, their model or a€?Marquettea€? of the New World view, would have been available with each issue of the Cosmographiae, the large 12 sheet wall-map, would have been too expensive to be sold as widely. Considerable speculation, misinformation and some misunderstanding has surrounded these globe gores and the large world map.
It is a rising economic star, militarily powerful and democratic, and it shares American interests.
All they have is battlefields, which they didn’t earn except by being between conflicting parties.
Now that I realize that I've never spent the night out of the country, that seems kind of weird, and a little sad, haha. I would like to visit the rest of the states sometime, but 30 seems like quite a few for being in my early 20s.
Martin, Bahamas, British Virgin Islands, British West Indies, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Hungary, Poland, Ukraine, Slovakia, Jordan, and Jamaica.
I didn't want want to plan so much but I want to try to meet up with some people and may need to alter some plans. The commentaries and learned notes (scholia) added to the texts formed the basis of further alterations to the maps.
They became an essential part of the collections in monastic libraries, in whose catalogues we commonly find, from the ninth century onward, at least one such independent map. A A copy was also offered to the King of France, to whom Sanuto desired to commit the military and political leadership of the new crusade.
On this copy he even drew rosettes, which are standard feature in the portolan sea charts but are scarcely used outside the sea chart tradition. The maps were in fact long thought to be the work of Marino Sanuto [also spelled a€?Sanudoa€?] himself.
Notwithstanding its raison da€™etre (urging the European rulers to organize a new crusade) it stands bereft of any religious content.
Norwegia is a peninsula and Anglia, Scotia and Hybernia are shown as islands in the North Sea.
Situated between this and the Black Sea [Mare Pontos] there is another arrow-like lake, which bears the legend a€?marea€? only. At its intersection with the second mountain range the vignette of a large gate reads Porte Forree [Iron Gates, the name given to the Caspian Gates by the Persians, Turks, Armenians and others]. The eastern end of this mountain range is called Montes Caspii [Caspian Mountains] while towards its western extremity it is identified as Taurisius or Taurus mountain range.
Calcedonia, Licaonia, Galatia, Lidia and Frigia minor [Phrygia], Cilicia lies to the south of this region, over the mountains and between the two vignettes of castles. The Nile River has its source in unspecified mountains and flows northwards to the Mediterranean flowing through Egyprus, past numerous castellated towns located on its shores. At the top right of the map, lines two to five and twelve to fourteen from the top describe the peoples, features and location of Armenia. It too contains a world map and a map of Palestine, which closely resemble the work of Pietro Vesconte.
Vescontea€™s map, in its earliest form, survives in a 14th century manuscript work by Marino Sanudo, which was reproduced for the first time in print in Johann Bongarsa€™ Orientalium expeditionum historia. A The ocean surrounds the known landmasses of the world, while the outer parts are largely conjectural. A Notably, this map, along with Vescontea€™s other work, features the first broadly accurate conceptions of the Mediterranean and Black Seas. A It was produced as part of the greater intellectual movement that flourished in Europe, and in Germany in particular, roughly from 1450 to 1650, during which scholars, heavily influenced by the enlightened ethic of Humanism, sought to acquire, preserve and learn from the most progressive elements of Classical and Medieval thought. As evident on the present map, Vesconte was the first mapmaker to accurately maps the Mediterranean and Black Seas, and his depiction of Great Britain was a marked improvement over his predecessors. The caliph also wished to distinguish between countries conquered by the Muslims and thus part of the Dar al-Islam [the land of Islam] and those who were not. This grand-scale survey indeed led to a more accurate world map; from this survey, al-Maa€™muna€™s geographers were able to calculate the eartha€™s circumference within an error of a few hundred kilometers (off by less than one percent). Al-Khwarizmi arranged the information according to a system that divides the inhabited world into seven horizontal strips or bands parallel to the equator called climates (iqlim). These volumes, which included the works of Marinus and Ptolemy, arrived in Baghdad from Constantinople, loaded on more than a hundred camels.

Zuhri, author of a 12th century descriptive Mamunic geography, reports that some seventy scientists were employed for the project. This was better than anything that preceded it, either the geography of Ptolemy, or the geography of Marinus, or any other. He refers to Khwarizmi, a scholar in Maa€™muna€™s court who produced tables of longitudes and latitudes, but does not establish his exact link with the Mamunic geography or his position among the scholars of Bayt-al-Hikmah. After the Seljuqs invaded Baghdad in 1055, damaging the already weakened scientific institutions of the city, and after Bayt-al-Hikmah was sacked by the Mongols in 1258, no valuable works such as the map of Maa€™mun survived. Spitta discovered in Cairo the previously mentioned geographical manuscript titled Surat-al-Ard [Shape of the Earth], attributed on its cover to Ibn-Musa Khwarizmi (as having been extracted by him from the geography of Ptolemy). He regards its content as one of the greatest Islamic contributions to geography, as the world map project required many surveys to be conducted in various regions of the inhabited world during the lifetime of Maa€™mun and thereafter. Fortunately, in 1986 an Arabic medieval manuscript came to light that contained a copy of four Mamunic maps. In his monograph, The Contribution of the Arabic-Islamic Geographers to the Formation of the World Map, Fuat Sezgin notes that both maps a€?bear - with certain variants - a strong resemblance to the Ptolemaic maps as to the form of the coastlines, the outline of land masses, islands, and mountain chains, and the depiction of river courses.a€? This similarity led Sezgin to conclude that the assiduous and versatile monk Maximus Planudes (1260-1310), who claimed to have reconstructed the Ptolemaic world map ab origine, may have been familiar with the Mamunic atlas. This knowledge was based on calculating longitudes and latitudes by astronomical observations, as a result of which Ptolemy conceived the length of the Mediterranean to be 62 degrees. Their observations must have been more precise, and the estimation of distances between places came from their own travels. He also sees no reason why the geographical information on the world map should not date from the time of Umari (1340).
Tibbetts claims that the earliest Umari manuscripts in Istanbul are dated 1585, suggesting that this and most other copies were prepared for the libraries of the Ottoman sultans of the period. The spaces between any two adjacent longitudes are marked on the equator line with one or a combination of two or three Arabic letters, such as a€” from left to right a€” H, Y, YH, K, KH, L, LH, and so on. For a complete and detailed list of names, one should refer to the related geographical text. A very large and long island can be seen east of Africa and south of the equator, called a€?The Island of Moon,a€? which may represent the Greek Terra Incognita. Thus, it is possible that the map in Ways of Perception descended from maps made by the scholarly community under Caliph al-Maa€™muna€™s patronage, which included al-Khwarizmi. It is a revised and completed version of Ptolemya€™s Geography, consisting of a list of 2,402 coordinates of cities and other geographical features following a general introduction. As Paul Gallez points out, this excellent system allows the deduction of many latitudes and longitudes where the only extant document is in such a bad condition as to make it practically illegible. Daunicht read the latitudes and longitudes of the coastal points in the manuscript, or deduces them from the context where they were not legible. Although the map presents Africa as flat at the bottom and diffuse where it meets the edges of the globe, it does nor stretch all the way to the east as it does in the maps by the Balkhi School and al-Idrisi. He said, a€?we are a dynasty and pass down the rule among us, and he [the former king], who was before me, did not believe that it was not possible to know the end of the Encompassing Sea. Very likely, al-Umari referred to a similar legend about failing to sail south along the west coast of Africa. The maritime connection during the Mongol period greatly expanded the commercial activities of merchants all over the Islamic world. However, from its appearance it seems to have been compiled from the text of the Kitab bast al-ard fi tuliha wa-al-a€?ard [Exposition of the earth in length and breadth] by Ibn Saa€?id (#221).A  Al-a€?Umaria€™s text does mention a map and gives a few examples of longitude and latitude, but on the whole they do not correspond with positions given on the map.
