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In democratic leadership, group members can easily share their thoughts and ideas with the head of the group. Therefore, this excellent leadership styles should be applicable on those countries where the group members are enough educative and skilled.
Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people.
The first major study of leadership styles was performed in 1939 by Kurt Lewin who led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership (Lewin, Lippit, White, 1939). Although good leaders use all three styles, with one of them normally dominant, bad leaders tend to stick with one style, normally autocratic. This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. Some people tend to think of this style as a vehicle for yelling, using demeaning language, and leading by threats. This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). This is normally used when you have part of the information, and your employees have other parts. Even if you have all the answers, gaining different perspectives and diversity of opinions normally provide greater creativity than insularity. So as you think about diversity and its effects in organizations during this tough economic time, recognize that the most robust practical value of diversity is that it challenges everyone in an organization. This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go wrong, rather this is a style to be used when you fully trust and have confidence in the people below you. A good leader uses all three styles, depending on what forces are involved between the followers, the leader, and the situation. Using all three styles: Telling your employees that a procedure is not working correctly and a new one must be established (authoritarian). Notice that as you go from left to right, it moves from manager-oriented decision making to team or subordinate oriented decision making, thus the teama€™s freedom increases while the managera€™s authority decreases. Manager makes decision and announces it a€“ The team has no role in the decision-making role. Manager presents ideas and invites questions a€“ This allows the team to get a fuller explanation so they can gain a better understanding of what the manager is trying to accomplish.
Manager presents a tentative decision that is subject to change a€“ This action invites the team to have some influence regarding the decision; thus, it can be changed based on the team's input.
Manager presents the problem, gets suggestions, and then makes the decision a€“ Up to this point the manager has always presented the decision, although the last style allows it to change based upon the team's input. Manager defines limits, and requests the team to make a decision a€“ The manager delegates the decision making to the team; but instills specific limits on the team's solution. Manager allows team to function within limits a€“ Now the team does the decision making, however, the manager's superior may have placed certain limits on the options they can make.
Basically, the first two styles or behaviors are similar to the authoritarian style, the next three are similar to the participative style, while the last two are similar to the delegative style. This page describes seven behavior patterns or styles of leaders, to include Social Leadership as described by Howell and Costley (2001). Most leaders do not strictly use one or another, but are somewhere on a continuum ranging from extremely positive to extremely negative. Consideration (employee orientation) — leaders are concerned about the human needs of their employees. Structure (task orientation) — leaders believe that they get results by consistently keeping people busy and urging them to produce.
There is evidence that leaders who are considerate in their leadership style are higher performers and are more satisfied with their job (Schriesheim, 1982). Also notice that consideration and structure are independent of each other, thus they should not be viewed on a continuum (Stogdill, 1974).
Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid is a good example of a leadership model based upon the concept of consideration and structure.
Leadership is influencing people by providing purpose, direction, and motivation while operating to accomplish the mission and improving the organization. A system under which an authority undertakes to supply needs or regulate conduct of those under its control in matters affecting them as individuals as well as in their relationships to authority and to each other. Thus, paternalism supplies needs for those under its protection or control, while leadership gets things done. The last revolution in Sweden disposed of King Gustav IV, whom they considered incompetent, and surprising invited Jean Baptise Bernadotte, a French general who served under Napoleon, to become their new King.
Bernadotte was a victim of culture shock—never in his French upbringing and military career had he experienced subordinates who laughed at the mistakes of their superior. Sweden differs from France in the way its society handles inequality (those in charge and the followers). For example, Malaysia has the highest PDI score, being 104, while Austria has the lowest with 11. Keeping the above in mind, it seems that some picture paternalistic behavior as almost a barbaric way of getting things accomplished. That is what makes leadership styles quite interesting—they basically run along the same continuum as Hofstede's PDI, ranging from paternalistic to consultative styles of decision making. However, when paternalistic or autocratic styles are relied upon too much and the employees are ready for a more consultative type of leadership style, then it can becomes quite damaging to the performance of the organization if change is not advanced. Democratic leadership has also some downsides which sometimes make this style of leadership questionable.
This also demands a stable political and economical condition of a country to work productively. As seen by the employees, it includes the total pattern of explicit and implicit actions performed by their leader (Newstrom, Davis, 1993). If you have the time and want to gain more commitment and motivation from your employees, then you should use the participative style.
A leader is not expected to know everything—this is why you employ knowledgeable and skilled people. We are more thoughtful, and we recognize and utilize more of the information that we have at our disposal, when diversity is present. Now the team is free to come up with options, however, the manager still has the final say on those options. If the manager sits in on the decision making, he or she attempts to do so with no more authority than the other members do. This approach gives the leader more options that can be refined to specific situations or environments.
Positive leaders use rewards, such as education, new experiences, and independence, to motivate employees, while negative employers emphasize penalties (Newstrom, Davis, 1993). They believe the only way to get things done is through penalties, such as loss of job, days off without pay, reprimanding employees in front of others, etc.



People who continuously work out of the negative are bosses, while those who primarily work out of the positive are considered great leaders.
