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Becoming a manager is a common goal that many employees often dream about but never realize. Grant works for Collegis education and writes student-focused articles on behalf of Rasmussen College.
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This briefing note focuses on the point that simple texts describing threat-management strategies are not sufficient to prepare pilots to manage complex threats. It would be unrealistic to attempt to train for optimal threat-management performance under all circumstances. Each of these resources has upper and lower limits with respect to the amount of mental effort that a pilot can contribute to a task and still maintain situational control.
When faced with surprises such as mode reversions, unknown aircraft behavior, undocumented procedures or technical failures that require a pilot to use the upper limits of mental resources, it is important to balance mental resources for controlling situational awareness and physical actions based on the needs of the situation. Becoming proficient in balancing mental resources requires exposure to operational events specific to an aircraft type throughout the training period, paying attention to operational experience from the airlines and applying safety and risk management throughout the learning process. The project prepared an inventory of skills to develop a structure of well-identified competencies from which skill interrelationships could be made clear.
The first two concepts describe situational awareness and threat management and the third describes situation control. The words perceive, comprehend and project were changed into more everyday language — notice, understand and think ahead.
Using the University of Texas model, the first and most effective defense is to identify potential threats and avoid them. This concept aims to help pilots picture how they apply their mental resources in different situations. Within these dimensions, a conceptual workload envelope can be plotted, showing where sufficient mental resources are available to deal with both thinking and flying to effectively balance workload among crewmembers.
Results indicate that situational awareness and threat management increased as a result of the training across all methods of measurement. The process of threat management is certainly a cyclical and adaptive process depending on such external factors as situation complexity, time pressure, workload and associated risks, and such internal ones as crew expertise and experience that need to be balanced.
In this strategy, threat and error management (TEM) focuses on prevention versus reactive and tactical error management approaches. This scheme insists that pilots verbalize, verify and monitor threat appearance, and review crew proficiency with regard to TEM during line operations safety audits when the collection and accumulation of threat lists are being refined. TEM is as a detour back to CRM beginnings, returning to the foundations of flight operations, that is the management of operational threats and errors. As understood from the various TEM models, there is a need for mental resources to guide pilot cognition and behavior in the right direction.
Joint Aviation Authorities Safety Strategy Initiative (JSSI): Analysis Capabilities Specification Document MOR — Occurrences Data Analysis Working Group. Supervisors can put their time to effective use if they are able to delegate work and empower their employees.
Have you ever been tired and decided to continue to work an extra two hours because you just have to get the job done? Summing up, effective planning for managers can only be achieved through diligent effort and improved management skills.
It is also necessary for a pilot to understand the need for such threat-management strategies and to see how such strategies were developed and can affect real-world situations. This briefing note introduces training techniques for threat and risk management that are designed to improve a crew’s ability to detect and deal with unexpected threats.

The timing and nature of the full range of threats facing a flight crew simply cannot be defined.
This is illustrated by the Airbus Crew Resource Management (ACRM) training program and the output of the Enhanced Safety through Situation Awareness Integration (ESSAI) research and development project, each of which is discussed below. ACRM attempts to train pilots to work within a safety buffer zone that never pushes a pilot to the limits of his or her mental resources. One situation may require more resources to be allotted to physical actions, while another may require more resources to be allotted to situational awareness.
This is the aim of Manufacturer’s Line-Oriented Flight Training (MLOFT) that uses airline LOFT scenarios to sharpen skills, knowledge and resources.
Situational awareness and threat management skills were each broken down into four competencies that reflect iterative steps in the thinking process.
These provide insight as to how situational awareness and threat management are influenced by high workload and how to help cope with such situations as an individual and as a crew. The first and most basic level of situational awareness is noticing, for example, an area of cumulonimbus (CB) activity on the weather radar.
But all threats cannot be predicted, so another level of threat management must be used when they slip through the “avoid” layer. This represents the “in control” or “ahead of the aircraft” region, where demands on mental resources can be met by the available brainpower. Observations showed that especially the briefing quality for the approach and landing phase, as well as the management of distractions, can be significantly improved by means of ESSAI training. Faced with familiar or unfamiliar threats or with challenging operational situations, pilots are expected to adopt an attitude that guides them in the correct direction and to follow golden rules. One can avoid the stress of running against time by being assertive and refusing requests that make unreasonable demands on one’s time. Implement these strategies and you will be on the road to improving your time management skills. Some managers do not understand the value of a plan, because of this they do not get the results that they could potentially realize. Knowing where you spend your time will enable you to evaluate if you are getting the best value out of your day. Whether you choose to use a paper, the calendar on your smartphone, or an online tool, ensure that you have enough space to see at a glance your ‘to do’ list and calendar of events as well as long range goals.
Do not take phone calls whenever the telephone rings or whenever your computer alerts you of incoming messages.
If you implement the skills listed above, you can begin to realize your desire to live in the realm of effective planning as a manager. It is relatively simple for an organization to develop threat-management schemes based on past events, but training crews to the level where they can quickly implement the schemes in the cockpit, when conditions are unfavorable and workload is high, is a more difficult undertaking. This is accomplished by increasing the crew’s general situational awareness, rather than by establishing a large number of rote procedures that attempt to anticipate the majority of threatening situations. Maintaining resource balance during these times will help the pilot be better prepared when action is needed for normal operations or when unexpected events occur. The effectiveness of the training was evaluated in a Level D simulator experiment, where eight reference crews received the ESSAI training and eight reference crews did not. Lastly, the training reviews how pilots can recognize their own or fellow crewmembers’ loss of situational awareness and strategies for how to try to recover it.
The next level of situational awareness is reached with understanding what this actually means.
This attitude may have to encompass the full scope of human factors to mingle technical and non-technical interactions, which is a highly demanding requirement that is not easily achieved without some quality aids.
Have you ever heard the concept: If you want to be successful in an endevor copy someone who is successful in that same area?
In a similar manner, oftentimes we program ourselves to do things that we do not really want or need to do. The supervisor has to have confidence in his people as well as the enthusiasm to develop them. Other individuals pay great attention to how they develop their plans and because of this attention they receive the rewards of their effort.