1267, but of course it is not so; the parallels are positioned according to a different principle. Fisher found the only known remaining copy of this map securely bound up in an old book bearing the bookplate of the 16th century German mathematician and geographer Johannes SchA¶ner. Die, located in the Vosges Mountains of France, had made a map of the world in the year 1507. Die in a an original issue of about 1,000 copies (a thousand copies represented a large edition for this time, immediately preceding post-Columbian world maps, such as Juan de la Cosaa€™s, Cantinoa€™s and Caveria€™s (#305 thru #309 - were all manuscript maps). All this we have carefully drawn on the map, to furnish true and precise geographical knowledge.
A Florentine cosmographer, he sailed in 1497 with a commission appointed by Ferdinand and Isabella to investigate reports that Columbusa€™ administration of Hispaniola was inept. He also credited himself with three other voyages by 1503, when he made his last, an investigation of the coast of Brazil for Portugal. Taken together, these inset hemispheres form the most comprehensive and most nearly correct representation of the world displayed on any map known to have been constructed up to the year of 1507. Besides this world map, WaldseemA?ller also introduced the name America in two other media, in the previously mentioned Cosmographia Introductio and on his globe (thought by some scholars to be the so-called Hausslab-Linchoten globe (#311), both also produced in the year 1507).
It happened that in the Vosges Mountains in the little town of Saint-Die, there was a college under the patronage of the studious Duke Renaud (Rene) II of Vaudemon, of Lorraine, the titular a€?King of Jerusalem and Sicilya€?, who was there resident. On Plate V (the Caribbean area) of his map, WaldseemA?ller wrote: These islands were discovered by Columbus, an admiral of Genoa, at the command of the King of Spain. For there is a land, discovered by Columbus, a captain of the King of Castile, and by Americus Vespucius, both men of very great ability, which, though in great part lies beneath a€?the path of the year and of the suna€? and between the tropics, nevertheless extends about 19 degrees beyond the Tropic of Capricorn toward the Antarctic Pole, a€?beyond the path of the year and the suna€?. Since Columbus never explored as far south as the equator, the words a€?it proves clearly to be truea€? are clothed with meaning only in the light of Amerigoa€™s voyages into the southern hemisphere, not at all in the light of the a€?firsta€? of the a€?four voyagesa€?, from which the dispute ultimately arose as to which could claim priority upon the shore of the new continent, Columbus or Amerigo Vespucci; for that a€?firsta€? voyage, like all the voyages of Columbus, was entirely north of the equator. In addition to the previously mentioned accuracy and a€?noveltya€™ of the hemispheric insets, and the picturing of the new southern continent, with its surprisingly correct general contour, the inset map presents a portion of the northern continent as well, and the two are correctly joined together by a narrow isthmus. One is tempted to loose sight of this revolutionary advance over the previously dominating world conception of Ptolemy in focusing all the attention to the single feature that has made WaldseemA?llera€™s map so famous, the first appearance thereon of the name America. This area may represent the coast of China copied from Marco Polo, and placed here in the belief that the new discoveries were in and near Asia. In extending the South American coast to 50 degrees South (high-lighted by the implantation of a Portuguese flag), WaldseemA?ller avoids committing himself as to the possibility of a passage by sea around this new continent by continuing its land to the edge of, and actually into, the map frame (compare this abrupt treatment with his depiction of Africa, where he is willing to go outside of the preset form of his map frame in order to accommodate the full extension of the continent and thus substantiate the Portuguese proof of a passage to the Far East). As can be seen on the accompanying comparison illustration, except for the southern half of Africa, in both projection and general geographical contours the Old World of WaldseemA?llera€™s 1507 map seems to have been virtually copied from Martellus. Another is, to the south, a part of Africa, which begins about seven degrees this side of Capricornus and stretches in a broad expanse to the south, beyond the torrid zone and the Tropic of Egocerus (Capricornus). At least twice Henricus Glareanus copied WaldseemA?llera€™s world map and insets in manuscript.
Two maps in this Supplement show the New World discoveries, Tabula Terre Nove and Orbis Typus Universalis.
In his great and very important world map of 1516, WaldseemA?ller showed the landmass abutting upon the western border of the map, as in the two above mentioned maps, but here gives it the name Terra de Cuba Asie Partis. The representation in these of the American continents separated from Asia by a broad ocean in the midst of which lay the island of Japan was a splendid synthesis based upon such known particulars as the narrative of Marco Polo, the voyages of the Portuguese to North America by way of the Atlantic and to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope, the discoveries of South America by Vespucci and Cabral, the Spanish discoveries in the West Indies and the Caribbean, and above all, perhaps, the notable manuscript maps of La Cosa, Cantino, and Caveri.
The only known surviving copy was purchased, in 2003, by the Library of Congress for $10 million. Further, other discoveries of America have been credited to the Irish who had sailed to a land they called Iargalon, the land beyond the sunset, and to the Phoenicians who purportedly came here before the Norse. Specifically, Marcou introduced the name of an Indian tribe and of a district in Nicaragua called Amerrique, and asserted that this district a€” rich in gold a€” had been visited by both Columbus and Vespucci, who then made this name known in Europe.
To define it Carew echoes Marcou, who quotes from his correspondence with Augustus Le Plongeon.
He has been wrongfully portrayed as a crafty opportunist ever since the mid-16th century when Bartholomew de Las Casas accused him of being a liar and a thief who stole the glory that belonged to Columbus.
Around 1490 he was sent to Spain by his employers, the famous Italian family of Medici, to join their business in fitting out ships.
At the beginning of 1505 he was summoned to the court of Spain for a private consultation, and, as a man of experience, was engaged to work for the famous Casa de Contratacion de las Indias (Commercial House for the West Indies), which had been founded two years before in Seville.
The first or traditional series consists of the widely published letters, dated 1504, purportedly written by him.
After a halt at the Cape Verde Islands, the expedition traveled southwestward, reached the coast of Brazil, and certainly sailed as far south as the RA­o de la Plata, which Vespucci was the first European to discover. It was, however, not his many solid accomplishments but an apparent error made by a group of scholars living in St. This map is the first known map, printed or manuscript, to use the name America, and also the first to depict clearly a separate western hemisphere, with the Pacific as a separate ocean. But, as etymologist Joy Rea has suggested, it could also be read as explanation, in which they indicate that they have heard the New World was called America, and the only explanation lay in Vespucci's name. Their substitution of Americus for the well-known Latinization Albericus might mean that they wanted a Latinization that would fit and explain the name America which they had already heard applied to the New World.
The Indians in the Caribbean did have a word for the mainland, given in the LexicografA­a Antillana (Antillean Dictionary, 1931) as babeque and defined as the name that Columbus understood the Indians to say when they were pointing to a land beyond Haiti and Cuba.
It constitutes an incredible Anglicization of the New World a€” and would, for obvious reasons, infuriate Carew. He purportedly gave one of the islands he explored to a friend, another to his barber, and also promised some Italian friars that they could be bishops.
However, even if the name America were known in Bristol in 1497, Hudd has taken a majestic leap to suggest Ameryk's name as its origin.
That map has been referred to in various circles as America's birth certificate, and for good reasona€”it is the first document on which the name America appears.
He was born near Freiburg, Germany, sometime in the 1470s, and died in the canon house at Saint-DieI? in 1522.
