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1.6MP on kameras? 720p HD video kaydederken arka kameradaki Ultrapixel sayesinde 13MP kameralardan 3 kat daha fazla ?s?k yakalama ozelligi bulunuyor. GLONASS destekli GPS yongas?na ek olarak sensor taraf?nda pusula, gyro, accelometer, proximity ve ?s?k sensoru mevcut. Ashoka, and check out Ashoka on Wikipedia, Youtube, Google News, Google Books, and Twitter on Digplanet. Ashoka's name "AA›oka" means "painless, without sorrow" in Sanskrit (the a privativum and A›oka "pain, distress"). Ashoka was born to the Mauryan emperor, Bindusara and a relatively lower ranked wife of his, DharmA? (or DhammA?).
Ashoka had several elder siblings, all of whom were his half-brothers from the other wives of Bindusara. The Buddhist text Divyavadana describes Ashoka putting down a revolt due to activities of wicked ministers. A c.a€‰1910 painting by Abanindranath Tagore (1871a€“1951) depicting Ashoka's queen standing in front of the railings of the Buddhist monument at Sanchi (Raisen district, Madhya Pradesh). While the early part of Ashoka's reign was apparently quite bloodthirsty, he became a follower of the Buddha's teachings after his conquest of Kalinga on the east coast of India in the present-day states of Odisha and North Coastal Andhra Pradesh. His Majesty feels remorse on account of the conquest of Kalinga because, during the subjugation of a previously unconquered country, slaughter, death, and taking away captive of the people necessarily occur, whereat His Majesty feels profound sorrow and regret. Legend says that one day after the war was over, Ashoka ventured out to roam the city and all he could see were burnt houses and scattered corpses. The lethal war with Kalinga transformed the vengeful Emperor Ashoka to a stable and peaceful emperor and he became a patron of Buddhism. Archaeological evidence for Buddhism between the death of the Buddha and the time of Ashoka is scarce; after the time of Ashoka it is abundant. Ashoka's Major Rock Edict at Junagadh contains inscriptions by Ashoka (fourteen of the Edicts of Ashoka), Rudradamanna I and Skandagupta. The reign of Ashoka Maurya might have disappeared into history as the ages passed by, had he not left behind records of his reign.
In the year 185 BCE, about fifty years after Ashoka's death, the last Maurya ruler, Brihadratha, was assassinated by the commander-in-chief of the Mauryan armed forces, Pushyamitra Shunga, while he was taking the Guard of Honor of his forces.
One of the more enduring legacies of Ashoka Maurya was the model that he provided for the relationship between Buddhism and the state. According to the legends mentioned in the 2nd-century CE text Ashokavadana, Ashoka was not non-violent after adopting Buddhism. Ashoka was almost forgotten by the historians of the early British India, but James Prinsep contributed in the revelation of historical sources. Bilingual inscription (in Greek and Aramaic) by King Ashoka, discovered at Kandahar (National Museum of Afghanistan). Information about the life and reign of Ashoka primarily comes from a relatively small number of Buddhist sources.
Edicts of Ashoka -The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by Ashoka during his reign.
Ashokavadana a€“ The Ashokavadana is a 2nd-century CE text related to the legend of Ashoka. Mahavamsa -The Mahavamsa ("Great Chronicle") is a historical poem written in the Pali language of the kings of Sri Lanka. The use of Buddhist sources in reconstructing the life of Ashoka has had a strong influence on perceptions of Ashoka, as well as the interpretations of his Edicts.
Interestingly, the Ashokavadana presents an alternate view of the familiar Ashoka; one in which his conversion has nothing to do with the Kalinga war or about his descent from the Maurya dynasty.
Much of the knowledge about Ashoka comes from the several inscriptions that he had carved on pillars and rocks throughout the empire. Recently scholarly analysis determined that the three major foci of debate regarding Ashoka involve the nature of the Maurya empire; the extent and impact of Ashoka's pacifism, and what is referred to in the Inscriptions as dhamma or dharma, which connotes goodness, virtue, and charity. As a Buddhist emperor, Ashoka believed that Buddhism is beneficial for all human beings as well as animals and plants, so he built a number of stupas, Sangharama, viharas, chaitya, and residences for Buddhist monks all over South Asia and Central Asia.
