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In order to think about how to motivate underachieving students, you have to start with some kind of model for (1) how students differ from one another, and (2) how students can change over time. These lines of thinking easily take you to theories of learning style and theories of student development, with the result that you may soon be considering how to motivate students with each of, say, 16 different kinds of learning styles who, in turn, are at each of the stages of, say, Perry’s stages of development during the college years. One alternative is to adopt a simplified model that combines a concept of student types with a concept of how students change over time. The model proposed here to represent student development and teacher response – the Staged Self-Directed Learning Model (SSDL) – was described in the author’s article, “Teaching Learners to be Self-Directed.” As its starting point, it uses Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership model of management.
For students in each stage, the teacher applies methods to do two things: (1) match the students’ stage of self-direction, and (2) prepare the student to advance to a higher stage of self-direction. Figure 1 introduces the four stages of the SSDL model, which were inspired by the four leadership styles described in Situational Leadership. This paper will use the SSDL model to portray the fundamental differences in approach that students take toward learning as they move from lesser to greater degrees of self-direction. Thus, for the S1 dependent learner, you will find a brief description of a learner in Stage 1, followed by motivational activities appropriate for a student in this stage related to Keller’s categories of Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction (ARCS).
In making this list, the author first grouped motivational strategies that seem to match the characteristics of learners and activities of teachers in each stage of the model.
Attributional Assumptions: “Teacher is responsible for motivating and developing ability of students. Instructor roles: authority figure, expert, director, coach, drill sergeant, professor, lecturer.
Use unpredictability and uncertainty to the degree that learners enjoy them with a sense of security. Provide variety in personal presentation style, methods of instruction, and learning materials.
When appropriate, help learners to directly experience cognitive concepts on a physical and emotional level. Use needs assessment techniques to discover and emphasize the felt needs of learners in the learning process. When relevant, select content, examples, and projects that relate to the physiological and safety needs of learners. State explicitly the present intrinsic value of learning the content, as distinct from its value as a link to future goals. Selectively use application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation questions and tasks to stimulate learner involvement. Whenever possible, use performance evaluation procedures to help the learner realize how to operationalize in daily living what has been learned. To enhance achievement-striving behavior, provide opportunities to achieve standards of excellence under conditions of moderate risk. Provide consistent feedback to learners regarding their mastery, progress, and responsibility in learning.
When learning tasks are suitable to their ability, help learners to understand that effort and persistence can overcome their failures. Include statements about the likelihood of success with given amounts of effort and ability. Positively confront the possible erroneous beliefs, expectations, and assumptions that may underlie a negative learner attitude. Consider the use of extrinsic reinforcers for routine, well-learned activities, complex skill building, and drill-and-practice activities.
Encourage or provide a reinforcing event for positive closure at the end of significant units of learning. Acknowledge and affirm the learners’ responsibility and any significant actions or characteristics that contributed to the successful completion of the learning task.
Plan activities to allow learners to share and to publicly display their projects and skills. Students at this stage are willing but not yet able to take responsibility and perform well. Attributional Assumptions: “Teacher is responsible for teaching and coaching specific steps of self-motivation and involving student in process of improving his or her ability. Use creativity techniques to have students create unusual analogies and associations to the content.
Confront students directly about misbehavior; discuss what they can do to engage in more positive behavior.
Selectively emphasize and deal with the human perspective of what is being learned, with application to the personal daily lives of the learners.
To satisfy the need for affiliation, establish trust and provide opportunities for no-risk, cooperative interaction. Announce the expected amount of time needed for study and practice for successful learning. Help students make a plan for completing specific projects–starting with short projects and moving to longer ones. When making an assignment, help students brainstorm lists of strategies for getting the project done. Give students practice in setting realistic goals and devising strategies to accomplish those goals. Use formative evaluative procedures to measure and commmunicate learner progress and mastery. Use imagery techniques to help learners clearly remember specific problems or tasks that are relevant to the knowledge or skill being taught.
Offer the opportunity for responsible attainment of knowledge, skills, and learning goals that relate to the esteem needs of the learners. Hold discussions with students about the role their own effort plays in their productive work.
Monitor somewhat closely, but give feedback first by asking students to examine and evaluate their own work, cueing them to relevant information as necessary. Encourage students to feel good about successful completion of a project or a step toward completion. When learning has natural consequences, help learners to be aware of them as well as their impact.
Create components in the learning environment that tell learners they are accepted and respected participating members of the group.
Students at this stage are able, but may be unwilling–perhaps because of insecurity of lack of confidence.
Attributional Assumptions: “Students are responsible for using acquired ability to solve problems and for maintaining motivation and enthusiasm for assignment with encouragement from the teacher.
Give learners the opportunity to select topics projects and assignments that appeal to their curiosity and need to explore. To make instruction responsive to the power motive, provide opportunities for responsibility, authority, and interpersonal influence.

Encourage student efforts to verbalize appropriate attributions for both successes and failures.