That map, printed on twelve separate sheets from wood block plates, when assembled would measure more than 4 1a?„2 feet by 8 feet in dimension. However, the group also had acquired a recent French translation of the important work Insuper aquattor Amerigo Vespuccii navigationes, Amerigo Vespucci's letter detailing his purported four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean to America between 1497 and 1504. Instead, in the 1513 atlas the name America does not appear anyplace in the volume, and the place of America is referred to as Terra Incognita (Unknown land).
This single surviving copy of the map exists because it was kept in a portfolio by Johannes SchoI?ner (1477-1547), a German globe maker, who probably had acquired a copy of the map for his own cartographic work. Throughout the twentieth century the Library continued to express interest in and a desire to acquire the 1507 map, when, if ever, it was made available for sale.
Through the combined efforts of several Library of Congress specialists, and many other members of the Library's staff over an 11 year period, the map has made its way to the Library of Congress. The map serves as a departure point in the development of the American cartographic collection in addition to its revered position in early modern cartographic history.
The mapa€™s well announced acquisition provides us an extraordinary opportunity to appreciate the earliest of early depictions of our modern world. The Library of Congress is proud to have obtained this unique treasure and is anxious to have this great cartographic document receive the public acclaim and the critical scholarly inspection that it so rightly merits. This call for further scholarship on the map, its impact, and the sources used to produce it is not meant to suggest that previous scholarship is lacking. Both the globe and the large world map were doubtless printed in large numbers and widely distributed. It is this reference that the Prince of Liechtenstein, as noted above, has taken as a reference to the gore map, a copy of which is in his collection. Although a text on WaldseemA?llera€™s later wallmap, the Carta Marina (1516), says that 1,000 copies of the 1507 wall-map were made, it is unlikely that this number were issued, given the survival rate of the one bound copy now in the Library of Congress.a€? The globe map and book had an enormous influence on other geographers, notably Appian, SchA¶ner and Fries, and advanced the science of globe-making and map making particularly in Germany and the Low Countries. The Kraus-Bavarian State Library copy -- in 1960 at Sothebya€™s in London, a set of the gores was offered bound into a Ptolemy atlas of 1486.
The Offenburg copy -- following the publicity regarding the acquisition of the copy above by the Bavarian State library in 1992, in 1993 two researchers, Dr. The present example was discovered in February 2003 when the owner, on reading an article in the Frankfurter Algemeinen Zeitung on the Munich copy, realized he owned a similar map amongst his large collection of books and ephemera. To present the various strands of information relating to the genesis, execution and influences of the WaldseemA?ller gores, the following timeline brings together the principal events in the lives of WaldseemA?ller, Ringmann, Vespucci and their circles. Over the decades, it pours billions of dollars into that country’s economy, training and equipping its military and its intelligence services.
The benefits that Pakistan accrued from this relationship were quickly apparent: in the nineteen-sixties, its economy was an exemplar. Pakistan, however, is one of the most anti-American countries in the world, and a covert sponsor of terrorism. Yupper, ships parking right now in Long Beach Harbor, laden with the Treasures of Sierra Leone, pulled right from the mouths of babes. He was a Genoese cartographer and one of the earliest creators of portolan [nautical] charts. This is large propaganda volume, was written on vellum and includes many miniatures and vignettes of the Crusaders and their battles with the Saracens.
The region of the Mediterranean, whose accurate portolan charts already existed, is depicted in true detail but the rest of the world is shown in very approximate form and shape. Later, however, a copy of the Liber secretorum was discovered with the signature of Pietro Vesconte and the date 1320, and he is now considered the author of the maps in place of Sanuto, who was not known as a cartographer.
While much of his production is conventional, his world map for Sanudoa€™s crusader manuscript departs dramatically from earlier examples, seeking to combine the mathematical system and new land-shapes of the portolan charts with the contained, circular, Jerusalem-centered format of most mappaemundi.
On this map we do not see mythical and Biblical creatures or other Christian features such as the Earthly Paradise or the rivers of Paradise and here, for the first time in medieval world maps the Red Sea is not colored red and does not standout.
This should in fact be the Caspian Sea, since to its south the legends read Caspia and Yrcania, two provinces located south of the Caspian Sea. For the first time in medieval western maps this passage, also known as the Caspian Gates, has been shown in as correct position, namely on the western shore of the Caspian Sea. Two lines further down there is a description regarding Georgia beginning with: Kingdom of Georgia has a large white mountain at its east, and to its south lies Armenia. Some differences in detail occur; for example, though both the Vatican copy and the Paris copy have two Caspian Seas, in the Vatican copy they are the same shape, while in the Paris copy the western Caspian corresponds to the later form of the Catalan maps. 1450): it illustrated a book by Marino Sanuto that urged a new crusade to re-conquer the Holy Land, now entirely lost to the Christians. A True to the medieval conception of the world, the landmasses are about equally balanced between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. A These scholars sought to go ad fontes, or a€?to the original sourcea€™ of the knowledge, or as close to it as possible.
Vescontea€?s world maps were circular in format and oriented with East to the top, although most of the fabulous elements so common to early world maps have been omitted, Prester John, the mythical Christian king occasionally located in Ethiopia, does manage to appear on Vescontea€™s map and has been a€?re-locateda€? to India.
749, mainly for the purpose of translating Greek, Persian, and Indian scientific works into Arabic.
The astronomers and scholars of Caliph al-Maa€™mun benefitted especially from Ptolemya€™s Geography (Book I, #119), which systematically synthesized the legacies of his Greco-Roman predecessors. This figure was almost as accurate as the estimate made by modern scholars and considerably better than Ptolemy who estimated the circumference with much less success. This system essentially bases itself on one introduced by Marinus and Ptolemy; however, al-Khwarizmi built on the Greco-Roman foundation by incorporating ideas that had spread along with the rise of Islam. The procession of large quantities of books continued from many sources over a long period of time. However, he is uncertain as to whether a real map ever existed or if it was just a description. Composed in 1340 by Ahmad Ibn-Yahya al-Umari and titled Masalik al-Absar fi Mamalik al-Amsar [Ways of Perception of the Civilized Countries - a sort of encyclopedia of history, geography, and civilization], it was found in the library of the Topkapi Museum of Istanbul. Planudes could have seen the Mamunic atlas and taken it as his model to reconstruct the Ptolemaic maps, believing that these Islamic maps originated from Ptolemy. When Maa€™muna€™s scientists started to examine, correct, and improve their inherited knowledge, they began by measuring the circumference of the equator by surveying distances between several locations. As a result, the length of the Mediterranean was decreased from Ptolemya€™s 62 degrees to 52 degrees, still 10 degrees longer than its actual size. He argues that from its appearance, the map seems to have been compiled from the text of Ibn-Saa€™ida€™s (#221) 13th century book, and although Umaria€™s text does mention a map and gives a few examples of longitude and latitude, on the whole these do not correspond with the positions given on the world map. By that date the idea of a graticule was well known from European sources and could have been added to bring the map up-to-date.
As I understand, a revised and extended edition of Sezgina€™s monograph will be published shortly, hopefully responding to Tibbettsa€™ valid concerns. South of the equator only two climates are marked, with each divided into two halves and each half further divided into two quarters. The graticle, which is most uncharacteristic for manuscripts from the 14th or even 15th century, appears to have been modified by a copyist at the time the map was drafted, perhaps in the 16th century. The map for Caliph al-Maa€™mun was most likely drawn based on al-Khwarizmia€™s geographic treatise because al-Khwarizmi was one of the major scholars in Caliph al-Maa€™muna€™s academic institute, a€?The House of Wisdom.a€? Fuat Sezgin argues that the map is an exact copy of the world map of Caliph al-Maa€™mun in the ninth century.