It is well known that Ashoka sent dA?tas or emissaries to convey messages or letters, written or oral (rather both), to various people. The Greeks in India even seem to have played an active role in the propagation of Buddhism, as some of the emissaries of Ashoka, such as Dharmaraksita, are described in Pali sources as leading Greek (Yona) Buddhist monks, active in spreading Buddhism (the Mahavamsa, XII[46]). Ashoka's military power was strong, but after his conversion to Buddhism, he maintained friendly relations with three major Tamil kingdoms in the South namely Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas, the post Alexandrian empire, Tamraparni, and Suvarnabhumi. Ashoka's rock edicts declare that injuring living things is not good, and no animal should be sacrificed for slaughter. He imposed a ban on killing of "all four-footed creatures that are neither useful nor edible", and of specific animal species including several birds, certain types of fish and bulls among others.
The Ashoka Chakra (the wheel of Ashoka) is a depiction of the Dharmachakra (the Wheel of Dharma).
A few days before India became independent on August 1947, the specially formed Constituent Assembly decided that the flag of India must be acceptable to all parties and communities.[52] A flag with three colours, Saffron, White and Green with the Ashoka Chakra was selected.
The pillars of Ashoka are a series of columns dispersed throughout the northern Indian subcontinent, and erected by Ashoka during his reign in the 3rd century BCE. The Ashoka Lion capital or the Sarnath lion capital is also known as the national symbol of India.
The four animals in the Sarnath capital are believed to symbolise different steps of Lord Buddha's life.
The Elephant represents the Buddha's idea in reference to the dream of Queen Maya of a white elephant entering her womb. The movie story deals Sandhyaa Arun student madly love Karthik, techie based Italy. Artisteer - official site, Artisteer - web design generator for joomla templates, wordpress themes, drupal themes, blogger templates and dnn skins artisteer 4.3 quick and easy-to-use web design generator for windows with hundreds of design options. Gratis download lagu mp3 music terbaru hari ini, Gratis download lagu mp3 music terbaru hari ini muziks download latest hindi,pop,rock,reggae,hiphop,disco,punjabi, remiand bhangra tranding music 2015 prem ratan dhan payo movie 2015 ke song download karne. Carlos music free download new mp3 2016, Gratis download lagu mp3 music terbaru hari ini music download latest hindi,pop,rock,reggae,hiphop,disco,punjabi, remiand bhangra tranding top download 2016 sajna ve mp3 free download rashmi and salman, rajeni. Persembe gunu yap?lan resmi tan?t?mda cihaz?n daha dusuk butceli kullan?c?lara hitap ettigi soylendi. It covered the entire Indian subcontinent except parts of present-day Tamil Nadu and Kerala. His fighting qualities were apparent from an early age and he was given royal military training.
According to the Divyavadana, Bindusara wanted his son Susima to succeed him but Ashoka was supported by his father's ministers, who found Susima to be arrogant and disrespectful towards them.[16] A minister named Radhagupta seems to have played an important role in Ashoka's rise to the throne.



He built Ashoka's Hell, an elaborate torture chamber described as a "Paradisal Hell" due to the contrast between its beautiful exterior and the acts carried out within by his appointed executioner, Girikaa.[17] This earned him the name of Chanda Ashoka (Caa?‡a??a AA›oka) meaning "Ashoka the Fierce" in Sanskrit. Whether or not he converted to Buddhism is unclear [23] although Buddhist tradition says he did. Legend states that during his cremation, his body burned for seven days and nights.[28] After his death, the Mauryan dynasty lasted just fifty more years until his empire stretched over almost all of the Indian subcontinent.
It is said that she had got Ashoka's son Kunala, the regent in Takshashila and the heir presumptive to the throne, blinded by a wily stratagem. These records are in the form of sculpted pillars and rocks inscribed with a variety of actions and teachings he wished to be published under his name. Pushyamitra Shunga founded the Shunga dynasty (185-75 BCE) and ruled just a fragmented part of the Mauryan Empire.
Throughout Theravada Southeastern Asia, the model of rulership embodied by Ashoka replaced the notion of divine kingship that had previously dominated (in the Angkor kingdom, for instance).