Have students learn new skills under low risk conditions, but practice performance of well-learned tasks under realistic conditions. Allow students opportunity to become increasingly independent in leaning and practicing a skill. Remind students that they already know how to break a task down into subgoals, make plans for accomplishing these goals, and monitor their own progress. If students come for help, help them identify the problem, allow them to develop solutions to the problem, and encourage them to continue working on their own. When students need feedback, ask them for their own self-evaluation first, and ask them to give good reasons for that self-evaluation.
When students misbehave, ask them to describe what they are doing, to evaluate their behavior, and encourage them to follow through on their plan for improvement. Use cooperative goal structures to develop and maximize cohesiveness in the learning group. Avoid external evaluations whenever it is possible to help the student evaluate his or her own work. Students at this stage are confident, both able and willing to take responsibility for their learning, direction, and productivity. There are few motivational strategies for learners independent enough to fall under the S3 and S4 categories, mainly because such learners are, by definition, less in need of external motivation. Introduce for discussion two equally plausible facts or principles, only one of which can be true.
Expect students to monitor their own progress, work through difficulties themselves, and only call on you as a last resort.
Be comfortable knowing that students desire to do well, will think about success, and will feel bad if they fail. A major part of my purpose has been to point out that not all students can be motivated using the same strategies, and that a given student may require different kinds of motivation in different situations or at different times. The method of choosing appropriate strategies and positioning them inside the model was entirely based on what made sense to me. This paper posits that certain motivational strategies are matched with students who are at a certain level of self-direction.
The figure indicates two extreme mismatches – an independent student coupled with a directive teacher, and a dependent student coupled with a non-directive teacher.
Expanding on the original paper, consider how the extreme mismatches might play out in terms of motivation.
Such strategies, I argue, are likely to feel out of place to an experienced learner, if not actually demeaning.
In this situation, a dependent learner is likely to feel lost or abandoned, or to pursue goals not effectively related to the requirements of the course. In either case – where students are approached with motivational strategies that are far above, or far below, their capacity – you find a likely situation where students will respond with a lack of interest, subversion, or overt disruption.
Matching students at their current level of development is not the entire answer; this matching must always be seen as the first step of two. Think of it this way: You meet students where they are, in order to begin to teach them the content, skills, and attitudes they need in order to function at a higher level. Note: In retirement, I am no longer developing this paper, so I publish this substantial draft in the hope that it will be of interest to someone. Michael Jordan's Steakhouse Bar The best events in Manhattan "Get Introduced!" party "Get Introduced!" party "Get Introduced!" party "Get Introduced!" party "Get Introduced!" party "Get Introduced!" party "Get Introduced!" party "Get Introduced!" party "Get Introduced!" party "Get Introduced!" party "Get Introduced!" party Get Introduced! New York, NY New, Get Introduced parties and get togethers Connecting New York City singles.
New York City (or NYC) -- officially, "City of New York," and affectionately known as "The Big Apple" -- is the largest city of the state of New York and in the United States, and by many measures, one of the most important cities in the world. New York is also the location of what was, according to many experts, the most devastating act of terrorism in modern history: the September 11, 2001 attack that utterly destroyed the twin towers of the World Trade Center and several surrounding buildings.
New York has had a reputation as a crime-ridden city, partly due to the hundreds of TV and cinematic crime dramas set in it. The current mayor of New York City is Michael Bloomberg, elected in 2001 on the Republican ticket. Although New York's harbour was first discovered by Giovanni da Verrazano during his expedition of 1524, the history of New York City properly begins with the Dutch settlement of 1624. In 1664, British ships captured the city, with minimal resistance: the governor at the time, Peter Stuyvesant, was unpopular with the residents of the city.
Several battles were fought in New York during the Revolutionary War; the British defeated George Washington's troops, and held the city until the war ended. New York was briefly the capital of the new United States of America, in 1789 and 1790, and George Washington was inaugurated as President in New York, then the nation's second largest city.
The building of the Erie Canal, in the 1820s, helped the city grow further by increasing river traffic upstate and to the west. The modern city of New York -- the five boroughs -- was created in 1898, as the merger of the cities of New York (then Manhattan and the Bronx) and Brooklyn with the largely rural areas of Queens and Staten Island. The building of the New York subway, as the separate IRT and BMT systems, and the later IND, was a later force for population growth and development.
The world-famous Grand Central Terminal[?] opened as the world's largest train station on February 1, 1913. As of the census of 2000, there are 8,008,278 people, 3,021,588 households, and 1,852,233 families residing in the city. The median income for a household in the city is $38,293, and the median income for a family is $41,887. I invite people using message boards saying that I prefer my guests to be 30 - 50 years old but everyone is welcome.
Unless your model allows that students can change, there is no use trying to motivate underachieving students.
This paper proposes such a model and shows how a teacher might use it to choose motivational methods for students in different stages.
In the SSDL, the most important characterization of student differences is the degree to which students are ready to take charge of their learning – which is described in four stages, from the dependent learner, through the interested (or interest-able) learner, through the involved learner, to an ideal stage of the self-directed learner. Details on students and teachers, as viewed in this model, may be found in the article cited. It will then use Keller’s ARCS model to organize a collection of potential motivational strategies that may be suitable to use with students in each of the SSDL’s four stages of student development toward self-direction. Learners at this stage go along if they understand why and the instructor provides direction and help. Instructor allows students to formulate their own roles, encourages them to work out their own problems, and remains available on an informal basis (A). At this point, internal motivation takes over and the quest becomes for internal motivation, learning strategies, self-esteem, curiosity, skill in the use of information resources, and ability to make use of available educational resources.