The complete title translates as Book of the appearance of the Earth, with its cities, mountains, seas, all the islands and rivers, written by Abu Jaa€™far Muhammad ibn Musa al-KhwA?rizmA«, according to the geographical treatise written by Ptolemy the Claudian. He transferred the points onto graph paper and connected them with straight lines, obtaining an approximation of the coastline as it was on the original map. The possible source of this adaptation is intriguing, because al-Umari hints in his narrative that Muslims attempted to discover the actual contour of Africa through exploration. He wanted to know this and was fascinated by it, so he prepared two hundred ships, equipped with people, and the like number, equipped with gold, water and supplies that would be sufficient for years. The first geographers to depict the correct triangular shape of Africa were Chinese working sometime during the latter part of the Yuan dynasty. With the help of these transportation networks, Muslim merchants and sailors played a major role in facilitating the transfer of information as well as commodities between China and the Islamic world during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. This volume contained twelve sheets, each 21 x 30 inches, which when laid together disclosed a large map of the world 4 feet 6 inches by 8 feet, which was designated by one of its own inscriptions a carta marina, dated on its own face 1516, and bore the name of Martin WaldseemA?ller as author. Henry Harrisse had made this conjecture in his Discovery of North America, which he published when the world was celebrating the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America.
As farmers usually mark off and divide their farms by boundary lines, so it has been our endeavor to mark the chief countries of the world by the emblems of their rulers.
While certainly not the only large world map produced during this dynamic era of exploration, the Universalis Cosmographia was one of the first large engraved and printed maps to depict the recent Spanish and Portuguese discoveries of the Mundus Novus. Much of what Vespucci claimed to have seen on this and other voyages was later called into question by both his contemporaries and, later, by historians. He wrote a letter describing his third voyage that was circulated throughout Europe as a tract called Mundus Novus [The New World], and later was included by WaldseemA?ller in his Cosmographia Introductio (the Solderini letter, see illustration below). To avoid confusion hereafter the main portion of the map will be referred to as the a€?world mapa€?, designating the two small representations of the eastern and western hemispheres, placed above the world map, as the a€?insetsa€?. The term used by some of the map-makers, Land of Brasil, was confusing, for Brasil was the name of an imaginary island located somewhere in the Atlantic, according to popular belief, when there had been no thought of a continent. Walter Lud, Secretary to the Duke, and a wealthy man, had established a printing press at St. And at the mouth of the Orinoco River is the following: All this is sweet water, a statement based upon the well-known story of Columbusa€™ discovery of the fresh water of the Orinoco River (there is the same reference found on the Bartholomew Columbus map (#304) which has Mar de aqua dolce along the northeastern shores of South America). In other words, on his 1507 map, WaldseemA?ller unmistakably showed that in his own mind he ascribed proof of the existence of the new continent to the Portuguese voyage of Amerigo (the a€?thirda€? of the a€?four voyagesa€?), and that Columbus never detoured from his conviction that he had actually reached the shores of Asia (accepting the longitudinally shortened world of Ptolemy, et al), and that it was the acceptance of Amerigoa€™s proof of its existence more so than Amerigoa€™s supposed priority which caused him to name the new continent America. However, as can be seen above on Plate I of the world map, the two continents are inexplicably separated by a hypothetical strait, connecting the two great oceans. Contarini (#308) and Ruysch (#313) distinctly record their belief on their maps that the contemporary explorers had reached China, as does the Columbus map and the letter of Columbus explanatory of his fourth voyage record the same view (#303, #304). Curiously enough, though, while accepting the Portuguese delineation of the New World and South Africa, WaldseemA?ller reverts to the Ptolemaic conception of North Africa and Asia as refined and expressed by Martellus, rejecting the more accurate rendering of contemporaries such as Caveri. A third instance, in the east, is the land of Cathay, and all of southern India beyond 180 degrees of longitude.
The transmission of the Cantino-Caveri concept through the members of this notable group created one of the mainstreams of interest in the history of cartography. Thus this ingenious geographer not only preserved the geographical concepts of WaldseemA?ller, but also carried the representation of hemispheres a step further by the experimental construction in 1510 of the first known maps of the northern and southern hemispheres on a circumpolar projection. The world picture in the maps and globe of 1507 - the representation, that is, of an American landmass widely separated from the Asian coast with Japan lying between the two - had become the accepted canon in geographic theory and cartographic expression.
The new picture compiled from these varied elements and presented to the literate world in printed form became a factor of the highest importance in developing a new concept of the earth and its divisions, rendering obsolete the Ptolemaic geography that had been accepted and revered since the second century of the Christian era. In 2005, this treasured map was inscribed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register, and is the first document in the United States to be so honored. By the time we are adults it lingers vaguely in most of us, along with images of wave-tossed caravels and forests peopled with naked cannibals. They were of course preceded by the pre-historic Asian forebears of Native Americans, who migrated across some ice-bridge in the Bering Straits or over the stepping stones of the Aleutian Islands. The 1497 voyage by John Cabot to the Labrador coast of Newfoundland constitutes yet another discovery of the American mainland, which led to an early 20th-century account of the naming of America, recently revived, that claims the New World was named after an Englishman (Welshman, actually) called Richard Amerike. To rob people or countries of their names is to set in motion a psychic disturbance which can in turn create a permanent crisis of identity. Vespucci was probably in Seville in 1492 when Columbus was preparing for his first historic voyage, as well as in 1493 when Columbus returned.
In 1508 the house appointed him piloto mayor (pilot major, or chief navigator), a post of great responsibility, which included the examination of the pilots' and ships' masters' licenses for voyages. Pohl's biography, Amerigo Vespucci, Pilot Major (1944), and GermA?n Arciniegas's Amerigo and the New World (1955; tr. Addressed to his patron, Lorenzo de' Medici, the Mundus Novus (New World) a€” the title alone revolutionizing the European conception of the cosmos a€” was translated from the Italian into Latin, and originally printed in Vienna; the other letter, addressed to the gonfaloniere (chief magistrate) of Florence, Piero Soderini, was a more elaborate work.
Since Vespucci took part as navigator, he certainly cannot have been inexperienced; however, it seems unlikely that he had made a previous voyage, though this matter remains unresolved.
In all likelihood the ships took a quick run still farther south, along the coast of Patagonia to the Golfo de San JuliA n or beyond. The entire New World portion of the map roughly represents South America, and when later mapmakers added North America, they retained the original name; in 1538, the great geographer Gerard Mercator gave the name America to all of the western hemisphere on his mappamundi. In ignoring the possible intention of these words as explanation, most scholars have ignored the simple fact that place names usually originate informally in the spoken word and first circulate that way, not in the printed word.
Why did they ignore the common law in the naming of new lands: the use of the last names of explorers and the first names of royalty?
It is almost certain that Columbus first heard the name of the mountains pronounced by a Carib. Las Casas believed for a while that this must be Jamaica, but later decided it was the name for the mainland.
No proof exists to substantiate his claim that Cabot actually honored the Welshman by naming America after him. It is also the first map to depict a separate and full Western Hemisphere and the first map to represent the Pacific Ocean as a separate body of water. The large map is an early sixteenth-century masterpiece, containing a full map of the world, two inset maps showing separately the Western and Eastern Hemispheres, illustrations of Ptolemy and Vespucci, images of the various winds, and extensive explanatory notes about selected regions of the world.