In one instance, a non-Buddhist in Pundravardhana drew a picture showing the Buddha bowing at the feet of Nirgrantha Jnatiputra (identified with Mahavira, 24th Tirthankara of Jainism). Another important historian was British archaeologist John Hubert Marshall, who was director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India. In particular, the Sanskrit Ashokavadana ('Story of Ashoka'), written in the 2nd century, and the two PA?li chronicles of Sri Lanka (the Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa) provide most of the currently known information about Ashoka. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout modern-day Pakistan and India, and represent the first tangible evidence of Buddhism. It covers the period from the coming of King Vijaya of Kalinga (ancient Odisha) in 543 BCE to the reign of King Mahasena (334a€“361).
The chronicle is believed to be compiled from Atthakatha and other sources around the 3rd or 4th century CE.
Building on traditional accounts, early scholars regarded Ashoka as a primarily Buddhist monarch who underwent a conversion to Buddhism and was actively engaged in sponsoring and supporting the Buddhist monastic institution. In one edict he belittles rituals, and he banned Vedic animal sacrifices; these strongly suggest that he at least did not look to the Vedic tradition for guidance. Some historians[who?] have argued that Ashoka's pacifism undermined the "military backbone" of the Maurya empire, while others have suggested that the extent and impact of his pacifism have been "grossly exaggerated". He inspired the Buddhist monks to compose the sacred religious texts, and also gave all types of help to that end.
And it (conquest by Dhamma) has been won here, on the borders, even six hundred yojanas away, where the Greek king Antiochos rules, beyond there where the four kings named Ptolemy, Antigonos, Magas and Alexander rule, likewise in the south among the Cholas, the Pandyas, and as far as Tamraparni. His edicts state that he made provisions for medical treatment of humans and animals in his own kingdom as well as in these neighbouring states. He also banned killing of female goats, sheep and pigs that were nursing their young; as well as their young up to the age of six months. The wheel has 24 spokes which represent the 12 Laws of Dependent Origination and the 12 Laws of Dependent Termination. Originally, there must have been many pillars of Ashoka although only ten with inscriptions still survive. It was originally placed atop the Ashoka pillar at Sarnath, now in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone, the capital was believed to be crowned by a 'Wheel of Dharma' (Dharmachakra popularly known in India as the "Ashoka Chakra"). The Sarnath pillar bears one of the Edicts of Ashoka, an inscription against division within the Buddhist community, which reads, "No one shall cause division in the order of monks." The Sarnath pillar is a column surmounted by a capital, which consists of a canopy representing an inverted bell-shaped lotus flower, a short cylindrical abacus with four 24-spoked Dharma wheels with four animals (an elephant, a bull, a horse, a lion). Tamamen metal govdesi, BoomSound hoparlorler, Ultrapixel kamera ve batarya ars?z? BlinkFeed ana ekrana sahip. The empire's capital was Pataliputra (in Magadha, present-day Bihar), with provincial capitals at Taxila and Ujjain.
His fondness for his name's connection to the Saraca asoca tree, or the "Ashoka tree" is also referenced in the Ashokavadana.
He was known as a fearsome hunter, and according to a legend, killed a lion with just a wooden rod. Taranatha's account states that Acharya Chanakya, Bindusara's chief advisor, destroyed the nobles and kings of 16 towns and made himself the master of all territory between the eastern and the western seas. The Ashokavadana recounts Radhagupta's offering of an old royal elephant to Ashoka for him to ride to the Garden of the Gold Pavilion where King Bindusara would determine his successor. With its monarchical parliamentary democracy it was quite an exception in ancient Bharata where there existed the concept of Rajdharma. The official executioners spared Kunala and he became a wandering singer accompanied by his favourite wife Kanchanmala. Many of the northwestern territories of the Mauryan Empire (modern-day Afghanistan and Northern Pakistan) became the Indo-Greek Kingdom.
Under this model of 'Buddhist kingship', the king sought to legitimise his rule not through descent from a divine source, but by supporting and earning the approval of the Buddhist sangha. On complaint from a Buddhist devotee, Ashoka issued an order to arrest him, and subsequently, another order to kill all the Ajivikas in Pundravardhana. Additional information is contributed by the Edicts of Ashoka, whose authorship was finally attributed to the Ashoka of Buddhist legend after the discovery of dynastic lists that gave the name used in the edicts (Priyadarshia€”'He who regards everyone with affection') as a title or additional name of Ashoka Maurya.
