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Whenever I facilitate a classroom discussion on the Leadership Requirements Model with future sergeants major, someone usually asks, “How did you develop yourself?” More specifically, they want to know the opinion of a senior sergeant major on mastering military leadership. Nevertheless, many are baffled when I say there are no secrets or shortcuts to success in the profession of arms. To put it in perspective, it’s essential that we recognize the three major paradigms, or misconceptions, that perpetuate leadership secrets. My response to the “How did you develop?” question is this: A successful leader’s transformation from expert to master is not one of happenstance. If you subscribe to the Army’s definition in ADP 6-22, you can realize that leadership is an inside-out process that is predicated upon the Army Values — and exercised through the LRM.
The problem is, during the Information Age, learning priorities are shifting more toward technology rather than intellect to solve complex problems.
Applying the art of military leadership is unlike any other profession in that the leader often works within the complex operational variables of political, military, economic, social, information, infrastructure, physical environment and time (PMESII-PT) that habitually conflict with one another.
Drawing on the LRM (Figure 1), one can visualize how leadership attributes and competencies are applied to address PMESII-PT.  It is an integrated two-pronged approach to mastering the art of leadership. Additionally, the model centers on four logical hypotheses (Figure 2A & 2B) to link behavior to the follower’s ability and motivation. For some leaders, situational leadership defies conventional wisdom, so they often become comfortable with applying one leadership style to all situations, become indecisive in their decisions and settle for “good enough” performance.  On the other hand, artful leaders create committed learning cultures, and understand that success depends on their ability to match their decision-making style, communication style and leadership style to master the art of leadership (Figure 2B).
According to Ohio State University professor Bernard Erven, “Success in leadership comes when the leadership style is matched with the characteristics of the follower.” Moreover, the best leaders understand that situational leadership is an art of choosing — choosing to learn, choosing to think, choosing to change and choosing excellence, 100 percent, every single day of their careers. Therefore, NCOs should move from the “Be, Know, Do” mental model to the “Be, Know, Think, Choose, & Do” mindset. This is vital because the LRM acts as a driver for creativity and empowerment thus preventing leader development issues, lazy thinking, passive communication and leadership style mismatches that often keep potential leaders from succeeding. In short, the answer to mastering the art of leadership is the meticulous matching of leadership, communication, and decision-making styles to solve problems. Though simple in concept, many fail at higher levels because they do not apply these fundamental attributes and competencies. Some have unrealized expectations which are revealed to challenge the group to perform better and are prepared to reveal individual strengths and weaknesses if necessary. Periodic face-to-face interaction, trust building, and team building are more important than ever when team members are widely dispersed in time and space. Can be used for selfish reasons, subvert organizational objectives, or enhance organizational effectiveness. Pressure Tactics - relying on intimidation, demands, or threats to get compliance or support.
Making employees full partners in the decision-making process and giving them the necessary tools and rewards. Trait Theory - the belief that leadership traits are not completely inborn but can also be acquired through learning and experience and the attempt to find universal traits. Relationship Management - people who are clear, enthusiastic, and convincing communicators who can defuse conflicts relying on kindness and humor to build strong relationships. Relating to behavioral styles theory, what are the 3 classic styles of leadership and their characteristics?
Visionaries who challenge people to achieve exceptionally high levels of morality, motivation, and performance.
An ethical person who puts others in the foreground with a clear sense of purpose in life, who is a good listener, is trustworthy, and accepts others at face value. Negative Reinforcement - encouraging a behavior by withdrawing or terminating something a particular person finds displeasing.
Punishment - discourages a specific behavior by the immediate presentation of an undesirable consequence or the immediate removal of something desirable. What are the 4 types of organizational change and their characteristics (Nadler-Tushman model)?
What are the characteristics of the three stages of adjustment to a change an individual likes? People who participate will be committed to implementing change and any relevant information they have will be integrated into the change plan.
Planned change programs intended to help people and organizations function more effectively.