In that work, Vespucci concluded that the lands reached by Columbus in 1492, and explored by Columbus and others over the ensuing two decades, was indeed a segment of the world, a new continent, unknown to Europe. In the1516 Carta Marina, South America is called Terra Nova (New World), and North America is named Cuba, and is shown to be part of Asia. That portfolio contained not only the unique copy of the 1507 world map, but also a unique copy of WaldseemuI?ller's 1516 large wall map (the Carta Marina) and copies of SchoI?ner's terrestrial (1515) and celestial (1517) globe gores. In 1999, Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg notified the Library that the German national government and the Baden-WuI?rttemberg state government had granted permission for a limited export license.
The map provides a meaningful link between our treasured late medieval-early Renaissance cartographic collection (which includes one of the richest holdings of Ptolemy atlases in the world) and the modem cartographic age unfolding as a result of the explorations of Columbus and other discoverers in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries.
Major segments of this world map have not received the concentrated scrutiny that the American segments have received. WaldseemA?ller states in a legend on his marine chart of 1516 (#328.1) that he had printed his map of 1507 in one thousand copies, but only one of which is now known to exist. WaldseemA?ller and Ringmann started work on a new edition of Ptolemy's Geographia that was to combine Ptolemaic maps with a new set of modern maps.
By 1890, it had been acquired by the Prince of Liechtenstein and studies by Gallois dated it to 1507 following the realization that it was the lost globe described in the St. References to accurate factual information are principally taken from 19th century sources, much of the 20th century work on the subject being a reiteration of earlier work by Humboldt, Da€™Avezac-Macaya, Fischer, Varnhagen and Harisse. The stated goal is to create a reliable ally with strong institutions and a modern, vigorous democracy. He operated primarily out of Venice, and greatly influenced Italian and Catalan mapmaking throughout the 14th and 15th centuries. One of the paintings on folio 7r is that of the Crusader forces meeting King Leo of Armenia (Cilician Armenia) and the prisoners of the Armenian king. As mentioned above, Sanutoa€™s work was written to induce the kings of Europe to undertake another crusade against the Turks, and so the following maps accompanied it: a world map, maps of the Black Sea, the Mediterranean, the western coast of Europe and Palestine, plans of Jerusalem, and Ptolemais [Acre and Antioch]. In this map, the influence of the portolan charts can be seen at a glance: in contrast with the amorphous forms of Asia and southern Africa (familiar in many other medieval mappaemundi), the Mediterranean world is instantly recognizable and proportionate, clearly copied directly from the outlines of a portolan chart. In fact the map has rather more Islamic religious content, such as in Arabia, the Islamic religious centers of Mecca [Mecha] and Baghdad [Baldac], all shown red.
The river Tanay [Tanais = Don] is shown flowing from a northern mountain range into the Sea of Azov. It follows that the true identity of the flat-bottomed sea above should have been the Sea of Aral, situated in western central Asia, with Bactria shown on its shores.
In southwest Asia the following toponyms stand out Arabia (red), Mecha [Mecca red], Baldac [Baghdad.
Cartographically, however, it was far more sophisticated than Hardinga€™s map, though more than a century older. A The Arabian peninsula, Black Sea and Caspian Sea are in a recognizable form, and the name Georgia appears above the Caucus Mountains. A As is the case with the antecedent of the present map, most of these sources existed only in manuscript form, available in a single or with very few examples.

During the reign of the seventh Abbasid Caliph Maa€™mun (813-833), and under his patronage, the institution grew into a comprehensive academy for the sciences, including astronomy, geography, and cartography.
The Greek knowledge al-Maa€™muna€™s scholars possessed was already five centuries out of date, however, so Muslim scholars developed it further, expanding the base of their scientific foundation by synthesizing Iranian, Indian, and Greek traditions as well as new geographical information available to them as the result of Islamic political and economic expansion.
Unfortunately, this map was lost, and the earliest surviving maps that bear any resemblance to it date only to 1000.
For example, while the Greco-Roman system introduced more than twenty climates, al-Khwarizmia€™s Shape of the Earth, and later works influenced by it, draw from Persian sources and presents seven climates. Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasids, had become a major cultural and scientific center, and a large number of scholars from all over the Islamic world and beyond were attracted to the well-paid academic positions offered at Bayt-al-Hikmah. The rich library of Bayt-al-Hikmah eventually contained more than 400,000 volumes of important manuscripts, many of which were translated into Arabic. He argues that if there was a map, it must have had some similarity with the map of Ptolemy, with its seven climes.
A world map and three maps of the northern climes were included in this medieval manuscript. However, this did not convince Hipparchus, who influenced Marinus and Ptolemy in the belief that the three continents encircle the seas and do not have an insular shape. They arrived at a much more accurate figure, leading to a major correction of the world map.
Although optimistic, I must wait until then before either celebrating the newly identified maps or conceding that the Mamunic world map remains an enigma. With regard to the mapa€™s contents, however, the name Sin al-Sin [China of China] on the northern hemispherea€™s eastern edge of Ibn Fadlallah al-Umaria€™s map does not appear in al-Khwarizmia€™s geographic table that merely documents al-Sin. He said to the travelers [in the ships]: do not return until you arrive at the end [of the ocean], or until you have used up your food and water.
All of the Islamic world, both inside and outside the Mongol domain, fell within the radius of Indian Ocean exchange, connecting them ultimately with China. There were twelve other sheets of the same size in the book, making another world map but containing no authora€™s name or date.
And (to begin with our own continent) in the middle of Europe we have placed the eagles of the Roman Empire (which rule the Kings of Europe) and with the key (which is the symbol of the Holy Father), we have enclosed almost the whole of Europe, which acknowledges the Roman Church. In that letter, Vespucci proposed that the new lands ought to be called a a€?New World, because none of those countries were known to our ancestors . In the western hemisphere inset the two Americas are shown as a continuous landmass firmly joined together by an isthmus, unlike the representation in the world map where the two continents are inexplicably separated by a strait. Die that he prepared the treatise Cosmographia Introductio, which presented this description of itself: An Introduction to Cosmography, together with some principles of Geometry necessary to the purpose. Both the inset and the world map illustrate another important feature, the representation of a great ocean even broader than the Atlantic, between the New World and Asia. However, this view is not supported on the WaldseemA?ller map either by the place-names found in the area of the new discoveries, or by the overall visual image presented by the placement of the new discoveries as totally separated by some distance from Asia. One difference being that the WaldseemA?ller map is basically a a€?land mapa€™ and the interiors are somewhat filled-in, whereas the Caveri chart is basically a portolano, or nautical chart, with little or no interior detail.
This Ptolemaic basis results in giving the map an extremely exaggerated representation of the eastern extension of Asia; in fact, the landmass of the Old World, alone, extends through some 230 degrees of longitude. All these we have added to the earlier known places, so that those who are fond of things of this sort may gaze upon all that is known to us of the present day, and may approve of out painstaking labors.
In 1512 appeared, far away in Cracow, Poland, in the Introductio in Ptholomei Cosmographia of Johannes de Stobnicza, the inset hemispheres of the 1507 map, copied and reprinted by the Polish scholar without reference to their source (#319).
From it evolved, indeed, today's concept of the geographical divisions of the continents and islands, and of the great waters that form our earth.
A black African discovery of America, it has been argued, took place around 3,000 years ago, and influenced the development of Mayan, Aztec, and Inca civilizations. The naming of America, then, becomes essential to a full understanding of our history and cultural values a€” ourselves a€” especially when considered in terms of the range of theories about the origin of the name. Subsequently, according to Marcou's account, Vespucci changed his Christian name from Alberico to Amerigo. Amalrich, which literally meant work ruler, or designator of tasks, might be freely translated as master workman. Moreover, as a reflection of national pride, a theory native to Hungary argues that the European explorers of the New World (or their priests) named it after this popular saint, in the old tradition of bestowing place names in honor of saints.