As it often refers to the royal dynasties of India, the Mahavamsa is also valuable for historians who wish to date and relate contemporary royal dynasties in the Indian subcontinent. King Dhatusena (4th century) had ordered that the Dipavamsa be recited at the Mahinda festival held annually in Anuradhapura.
Furthermore, many edicts are expressed to Buddhists alone; in one, Ashoka declares himself to be an "upasaka", and in another he demonstrates a close familiarity with Buddhist texts. The Ashokavadana shows that the main source of Ashoka's conversion and the acts of welfare that followed are rooted instead in intense personal anguish at its core, from a wellspring inside himself rather than spurred by a specific event.
In the Kalinga rock edits, he addresses his people as his "children" and mentions that as a father he desires their good.[38] These inscriptions promoted Buddhist morality and encouraged nonviolence and adherence to dharma (duty or proper behaviour), and they talk of his fame and conquered lands as well as the neighbouring kingdoms holding up his might. The dhamma of the Edicts has been understood as concurrently a Buddhist lay ethic, a set of politico-moral ideas, a "sort of universal religion", or as an Ashokan innovation.
He sent his only daughter Sanghamitra and son Mahindra to spread Buddhism in Sri Lanka (then known as Tamraparni). It was later confirmed that it was not unusual to add oral messages to written ones, and the content of Ashoka's messages can be inferred likewise from the XIIIth Rock Edict: They were meant to spread his dhammavijaya, which he considered the highest victory and which he wished to propagate everywhere (including far beyond India). Here in the king's domain among the Greeks, the Kambojas, the Nabhakas, the Nabhapamktis, the Bhojas, the Pitinikas, the Andhras and the Palidas, everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions in Dhamma.
The Ashoka Chakra has been widely inscribed on many relics of the Mauryan Emperor, most prominent among which is the Lion Capital of Sarnath and The Ashoka Pillar. Averaging between forty and fifty feet in height, and weighing up to fifty tons each, all the pillars were quarried at Chunar, just south of Varanasi and dragged, sometimes hundreds of miles, to where they were erected.


The pillar, sometimes called the Ashoka Column is still in its original location, but the Lion Capital is now in the Sarnath Museum.
In the Kalinga edicts, he addresses his people as his "children", and mentions that as a father he desires their good.
Some historians consider this as an indication of Bindusara's conquest of the Deccan while others consider it as suppression of a revolt.
Ashoka later got rid of the legitimate heir to the throne by tricking him into entering a pit filled with live coals. Rajdharma means the duty of the rulers, which was intrinsically entwined with the concept of bravery and dharma. In Pataliputra, Ashoka heard Kunala's song, and realised that Kunala's misfortune may have been a punishment for some past sin of the emperor himself.
Following Ashoka's example, kings established monasteries, funded the construction of stupas, and supported the ordination of monks in their kingdom. Around 18,000 followers of the Ajivika sect were executed as a result of this order.[11][32] Sometime later, another Nirgrantha follower in Pataliputra drew a similar picture.
Sir Alexander Cunningham, a British archaeologist and army engineer, and often known as the father of the Archaeological Survey of India, unveiled heritage sites like the Bharhut Stupa, Sarnath, Sanchi, and the Mahabodhi Temple. Architectural remains of his period have been found at Kumhrar, Patna, which include an 80-pillar hypostyle hall.
The emphasis of this little known text is on exploring the relationship between the king and the community of monks (the Sangha) and setting up an ideal of religious life for the laity (the common man) by telling appealing stories about religious exploits.
The only source of information not attributable to Buddhist sources are the Ashokan Edicts, and these do not explicitly state that Ashoka was a Buddhist. He erected rock pillars at Buddhist holy sites, but did not do so for the sites of other religions. It thereby illuminates Ashoka as more humanly ambitious and passionate, with both greatness and flaws.
One also gets some primary information about the Kalinga War and Ashoka's allies plus some useful knowledge on the civil administration. On the other hand, it has also been interpreted as an essentially political ideology that sought to knit together a vast and diverse empire.