They build teamwork, help employees with their problems, and provide psychological support.
For example, a leader who is more considerate does not necessarily mean that she is less structured.
Most definitions of leadership normally state or imply that one of the actions within leadership is that of influencing.
Part of his study was on the dependence relationship or Power Difference—the extent to which the less powerful members of an organization expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. This story has a happy ending as he was considered very good and ruled the country as a highly respected constitutional monarch until 1844. Employees were also asked to report their perceptionsof organizational politics using the scale developed by Kacmar and Ferris. In some countries, this leadership style has proved fruitful while in other countries, this is struggling. Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect.
Using this style is of mutual benefit as it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions.
This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. The negative approach has a place in a leader's repertoire of tools in certain situations; however, it must be used carefully due to its high cost on the human spirit. They believe their authority is increased by frightening everyone into higher levels of productivity.
In addition, supervisorsprovided objective evaluations of the levels of their employees’ in-role performance and OCB. In this leadership style members of the group play more participative roles than the other leadership style. While lower numbers mean a more consultative style of leadership is used, which translates to employees who are not as afraid of their bosses. Theintra-structure of the leadership variable was examined by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) andconfirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with structural equation modeling. Sometimes, in critical situation ideas from the group members can help the chairperson to take a right and effective decision. It requires enough time to collect information from the group members and bring those to the group leader.
As group members are always engaged with the group, they remain active all the time for their group and help their group in critical conditions. It may happen that the leader has taken a wrong decision in hurry without consulting with the group members. This unique leadership style brings out the best from every group member and ultimately it makes the group stronger.
It may even make the group members ferocious against the group leader and as a result, the whole group can collapse on a simple event. This effective leadership style is also very flexible and the group leader can change it whenever he wants.
He may choose some selected persons to consult on a current issue to make his decision better than others. Again, if the group members lack ideas and thoughts then the group can be at a stack for some periods. 5, 2007The author wishes to thank Yinnon Dryzin-Amit for his help in conducting this study.
In this process, no ideas can be neglected and therefore, everybody can express their think about perspective. Whenever the group leader stacks to make decision group members come forward to help him in democratic style and therefore save the reputation of the party. This perspectivereflects a generally negative image of workplace politics in the eyes of mostorganization members.
Although treated as separate constructs, several studies havealso related organizational politics to the theory of fairness, equity, and justice in theworkplace (i.e. This study proposes and tests twocompeting models for the relationship among leadership, politics, and performance. Byso doing, the study expects to contribute to our knowledge in this area by examiningthe relationship between leadership and employees’ performance and arguing thatorganizational politics mediates in this relationship. According to their view, studieson leadership in organizations have moved in several directions, but two approacheshave dominated the literature. Such a definition alsomakes a clear distinction between leadership and coercive rules. However, it relatesleadership with the processes of informal influence, power and to a lesser extent,formal authority, which comprise the political environment in organizations. Whenpeople act out of obedience to authority, it is difficult to decide whether they are actingof their own free will or out of fear of punishment by their superior. Thus, moderntheories on leadership are much more interested in transformational leadership than inany other type of leadership (i.e. According to this theory, there are two basic levels of influence evidentin the interaction between the leader and the led.
The second influence of the leader is an emotional excitement,which Burns called transformational or charismatic leadership. This style is based on arelationship between the leader and his employees that is inspirational and breaks thecycle of subordinates’ basic expectations. This leadership style can captivateemployees and urge them on to new and challenging objectives. Transformationalleadership raises the employees’ awareness of their need to grow, validates theirself-expression, and motivates them to perform at new and higher levels. Atransformational leader influences the expectations of his subordinates, changes theirbeliefs and values, and raises them in the hierarchy of needs.
According to Burns(1978), the hierarchy of needs is the foundation of the transformational process.
Themodel is based on the outcome of their research with 78 managers who were asked inan open-ended questionnaire to describe the most remarkable characteristics of leaderswho had influenced them personally. Avolio and Bass expanded Bass’s (1985) originalmodel to what they called The Full Range of Leadership Model.
In this model, transformational leadership ranks as the mosteffective style, followed by transactional leadership and then the laissez-faire style. Thebasic assumption of the Full Range of Leadership model is that in every leader allstyles can be found. This correlation was consistently higher than thepositive correlation between the leader’s transactional style and the organizationalperformance.


This relationship results in the employees’basic agreement with the norms to which they are required to perform. Bass suggeststhat transformational leadership can create identification with and internalization ofdesirable values, as opposed to the limited goal of transactional leadership to create acompliant workforce. Parry (2003) specifically examined leadership styles in publicsector organizations and found that a transformational leadership style has a positiveeffect on the innovation and effectiveness of these organizations. Recently, Wang et al.(2005) suggested the leader member exchange (LMX) theory (Graen, 1976) as a goodexplanation for a mediating role between leadership styles (especially transformationalleadership) and organizational performance as well as organizational citizenshipbehavior (OCB). According to these theories, better performance canbe achieved only when there is a reasonable level of expectation-fit and when the socialexchange between managers and employees is fair and equal. Lack ofminimal justice and fairness in these systems was found to be a major cause of higherperceptions of organizational politics and therefore of hampered organizationalperformance. All these studies relied on Kurt Lewin’s (1936) argument that peoplerespond to their perceptions of reality, not to reality itself. Likewise, politics inorganizations should be understood in terms of what people think of it rather thanwhat it actually represents.