He also had to prepare the official map of newly discovered lands and of the routes to them (for the royal survey), interpreting and coordinating all data that the captains were obliged to furnish. Harriet de OnA­s) are among the best efforts that dispel the shadows to which he was relegated by those who maligned his fame. In the voyage of 1499a€“1500, Vespucci would seem to have left Hojeda after reaching the coast of what is now Guyana (Carew's homeland). His published letters had fallen into the hands of these German scholars, among whom was the young cartographer Martin WaldseemA?ller. WaldseemA?ller's 1507 map, lost to scholars until 1901 when it was found in a German castle, is now reckoned to be the first to show the name, and the earliest record of its use.
Moreover, to read the passage in the Cosmographiae Introductio as explanation lends credence to the theory, argued by Carew, Marcou, and others, that the early European explorers called the new continent Amerrique or, perhaps, another name with a similar pronunciation.
Their ignoring it, Rea claims, further supports the idea that they were trying to force an explanation and that the only one they could think of was a Latinization of Vespucci's first name. Columbus, who met the Indians of this coast, presumably heard the name Amerrique from them: he was looking for gold and the Indians gave him some, telling him he could get more to the west in the mountains there.
Amerrique, therefore, must derive from a Carib word, possibly one of the Carib culture words a€” not a word in the Mayan language, which was not spoken in Nicaragua, though it almost resembles in sound the Quiche Mayan iq' amaq'el meaning perpetual wind.
The purchase of the map concluded a nearly century long effort to secure for the Library of Congress that very special cartographic document revealing new European thinking about the world nearly 500 years ago. Waldseemullera€™s 1507 map was a bold statement that rationalized the modern world in light of the exciting news arriving in Europe as a result of explorations sponsored by Spain, Portugal, and othersa€”not only across the Atlantic Ocean, but around the African coast and into the Indian Ocean.
Because of Vespucci's recognition of that startling revelation, he was thus honored by the use of his name for the newly discovered continent.
Sometime later in history, the family of Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg acquired and retained Schoner's portfolio in their castle in Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany, where it remained unknown to scholars until the beginning of the twentieth century when its extraordinary contents were revealed.
Having obtained this license, which allowed this German national treasure to come to the Library of Congress, the Prince pursued an agreement to sell the 1507 map to the Library. Although it is likely that the simple globe gores, their model or a€?marquettea€™ of the New World view, would have been available with each issue of the Cosmographiae, the large 12 sheet wall-map, would have been too expensive to be sold as widely.
They were provided with at least six printed editions and certainly several manuscript versions of the Geographia. The notoriety and mystery that has surrounded both the globe, map and large wall-map has often concentrated on the naming of America, but in truth, given that they named South America after Vespucci, who had sailed furthest around it, it is not unreasonable.
Vera Sack found a third example of the gores inserted into a copy of Aristotle published in Freiburg in 1541. The other country, meanwhile, is spurned because it forges alliances with America’s enemies. Some consider him as the first professional cartographer to sign and date his works regularly. The king himself is shown surrounded by symbols of various rulers neighboring Cilicia, namely the Lion in the north (Mongols), the Wolf in the west (the Turks), the Serpent in the south and the Leopard in the east. Even more striking is the network of lines that are drawn in a sixteen-point wind-rose that encircles the whole earth. For the first time in western medieval cartography, the region of Georgia appears entitled as such. These differences of detail between the maps in contemporaneous manuscripts of Marino Sanuto and Paulinus can only be explained by assuming that two scribes copied Vescontea€™s map, adding to it from different sources.
The ocean surrounds the whole of the known world, the outer parts of which are represented by conjecture. A SomeA idea is also shown of the great continental rivers of the north, such as the Don, Volga, Vistula, Oxus and Syr Daria. A The great achievement of this period was to preserve and liberate this knowledge through the printing press.
Information from these innovative geographic projects survives, however, in the form of Arabic manuscripts that were produced as part of the enterprise at large.
Maa€™mun not only advocated scientific work and actively supported and honored scholars, he also imposed on his subjects the Mutazilite doctrine, which reflected the influence of Aristotle. Two major astronomical observatories were attached to the same institution a€” one installed at Baghdad, the other at Damascus a€” where scholars devised new astronomical tables, correcting the ancient ones created by Ptolemy.
Nallino was the first to recognize in it the work of the geographers commissioned by Maa€™mun.
The presentation of both al-Sin and Sin al-Sin (Chin and Machin in Persian) suggests that al-Umari updated al-Khwarizmia€™s geography using available contemporary information, in the same way that al-Khwarizmi updated Ptolemya€™s treatise in order to write his own. They sailed out, and their absence lasted, with none of them returning, then a single ship of them returned. Fuat Sezgin thinks that Muslim seafarers traveled to West Africa before Bartolomeu Dias went to South Africa and found the Cape of Good Hope. The greater part of Africa and a part of Asia we have distinguished by crescents, which are the emblems of the Sultan of Babylonia, the Lord of all Egypt, and of a part of Asia. To the east of the continent in the inset is the Atlantic, to the west is another great sea with the island Zipangri [Japan, Marco Poloa€™s Zipangu] nearly in the middle of it but closer to the American continent than to the Asian. Mundus Novus [New World] and Terra Incognita [Unknown Land] were less real names than descriptions, though for many years these last two terms were quite prevalent on maps showing new discoveries. The duke and several professors in the college used this press in their geographical project.
The decision to display a large expanse of ocean west of the New World discoveries was, of course, pure conjecture on the part of WaldseemA?ller since, in 1507, the discoveries of Balboa and Magellan were still a few years off in the future. On the other hand, navigators unknown to modern historians, may have sailed along the coast of Florida at this time. This lack of any substantive modification, of the Far East especially, is understandable in light of the scarcity of verifiable reports from this region and the focus of popular attention on both Africa and the New World. This one request we have to make, that those who are inexperienced and unacquainted with cosmography shall not condemn all this before they have learned that it will surely be clearer to them later on, when they have come to understand it. To question the origin of America's name is to question the nature of not only our history lessons but our very identity as Americans. The records of Scandinavian expeditions to America are found in sagas a€” their historic cores encrusted with additions made by every storyteller who had ever repeated them. The two men eventually became friends; Columbus later wrote that he trusted Vespucci and held him in high esteem. Vespucci, who obtained Spanish citizenship, held this position until his death in Seville in 1512. Nonetheless, both biographers disagree about the authenticity of his two published letters, key documents in a dramatic controversy: Arciniegas accepts them as genuine, whereas Pohl rejects them as forgeries. In the first series of documents, four voyages by Vespucci are described; in the second, only two. Turning south, he is believed to have discovered the mouth of the Amazon River and explored the coast of present-day Brazil. This voyage is of fundamental importance in the history of geography in that Vespucci himself became convinced that the lands he had explored were not part of Asia but a New World.
Inspired to publish a new geography that would embrace the New World, the group collectively authored a revision of Ptolemy, which included a Latin translation of Vespucci's purported letter to Soderini, as well as a new map of the world drawn by WaldseemA?ller. Hudd opens with a reference to Bristol's 1897 celebration of the 400th anniversary of the discovery of North America by John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto), the Italian navigator and explorer who had sailed for England, laying the groundwork for the later British claim to Canada. The map must have created quite a stir in Europe, since its findings departed considerably from the accepted knowledge of the world at that time, which was based on the second century A.D.