These differences are a consequence of the twin facts that students differ from one another, and no student remains the same for long.
A case could easily be made to move strategies to different locations in the lists, or to alter the strategies on the list, and, in the absence of further research, this effort should be taken at best as a potentially useful working model. Taken together, these two mismatches frame the broader area in which teachers and students are matched, or nearly matched. This kind of motivation would require the more independent learner to revert to learning more like a middle-school student.
One of the most valuable insights of this model is that a high degree of organization in a course is a helpful way to motivate dependent learners – and that dependent learners may actually be discouraged when presented with motivational methods appropriate for more self-directed learners.
After matching instruction and motivation to the students’ level, the teacher must then prepare those students to function at a higher degree of self-direction. Then, as you move to more advanced material, you require a greater degree of student self-direction, and you adopt motivational strategies from “higher up the ladder.” In this way, content and teaching methods and motivational strategies remain either matched with the students’ level, or they appear just advanced enough to present a challenge students are capable of meeting. Interested readers are urged to review that article with the application of motivational strategies in mind. The city is probably the world's most important financial center, and one of the most important cultural centers of the Western world. Each borough elects a Borough President, but under the current city charter, the Borough President's powers are limited--he or she has a small discretionary budget to spend on projects within the borough. The population of the City of New York is more than eight million (2000 US Census), with the population of the entire metropolitan area at around 20 million. Residents generally refer to New York City (or just Manhattan) as "New York" or "the city".
In fact, the city has a high crime rate compared to the United States of America at large, but a relatively low rate compared to other North American cities. Bloomberg had come to prominence as an expert on Wall Street, which had brought him great wealth, but the mayoralty is his first political office. His bid for United States Senator from New York State was aborted by treatment for cancer and controversy over his affair with Judith Nathan.
That town, at the southern tip of Manhattan, was called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam), and was the main city of the Dutch colony of New Netherlands. The British renamed the colony New York, after James II of England, who sponsored the takeover and who was at that time the Duke of York. Patrick's Day was celebrated in New York City for the first time at the Crown and Thistle Tavern on March 17, 1756.
By 1835 Manhattan overtook Philadelphia as the most populous city and established itself as the financial and mercantile capital of the western hemisphere.
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Because students come in more than one kind, different kinds of students require different kinds of motivation.
Students exercise skills of time management, project management, goal-setting, self-evaluation, peer critique, information gathering, and using educational resources as needed. Due to psychological maturity of students, instructor reduces both two-way communication and reinforcements.
Indeed, it is to be hoped that many successful courses will, as one outcome, bring about change in how students learn, and thus in what kind of motivation they then need. The United Nations headquarters is in New York City, giving some credence to the city's self-designation as "capital of the world".
In addition, New York has been growing safer for most of the last decade--FBI data indicate that the murder rate in 2000 was the lowest since 1967. Bloomberg had been a Democrat until only a short time earlier, but switched to the Republican Party to run for mayor, in order to avoid a crowded Democratic primary.
He handled the aftermath of the World Trade Center disaster well, providing much-needed leadership, and greatly increased his popularity. The Dutch origins can still be seen in many names in New York City, such as Brooklyn (from Breukelen), Harlem (from Haarlem), The Bronx (from Pieter Bronck) and Staten Island. The city grew northward, and remained the largest and most important city in the colony of New York. This holiday has since become a yearly city-wide celebration that is famous around the world as the St. A nearly pure form of capitalism created a large upper-middle and upper class, but its need for manpower encouraged immigration on an unprecedented scale, with mixed results. Because students can change over time, the kind of motivation a student needs can also change over time.
Well-defined goals, clear, specific directions, tight structure, and close supervision combine to ensure that students work in a well-defined and successful manner. Relationship between instructor and students is collegial and distinctly not intense, except for mentoring relationships; relationship is high between students and world, students and task, and among students. Holiday Party, Office Party, Christmas Party, Divorce Party, Cast Party, Many Types Of Events And Parties.
The island of Manhattan was in some measure self-selected as a future metropolis by its extraordinary natural harbor formed by New York Bay (actually an arm of the Atlantic Ocean), the East River (actually a tidal strait) and the Hudson River, all of which are confluent at the southern tip, from which all later development spread. The famed melting pot was brought into being, from which multitudes have since arisen in the successful pursuit of the "American Dream". Instructor monitors progress to ensure success, steps in only to assist students in acquiring the skills to be self-directing and self-monitoring. Have The Jellin Girls Introduce You To Other Great People In New York City's Top Night Clubs. Also of prime importance was the presence of deep fresh water aquifers near the southern tip, especially the Collect Pond[?]. But countless others failed to rise, or entire generations were forced to plough themselves under for their children or grandchildren to rise.
Instructor weans student of being taught, but provides essential feedback and support to keep student on track.
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