Taking preventive or corrective actions to keep things on track in order to ensure that the organization's mission and objectives are accomplished as effectively and efficiently as possible.
Feedforward Control - active anticipation and prevention of problems, rather than passive reaction. Rewards tied to a documented performance review that values the teams or individual's contribution to organizational objectives. A low-probability, high-impact event that threatens the viability of the organization and is characterized by ambiguity of cause, effect, and means of resolution, as well as by belief that decisions must be made swiftly. Delivery of services is measured by customer's level of satisfaction; whereas production of good sis measured by physical dimensions of a product.
Internal Customers - anyone in your organization who cannot do a good job unless you do a good job.
Deming's "Plan-Do-Check-Act" cycle that relies on observed data for continuous improvement of operations. Students will enhance their skills and become stronger leaders in their classrooms, at work, in their families and communities. Situational Theory Definition: This theory looks into the characteristics of people working under a leader to find out what kind of behaviour that leader has. About My HRM BookHRM Book was started to provide a place to learn the basics of Human Resource Management, with plenty of resources on where to go next in the journey of becoming a HR expert. Interestingly, fellow classmates always join in to ensure that the question is not redirected or answered in the form of another question — as though there’s some great secret held by nominative command sergeants major. Truth be told, when you have not yet learned a competency or attribute, those who have mastered it appear to know professional secrets. The first centers on the Behavioral and Path-Goal Leadership Theories, which focus on a leader’s “attempt to explain distinctive styles used by effective leaders.” There are task-orientated noncommissioned officers who assume that civilian education development (specifically in reading, writing and math) is not a necessity for excellent performance and becoming a successful NCO. Those who hold this view base their assumptions on Leadership Trait Theories, and are victims of the fallacy that “leaders are born, not made.” This belief is reinforced when the individual possesses effective leadership traits such as attractiveness, aggressiveness, being articulate, possessing high-energy or self-reliant.
It begins with a profound sense of purpose that is cultivated through years of personal and professional development and effective followership.  This is the mysterious secret that enables great leaders to master the art of military leadership. These values are symmetrically nested within each competency (Leads, Develops and Achieves) of the LRM and are the heart and soul of the artful leader.
Magnanimous solutions and creative ideas don’t lie within the next advanced computer or weapon system, because computers don’t have intuition. It reduces the decline in critical thinking and redefines the “basics” by harmonizing decision-making styles (decisive, hierarchic, flexible and integrative) with operational design and military decision-making process concepts.
Not to mention the fact that decisive-action operations, in their most basic sense, leverage complexity to combat complexity, and civilian educational development and critical thinking allow us to think within these variables. Accordingly, the LRM systematically integrates sudden insights from the Situational Leadership Model to address complexity.
As explained by management experts Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard, the primary purpose explores the motivations of the follower.
They know the commander’s intent is the instigator of change, and that it plays a critical role in allowing them to understand patterns of friction and change.Situational leaders rely on their education and experience to solve complex problems that are not problems yet.
In the same way, the LRM naturally purges toxic behaviors and leader trust issues that habitually plague organizational cultures.
Members are aware of their own and each other's assets and liabilities vis-a-vis the group's task. The group has developed authority and interpersonal relationships that are recognized and accepted by the members.
Conflict is over substantive group issues such as group goals and the effectiveness and efficiency of various means for achieving those goals.
Posturing - looking for situations to make a good impression, play "one-upmanship", or taking credit for others work. Make Supervisor Look Good - "apple polishing"; desire to favorably influence those who control one's career ascent. Destructive Competition - character assassination through suggestive remarks, vindictive gossip, outright lies, or competitor work sabotage.
Refreezing - address unanticipated problems and side effects while evaluation effectiveness of change strategy. Executive Reality Check - top managers periodically working at lower-level jobs to become more aware of operations.


Internal Audits - independent appraisal of organizational operations and systems to assess their effectiveness and efficiency. Control Chart - shows acceptable and unacceptable variations from the norm for repetitive operations.
Edwards Deming's ideas for more responsive, more democratic, and less wasteful organizations. A good leader is someone who can lead to good results, by using what he has in the best way possible.
The whole point of this theory was to show that different leadership styles are needed for different employers. As a result, they become fragmented leaders and passive followers who feel constantly constrained.
They also assert that their military qualifications and experience alone should prepare them to lead at the next level. As such, the two paradigms overlap because great leaders are excellent managers, and exceptional managers are successful leaders.
It lies within a leader’s mind — his or her ability to think critically, creatively and intuitively — which gives the leader the mental agility to thrive in complex situations.
More notably, it accounts for the dimensions of human behavior in regards to ethical dilemmas. This artistic process is the harmonious matching of character, presence and intellect to the appropriate leadership style.
According to the Situational Leadership Model, situational leaders say if a follower is unable and unwilling; the leader needs to display high task orientation to compensate for the follower’s lack of ability and low relationship orientation to get the follower to understand what needs to be done. And they understand that the quality of their thinking lies within their ability to draw logical connections between PMESII-PT. However, some professionals are missing the leadership developmental link between “intellect” and “getting results.” That link is critical thinking because, without it, inaccurate assumptions, negative stereotypes and archaic mental models will fill-in knowledge gaps.
To be sure, a professional does not become a respected leader until he has mastered his art. If skills are lower, then a different leadership style will need to be undertaken than if the employees were very skilful and able to get on with most tasks themselves. The fact is many professionals simply fail at higher levels of leadership because they don’t apply the elements of the LRM. In essence, we are all managers — whether it’s managing our personal finances, families and development, or an organization’s resources, personnel and training. However, the LRM leverages technology to get results in the contemporary operational environment, especially against creative and adaptive adversaries.
Therefore, the situational leader can intuitively apply the appropriate leadership style (directing, participating, delegating, coaching) based on the follower’s readiness level. In turn, this creates the right amount of stress to perpetuate a sense of urgency and resolve that is the driving force behind their critical and creative thinking abilities. Subsequently, it skews our sense of priorities in complex situations as well as our ability to explain intuitive thoughts.
Experience is what allows leaders to make sense of “gut feelings.” As one would expect, it’s a balance of academic knowledge, field experience and emotional intelligence that develops intuitive skills. Once the root cause of the problem is identified, the solution lies in finding creative new ways of doing old things. This motivates them to seek precise solutions to problems that most professionals dismiss as insoluble. Army Sergeants Major Academy at Fort Bliss, Texas, and was previously the command sergeant major of the National Training Center and Fort Irwin, Calif. Mike Clowser, Army University Command Sergeant Major, provide updates on Army University during the Association of the United States Army Symposium Oct.



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