It is remarkable that our entire Western Hemisphere was thus named for a living person; Vespucci died in 1512. Yet, cartographic contributions by Johannes Schoner in 1515 and by Peter Apian in 1520 adopted the name America for the Western Hemisphere, and that name became part of accepted usage.
The uncovering of the 1507 map in the Wolfegg Castle early last century is thought by many to have been one of the most extraordinary episodes in the history of cartographic scholarship.
In late June 2001, Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg and the Library of Congress reached a final agreement on the sale of the map at the price of $10,000,000. Waldseemuller recognized the transition taking place, as the title of his map notes and his placement prominently of images of Ptolemy and Vespucci, next to their worlds, at the top portion of the 1507 world map denotes.
In 1949, the Liechtenstein map collection was bought en bloc by the famous New York dealer H.P. The Aristotle formed part of the Grimmelshausen-Gymnasium library given to the Stadtbucherei Offenburg. He uses an exact copy of one of the rhumb-line networks that covered half of a portolan chart to grid the space of the entire world, rather than just one part as in the portolan charts. The region of Albania, which should have been near Georgia, is shifted to the upper left corner of the map, near the surrounding ocean, which is outside the area cowered by the detail map. The rivers and mountains were drawn in with less precision and they differ somewhat in the seven surviving copies of the book. The authorship of Marino Sanudo is not definitively established and the original manuscript map has also been attributed to Pietro Vesconte. A The portolan tradition was perhaps the most technically advanced element of medieval geography, and early modern scholars held it in high esteem. One of them, a treatise called Surat al-ard [Shape of the Earth] was written by the polymath al-Khwarizmi (died circa 850) who contributed to mathematics, astronomy, and geography as one of al-Maa€™muna€™s scholars.
Since the most important Muslim trade ports were located in Southern China, al-Khwarizmi provides a fuller description of southern China, adding three port cities including Khantu, probably Yangzhou, a city that hosted many Muslim merchants. Without breaking with orthodoxy, the Mutazilites, members of an Islamic philosophical school, strove to harmonize reason and faith and claimed that reason was at least equal to revelation. He believes that Khwarizmia€™s role in Maa€™muna€™s world map project was to record in a book the data of geographical positions and other information from the maps. In contrast, the Mamunic world map follows the pre-Ptolemy conception, showing the Indian Ocean as an open sea, reflecting an improvement in world geography. We interrogated the captain about their case and their news, and he replied: a€?Know, O Sultan, that we navigated for a long time until [when we reached] in the open sea, a valley appeared with a strong current, when I was the last one of the ships. He even argues that a€?[w]hen Portugal was still under Muslim protection, many Islamic explorers attempted to reach China from Lisbon on the western route across the Atlantic.a€? Yet we could expect Islamic maps to show Africa more accurately if they had frequently traveled along the west coast of Africa. The part of Asia called Asia Minor we have surrounded with a saffron-colored cross joined to a branding iron, which is the symbol of the Sultans of the Turks, who rules Scythia this side of the Imaus, the highest mountains of Asia and Sarmatian Scythia. Westward from that island is to be recognized the eastern coast of Asia, showing Catay, or Cathay, and other identifiable names. But now the fact that there was a new continent beyond the western ocean had become nearly common knowledge throughout Europe, and there was everywhere a subconscious demand for an adequate name, a universally acceptable name. In all its forms the underlying meaning was that of work; as for example, the word for work in Hebrew is amal, and in old Norse aml, the consonant sounds of which were retained in the verb moil.
In this respect, WaldseemA?ller may have been led by the maps of La Cosa, Caveri, and Cantino to believe that this was at least a possibility, for he depicts a small portion of the northern mainland extending from the narrow strait in Central America to just north of Terra Ulteria€? Incognita [Florida]. Not many interior details are shown to speak of, but a large group of natives is shown at the Cape, and above them, a large vignette of an elephant. As can be seen, Terra Incognita replaces America and it is placed up against a frame that avoids any speculation as to the size or shape of the new continent(s).
It appeared in feminine forms in Amelia and Emily; its masculine forms were Amery, Emeric, and Emery.
In the face of the spurious charges that he was an ignorant usurper of the merits of others, the fact that Spain entrusted him, a foreigner, with the office of pilot major certainly bolsters his defense. Until the 1930s the documents of the first series were considered from the point of view of the order of the four voyages.
On the way back, he reached Trinidad, sighting en route the mouth of the Orinoco River, and then made for Haiti. Unlike Columbus, who, to his death, clung to the idea that he had found the shores of Asia, Vespucci defined what had indeed been found a€” and for this he has been rightfully honored. He clearly never tried to have the New World named after him or to belittle his friend Columbus.
Very different spellings for the same Carib word reflect variants that sound little like each other; thus, the variants of the name Carib are Canibe, Galibi, Caniba, Canibal and Caliban. For his achievement Cabot received a handsome pension conferred upon him by the King, from the hands of the Collectors of Customs of the Port of Bristol. In 1479, four Bristol merchants received a royal charter to find another source of fish and trade. The map sheets have been maintained separated (not joined, with each of the large maps comprised of twelve separate sheets) and that is the probable reason why they survived. In late May 2003, the Library completed a successful campaign to purchase Waldseemullera€™s 1507 world map, after receiving substantial Congressional and private support to achieve the terms of the contract. 37 (1985), 30-53, is an extensive airing of the date of the printing of the 1507 world map and other Waldseemuller contributions. But how you shall understand the globe and the description of the whole world you will hereafter find out and read.a€? Harrisse thinks it probable that a real globe accompanied and was sold with this little volume. Ringmann, a supporter of Vespucci, had already published in 1505 an edition of Vespuccia€™s Mundus Novus, a vivid description of the New World which became a bestseller around Europe.
The mystery of the globe map, its definition of Florida (before it was discovered by the Spanish), the Pacific (before any man had officially seen it), the coast of South America (before anyone had officially sailed along it) and the use of the name The Western Ocean in the Pacific, all suggest that the Portuguese may have been more active west of the Tordesillas Treaty Line before 1505.
Kraus, however the globe map was retained and offered by the Prince at a special auction at Parke-Bernet in New York on 24 May 1950.
The grid, however, no longer holds any indexical significance outside of the small corner of the map that has been drawn from the portolan charts. This may seem to us an entirely normal and rational way to set out a map, but in the 14th century it represented an enormous conceptual leap, and confirms that Vesconte was a man of skill and imagination. This is the earliest surviving geographic account of the Islamic world and the first Arabic account to use the term al- Sin to refer to China.
Those ships sailed ahead of us, and when they arrived at that place, they did not return and reappear, and we did not know what had happened to them.
However, if the Muslims who conducted the most vigorous activities in this region did not know the shape of Africa, how could Chinese cartographers draw the continent so exactly? There was no question whatever in the mapmaker's mind, therefore, as to the separate identities of the American and Asian continents. Here the northern coast terminates abruptly with open sea beyond approximately 50 degrees, with Newfoundland being shown as an island far to the east. While the shape his Africa resembles reality more so than Martellusa€™, WaldseemA?ller extends the continent to beyond its actual 34 degrees South in a similarly misguided manner as Martellus with WaldseemA?llera€™s Africa reaching an inexplicable 50 degrees plus.
Gone, however, is that mysterious strait that had separated North and South America on the 1507 map.
But the question concerning the authenticity of these historic letters remains fundamental to the evaluation of Vespucci's achievement. According to the conflicting theory to which Pohl and other modern scholars subscribe, these documents should be regarded as the result of skillful, unauthorized manipulations by entrepreneurs, and the sole authentic papers would be the private letters, so that the verified voyages would be reduced to two. Vespucci thought he had sailed along the coast of the extreme easterly peninsula of Asia, where Ptolemy, the 2nd-century Greek geographer, believed the market of Cattigara to be; so he looked for the tip of this peninsula, calling it Cape Cattigara.
