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Fructose exists in foods as either a monosaccharide (free fructose) or as a unit of a disaccharide (sucrose). Fructose absorption occurs on the mucosal membrane via facilitated transport involving GLUT5 (figure-1) transport proteins.
Much of the ingested fructose is metabolized by the liver, using the fructose 1-phosphate pathway (Figure-2). 1) The first step is the phosphorylation of fructose to fructose 1-phosphate by fructokinase. 2) Fructose 1-phosphate is then split into glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone phosphate, the intermediates of glycolysis. 3) Glyceraldehyde is then phosphorylated to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, a glycolytic intermediate, by triose kinase.



Free fructose is absorbed directly by the intestine; however, when fructose is consumed in the form of sucrose, digestion occurs entirely in the upper small intestine.
Since the concentration of fructose is higher in the lumen, fructose is able to flow down a concentration gradient into the enterocytes, assisted by transport proteins.
However, the affinity of hexokinase for glucose is 20 times as great as it is for fructose. As sucrose comes into contact with the membrane of the small intestine, the enzyme sucrase catalyzes the cleavage of sucrose to yield one glucose unit and one fructose unit.
Fructose may be transported out of the enterocytes across the basolateral membrane by either GLUT2 or GLUT5, although the GLUT2 transporter has a greater capacity for transporting fructose and therefore the majority of fructose is transported out of the enterocytes through GLUT2 (figure-1). In the large intestine, fructose that hasn’t been adequately absorbed exerts osmotic pressure, reduces the absorption of water and is metabolized by normal colonic bacteria to organic acids and the gases such as hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane.


Aldolase A catalyzes the cleavage of fructose 1, 6 bisphosphate in glycolytic pathway, to form two phosphorylated trioses whereas Aldolase B, concerned with fructose metabolism catalyzes the cleavage of fructose-1-P to form Glyceraldehyde and Dihydroxyacetone -P. Fructose is absorbed in the small intestine, then enters the hepatic portal vein and is directed toward the liver.
The presence of gases and organic acids in the large intestine causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea, flatulence, and gastrointestinal pain. The fate of trioses (oxidized or used for glucose production) depends upon the cellular conditions.



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