The model examines perceptions of organizational politicsas a mediator in the relationship between leadership and performance. A balanced relationship between leaders and members isessential, and the fair treatment of the individual must be advanced as anorganizational strategy. For example, Ferris andRowland (1981) argued that the leader’s behavior affects employee job perceptions,which then affect employee attitudes towards the job and performance. Thus,employees’ perceptions of the workplace, such as perceptions of politics, may bemediators between leadership and performance. A more recent study by Pillai et al.(1999) examined the relationship between transformational and transactionalleadership, procedural justice and distributive justice, and trust in organizationalobligation, OCB, and satisfaction from work. Findings showed thattransformational leadership has more influence on performance than transactionalleadership. Transactional leadership explainsa relatively low percentage of the researched performance criterion’s variance. It seems that in manyorganizations, especially public ones, transformational leadership is more effectivethan transactional leadership. Skilled transformational managers have the ability tosupport and educate employees, while challenging them to stretch themselves in orderLeadership styleto do their jobs. This idea is much in line with the leader-member exchange theory (LMX) assuggested by Graen (1976) and others. The managerial strategy underlying the transformational style reinforcesmoral values, thereby contributing positively to feelings of fairness and justice andreducing feelings of inferiority that derive from a lack of recourse to politicalalternatives (Kacmar and Ferris, 1991).
In sum, transformational leadership hascharacteristics that can reduce perceptions of organizational politics among employees.Therefore, it is expected that a transformational leader will create a betterunderstanding among employees as to what is expected from them in the framework oftheir job. This leadership style ischaracterized by negotiation skills that are suitable for a political environment, by thePRmanagement of exchange relationships, and a reward system that will increase36,5employees’ motivation. The transactional leadership style encourages the developmentof interest-based relationships between employees and managers, which is at the heartof the political process.
This may lead employees to promote their interests more668aggressively in an environment that struggles over limited resources. Given that organizational politics is strongly related to fairness and justice in theworkplace, one may suggest that leadership style is also related to organizationalpolitics. Strong perceptions oforganizational politics may damage the organization’s performance in a number ofways. First, they are related to negative attitudes towards the organization such aslower levels of trust, satisfaction, or commitment (i.e. Second, relationships have been found between perceptionsof organizational politics and various negative employee behaviors such as thewithholding of information, neglect of one’s work, tardiness, absenteeism, or turnoverintentions (Vigoda-Gadot, 2003).
Parry (2003) showed thatorganizational climate is a mediating factor between leadership and performance in aLeadership stylepublic organization. In addition, a transformational leader tends to educate, guide,and treat every employee to personal attention in his effort to motivate them to performabove and beyond what is required of them. In contrast, a transactional leadershipstyle should strengthen perceptions of organizational politics among employeesbecause it does not emphasize these values. The leader-member exchange(LMX) theory strongly supports this notion and suggests that interactions betweensupervisors and employees are frequently interest based (i.e.
This theoretical rationale is also in line with Ehrhart’s (2004) research,which found that a climate of organizational justice mediates in the relationshipbetween leadership and OCB. The agency is an independent authority with four major regionalheadquarters and nine branches nationwide. Between December 2002 and August2003, 233 questionnaires were handed out in the branches across the country andcollected directly by the researchers. The overall response rate was 86.4 percent, and201 questionnaires were used for data processing. First, permission to distribute thequestionnaires was obtained from the organization’s management. Second, employeeswere asked by the researcher to cooperate in the study, and it was clarified to theemployees that participation was completely voluntary. The employees were also toldthat a certain degree of identification was needed and that their answers would bematched with other important data obtained from the managers. The employees did have the option toPRrefuse to take part in the study with no fear of retaliation by their supervisors, as the36,5management had no information about who decided to take part in the study and whodid not. Only the researchers had this data.The questionnaires were completed by the employees and collected at the samemeeting by the researcher. Slightly less than onethird, or 32.8 percent of the participants were low-level or middle-level managers andthe others were front-line employees. Thedemographic characteristics of the sample were quite similar to those of the totalpopulation in the organizations that participated in the study.MeasuresMLQ.
The study used the MLQ (Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire) for measuringthe full range leadership styles. This measure was first introduced by Bass (1985) andwas further developed by Bass and Avolio (1993). Ashorter version of the questionnaire was applied, as suggested by Bass and Avolio(1993), including four items for each one of the components of the full range, whichresulted in 32 items altogether. This variable was measured by a shorterversion of the Perception of Organizational Politics Scale (POPS) that was firstdeveloped by Kacmar and Ferris (1991) and later re-examined by Kacmar and Carlson(1994).
POPS was defined as the degree to which the respondents view their workenvironment as political, and therefore unjust and unfair.



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