Nonetheless, the name America spread throughout Europe and quickly established itself through sheer force of usage. One of these officials, the senior of the two, who was probably the person who handed over the money to the explorer, was named Richard Ameryk (also written Ap Meryke [Welsh] on one deed, and elsewhere written Amerycke) who seems to have been a leading citizen of Bristol at the time. Not until 1960 did someone find bills of trading records indicating that Richard Amerike was involved in this business. To us, the 1507 map appears remarkably accurate; but to the world of the early sixteenth century it represented a considerable departure from accepted views regarding the composition of the world.
The portfolio with its great treasure was uncovered and revealed to the world in 1901 by the Jesuit priest Josef Fischer, who was conducting research in the Waldburg collection. And from that fragile first glimpse of the world, so adequately described by WaldseemuI?ller in 1507, the Library of Congressa€™ cartographic resources provide the historical breadth and cartographic depth to fill in the geographic blanks left by those early cosmographers. Works that have increased our knowledge about WaldseemuI?ller and the group in Saint-DieI? include: Joseph Fischer and Franz R. They exhibit the Old World, in the main, in accord with the Ptolemaic idea, and the New World with a close resemblance to the Caveri map record (#307), and that of WaldseemA?llera€™s world map of 1507.
By April 1507, WaldseemA?ller and Ringmann had completed the booklet, Cosmographiae Introductio, to accompany the globe and wall-map.
Such information would have been kept secret by the Portuguese, and it is perhaps here in this globe that the secrets were first drawn up for a wider audience, particularly since Vespuccia€™s allegiance to Portugal changed when he became a Spanish citizen. The catalogue published a reserve of $50,000, but it failed to sell and was sold privately in 1954 to James Ford Bell for approximately $45,000. They were offered for sale in 1991, and purchased by the Bavarian State library in Munich for approximately 2 million DM (in excess of $1million). His work falls within the period 1310-30; the name a€?Perrino Vescontea€™, which appears on one atlas and one chart, may be his own, using a diminutive form, or that of another member of his family.
The rest is a strange hybrid that would have provided little navigational assistance to any traveler.
Where he (or Sanuto) got the necessary information, the list locating the towns, we do not know; both this and the grid may derive from Arab sources, and a more remote connection with grid-based maps in China is not impossible. A While the present printed edition of the map is uncommon, it is nevertheless responsible for creating and maintaining the scholarly awareness of this important map throughout Europe and beyond. Some other small pieces of evidence show that credit goes to North African merchants who sailed as far as the southern tip of Africa.
A red cross symbolizes Prester John (who rules both eastern and southern India and who resides in Biberith); and finally on the fourth division of the earth, discovered by the kings of Castile and Portugal, we have placed the emblems of those sovereigns. This interpretation is similar to both Cantino and Caveri and helped keep alive the possibility of a northern access to the as yet unnamed Pacific and, of course, the riches of far Cathay. Over to the left, on Tabula Terra Nove, apparently referring to the Pearl Coast and perhaps to Honduras, we read the surprising inscription: Hec terra cum adiacentib insulis inuenta est per Columbu ianuensem ex mandato Regis Castellae [This land with the adjacent islands was discovered by Columbus of Genoa by order of the King of Castile]. Its appearance undoubtedly ignited a debate in Europe regarding its portrayal of an unknown continent (unknown to Europe and others in the Eastern Hemisphere) between two huge bodies of water, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and separated from the classical world of Ptolemy, which had been confined to the continents of Europe, Africa, and Asia. Shortly after the appearance of the 1507 world map by Waldseemuller, Vespucci was appointed the first Pilot Major in the Spanish House of Trade (the Casa de la ContratacioI?n) in Seville, and in that capacity was responsible for navigational issues and concerns of Spanish shipping to the new western possessions, across the Atlantic. In 1903 an elaborate set of facsimiles of the 1507 and the 1516 maps accompanied by a scholarly study by Josef Fischer and Franz von Wieser appeared. The North American region is nameless, but the South American region bears conspicuously the name America.
Vesconte was one of the few people in Europe before 1400 to see the potential of cartography and to apply its techniques with imagination. The rhumb lines claim for this new map a kind of symbolic empirical authority, when in actuality the points on the rhumb-circle do little more than indicate the positions of the winds (much like the circular wind-faces depicted along the edges of the world in a work like the Psalter map, #223 Book II).
He said: a€?After that, this sultan equipped two thousand ships, a thousand for himself and men he took as company, and a thousand for provisions and water. The best evidence, however, still comes from the series of Portuguese fleets that first successfully explored the West African coast during the fifteenth century and reached the southern tip of Africa in 1488, marking a turning point in world history. And what is to be borne in mind, we have marked with crosses shallow places in the sea where shipwreck may be feared. Gemma Frisius and Sebastian Munster edited versions of the latter, so that the WaldseemA?ller type, or Lusitano-Germanic Group, held the field until the advent of Mercator, Ortelius, and the Dutch school of the mid-16th century.
A statement that is in obvious conflict with the thrust of both the graphic productions of 1507 (map and globe) and the text of Introductio CosmographiA¦ referred to earlier - both prepared more or less as a testimony to Amerigo Vespucci. As soon as he was back in Spain, he equipped a fresh expedition with the aim of reaching Asia.
As can be seen in the world maps he drew around 1320 he introduced a heretofore unseen accuracy in the outline of the lands surrounding the Mediterranean and Black Sea, probably because they were taken from the portolan [nautical] charts.
What the map actually shows varies little from a traditional mappamundi; what has changed is its implied claim to be modern and accurate in a different sense.
In order to achieve this feat, the Portuguese heavily utilized the geographic knowledge and navigational experiences that Muslim mariners had accumulated for centuries. But the Spanish government did not welcome his proposals, and at the end of 1500 Vespucci went into the service of Portugal. We may suspect that his influence lay behind the maps of Italy in the Great Chronology by Paolino Veneto during the years of 1306 to 1321 that was copied at Naples not long after, for other maps in the same manuscript are related to maps from Vescontea€™s workshop that illustrate Marino Sanudoa€™s book calling for a new crusade. Vescontea€™s map offers a glimpse of the currency that empirical geometry carried at this transitional moment.
The Cosmographiae provided an introduction to the new geography of the world as laid out in the globe and wall-map, and included a Latin translation of Vespuccia€™s four voyages. Vesconte clearly saw in the geometry of the portolan charts an iconic, modern power that could be combined with the forms of a traditional world map to create a new kind of picture. A He is best known for his lifelong attempts to revive the crusading spirit and movement.A  He wrote his great work is entitled Liber secretorem fidelum Crucis, sive de Recuperatio Terrae Sancta [Secret book of the loyalty to the Cross or the Recapture of the Holy Lands], also called Historia Hierosolymitana, Liber de expeditione Terrae Sanctae, and Opus Terrae Sanctae, the last being perhaps the proper title of the whole treatise as completed in three parts or a€?booksa€?.

Project management courses canberra
Stanford online education courses free
Organizational behavior training topics
What branch is the secret service under

Comments to «Create map countries visited»

  1. Hear him reveal the million dollar.
  2. The Secret Retailer and all through happen to be against the pseudo-science??that.
  3. Beings, His love and gracious purpose, and all of His covenantal adults with.
  4. Does, and this is going out on a limb somewhat, but to me it seems.
  5. The economy crashing, but I do blame our naivety (much of it encouraged by philosophies university of California-Berkeley.