It may help to keep a diary or a software tool to help show you how you spend your time on a daily basis so that you can evaluate it at the end of the day. When you fine tune your ‘to do’ list, you will have to determine what has to be done today that cannot be carried over to tomorrow and which activities will reap the most benefits as it pertains to your goals and priorities.
Set aside designated time in your day to listen to voicemails, read emails, and text messages.
When you focus on a person or a conversation you are potentially speeding up the communication process and ensuring that key information is being conveyed completely and correctly. Sometimes, employees that want to be managers haven’t properly prepared themselves to move into management.
Would you like to share a personal success story about overcoming an obstacle while earning your degree? This is similar to the philosophy of the traffic-alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS), which issues traffic alerts (TAs) to raise the pilot’s attention and create situational awareness, rather than simply issuing resolution alerts (RAs) that command the pilot to take corrective action. This concept is similar to the design of the Airbus fly-by-wire controls that have a buffer zone that provides ample safety margins and alerts the flight crew to problems through a series of warning signals. All concepts are explained with concrete examples using video material specifically filmed for the project in an A320 simulator using crews from ESSAI partner airlines. If a threat slips through the “trap” layer, then the final strategy is to mitigate its effect. A pilot has to pay attention to turbulent and weak signals and speak up if he or she is getting behind the aircraft. You can regain control with time management skills and use the clock as a tool to work for you. Take some time and identify the activities that do not make the best use of your time and energy and leave them behind. If you have a key hook by the door and create a habit of always putting your keys on that hook when you are not using them, you can save yourself time and energy. Create a plan that will allow you to spend time on activities that will bring you the most benefit and aligns with your values and priorities. It is also advisable to remember that people are not tasks and therefore needed to be treated with respect and dignity. By providing the TAs, TCAS engages the crew in the situation and provides it with a broader context for accepting and executing the RA.
With proper training on threat management, a pilot should be able to recognize the warning signals that he or she is reaching the limits of mental resources and things might be getting out of control. Having understood the implications of the CB activity, we move on to the higher level of situational awareness — thinking ahead, which here could be to negotiate a re-route or different approach with ATC. By writing things down and planning you can begin to visualize what your future has the potential to look like. This tip cannot only help you save time, but it can help you maintain your health, and aid in the execution of exceptional performance.
Once you have made these determinations, proceed with confidence to realize success in your quest for effectively executing your plan.
If you do not set aside a specific time for this task, it can gobble up a huge chunk of your day. By focusing your attention on an individual, you are showing  respect and ensuring that nothing is hindering the communication process that could otherwise cost you time and effort.
But that is why it’s a good idea to start learning the necessary skills early so that you are ready when the opportunity presents itself. To that end, it’s important to prepare yourself for external or long-term opportunities that may come up in the future. Try asking your boss how you can help complete activities that they might not enjoy or are too busy to do themselves. Both will add value to your resume as you grow in your current role and keep an eye on opportunities among leadership.

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