There is obvious and undeniable trace of cultural contact through the adoption of the Kharosthi script, and the idea of installing inscriptions might have travelled with this script, as Achaemenid influence is seen in some of the formulations used by Ashoka in his inscriptions. Even where Beloved-of-the-Gods' envoys have not been, these people too, having heard of the practice of Dhamma and the ordinances and instructions in Dhamma given by Beloved-of-the-Gods, are following it and will continue to do so. The most visible use of the Ashoka Chakra today is at the centre of the National flag of the Republic of India (adopted on 22 July 1947), where it is rendered in a Navy-blue color on a White background, by replacing the symbol of Charkha (Spinning wheel) of the pre-independence versions of the flag.
The first Pillar of Ashoka was found in the 16th century by Thomas Coryat in the ruins of ancient Delhi. This Lion Capital of Ashoka from Sarnath has been adopted as the National Emblem of India and the wheel "Ashoka Chakra" from its base was placed onto the center of the National Flag of India. Radhagupta, according to the Ashokavadana, would later be appointed prime minister by Ashoka once he had gained the throne.
Basham, Ashoka's personal religion became Buddhism, if not before, then certainly after the Kalinga war.
Many rulers also took an active role in resolving disputes over the status and regulation of the sangha, as Ashoka had in calling a conclave to settle a number of contentious issues during his reign.
Ashoka burnt him and his entire family alive in their house.[32] He also announced an award of one dinara (silver coin) to anyone who brought him the head of a Nirgrantha heretic. Mortimer Wheeler, a British archaeologist, also exposed Ashokan historical sources, especially the Taxila.
The most startling feature is that Ashokaa€™s conversion has nothing to do with the Kalinga war, which is not even mentioned, nor is there a word about his belonging to the Maurya dynasty.
He also used the word "dhamma" to refer to qualities of the heart that underlie moral action; this was an exclusively Buddhist use of the word. Scholars are still attempting to analyse both the expressed and implied political ideas of the Edicts (particularly in regard to imperial vision), and make inferences pertaining to how that vision was grappling with problems and political realities of a "virtually subcontinental, and culturally and economically highly variegated, 3rd century BCE Indian empire.
The Ashoka Chakra can also been seen on the base of Lion Capital of Ashoka which has been adopted as the National Emblem of India.
The wheel represents the sun time and Buddhist law, while the swastika stands for the cosmic dance around a fixed center and guards against evil.
The Dipavansa and Mahavansa refer to Ashoka's killing 99 of his brothers, sparing only one, named Vitashoka or Tissa,[3] although there is no clear proof about this incident (many such accounts are saturated with mythological elements).
However, according to Basham, the Dharma officially propagated by Ashoka was not Buddhism at all.[24] Romila Thapar notes that modern day historians question his conversion into Buddhism, in the aftermath of the Kalinga war. In the Ashokavadana, Kunala is portrayed as forgiving Tishyaraksha, having obtained enlightenment through Buddhist practice.
This development ultimately led to a close association in many Southeast Asian countries between the monarchy and the religious hierarchy, an association that can still be seen today in the state-supported Buddhism of Thailand and the traditional role of the Thai king as both a religious and secular leader.
Equally surprising is the record of his use of state power to spread Buddhism in an uncompromising fashion. Made of sandstone, this pillar records the visit of the emperor to Sarnath, in the 3rd century BCE.
As his reign continued his even-handedness was replaced with special inclination towards Buddhism.[43] Ashoka helped and respected both Shramanas (Buddhists monks) and Brahmins (Vedic monks). Did I do it to widen the empire and for prosperity or to destroy the other's kingdom and splendor? While he urges Ashoka to forgive her as well, Ashoka does not respond with the same forgiveness.[17] Kunala was succeeded by his son, Samprati, who ruled for 50 years until his death.
It has a four-lion capital (four lions standing back to back), which was adopted as the emblem of the modern Indian republic. Ashoka also helped to organise the Third Buddhist council (c.a€‰250 BCE) at Pataliputra (today's Patna). In translating these monuments, historians learn the bulk of what is assumed to have been true fact of the Mauryan Empire. It is difficult to determine whether or not some actual events ever happened, but the stone etchings clearly depict how Ashoka wanted to be thought of and remembered.



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