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Culture is the values, beliefs, thinking patterns and behavior that are learned and shared and that is characteristic of a group of people.
Cultural identity is self-identification, a sense of belonging to a group that reaffirms itself. Cultural identity is negotiated, co-created and reinforced in communication with others when we socially interact.
The theory suggests a relationship between inter-cultural competence and cultural identity. Early versions of the theory focused on an interpretative theoretical perspective (cultural identity processes were described not critiqued), social construction and individual discursive accounts of experience.
Jane Collier and Milt Thomas combined the ethnography of communication and social construction in order to frame the properties of cultural identity. This article has really be of great help to me, but unfortunately the author’s name is not there. Run a Quick Search on "Communication Technology and Social Change: Theory and Implications" by Carolyn A. Communication Technology and Social Change is a distinctive collection that provides current theoretical, empirical, and legal analyses for a broader understanding of the dynamic influences of communication technology on social change. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others Depending on whether people are rewarded or punished for their behavior and the outcome of the behavior, that behavior may be modeled. The effects are not dependent on actual rewards and punishments but on reinforcement According to Albert Bandura, vicarious reinforcement works because of the concepts of outcome expectations and outcome expectancies Vicarious reinforcement - Reinforcement that occurs when you imitate the behavior of someone who has been reinforced for that behavior, as when avoiding hot water having seen another person burned by it.
Johns Hopkins Health and Education in South Africa (JHHESA) is a non-profit organisation that designs and implements evidence-based HIV Campaigns, and HIV Communication Programmes aimed at HIV Prevention to educate the public to understand their risk of HIV infection in relation to multiple partners, correct and consistent condom use, transactional sex and alcohol use. It serves to give an identity to a group, ensures survival and enhances the feeling of belonging.
It is the extent to which one is a representative of a given culture behaviorally, communicatively, psychologically and sociologically. It covers the entire life span of a human being and changes every moment based on social context. The theory deals with the study into how individuals use communicative processes to construct and negotiate their cultural group identities and relationships in particular contexts. Recent years have seen the shift to increased critical perspective–attention to contextual structure, ideologies and status hierarchy.
These properties refer to the manner in which members of a group communicates their identity. Avowal and Ascription : These two concepts deal with what constructs or produces the cultural identity and the ways in which these identities are communicated.

Modes of Expression : The use of core symbols (expressions of a group’s cultural beliefs and theories about the world around them), names, labels and norms (expected standard of behavior) that a cultural community share and follow in order to show that they belong to a particular group, demonstrates shared identity. Individual, Relational and Communal Identity : There are three components to cultural identity. Enduring and Changing Aspects of Identity : The cultural identity changes due to several factors which are social, political, economic and contextual.
Affective, Cognitive and Behavioral Aspects of Identity : This refers to emotions fully attached to cultural identity in particular situations. Content and Relationship Levels : This refers to the interaction between two or more individuals. Salience or Prominence : This is the degree to which an identity is demonstrated in a situation and refers to how much a person’s cultural identity stands out and attracts attention. With a distinguished panel of contributors, the volume presents a systematic discussion of the role communication technology plays in shaping social, political, and economic influences in society within specific domains and settings. Cultural identity is the constantly shifting understanding of one’s identity in relation to others.
Every individual belongs to numerous overlapping and non-overlapping cultural and sub-cultural groups. According to the theory, culture is one of the many identities expressed in communication encounters. Collier found out that there were some similarities in cultural norms for members of each ethnic group and there are within group differences with regard to gender and nature of relationship. Individual refers to how an individual interprets his cultural identity based on his experiences.
Its integrated focus expands and complements the scope of existing literature on this subject. It reflects the common historical experiences and shared cultural codes which give us as one entity a stable, unchanging, continuing frame of reference and meaning.
Therefore he has different identities at different levels that make up his cultural identity.
Cultural identity becomes evident through social comparison.  Speakers compare the status position of their own groups to those of other groups.
Avowed qualities versus ascribe qualities leads to conflict but resolutions depends on the status position of group members. Relational refers to how individuals interact with one and another (what is the appropriate behavior) and communal identity is the use of communication in the creation, affirmation and negotiation of shared identity. The participants of the conversation interpret the choice and meanings of the words based on their experiences. Identities are constructed by an integral connection of language, social structures, gender orientation and cultural patterns.

People’s judgments about whether they or others belong to a cultural group can be influenced by physical appearance, ancestral origin or personal behavior (dressing, speech, holidays, and celebrations). An individual’s message during interaction will contain multiple cultural identities such as nationalist, racist, ethnic, class related, sex, gender based, political and religious.
The actions and interactions of the group, their communal practices reflect the identity of the group. The interactions also show the relational level based on how a person delivers the message. Originating from theme sessions at the 2008 convention of the International Communication Association (ICA), this volume engages communication theory to enlarge communication practices. Leading Communication Associations for Social Impact, Patrice Buzzanell, Betsy Bach, Dawn Braithwaite, Linda Putnam, and Charles Self.
Because individuals enact multiple identities all voices within a group do not speak in the same way or have the same recognition by others. Researchers can identify or study cultural identity in a group by observing everyday situations, communal activities, rituals, holiday celebrations. This level of a message implies a cultural interpretation of who is in control, their levels of closeness, what they feel about each other, level of trust, etc. Chapters address perennial issues of interest to communication scholars as experienced in contemporary terrains: How can scholarship weave its way more fully into the lives of people residing outside of the academy?
What are the epistemological and ontological debates that play out in the realm of communication scholarship that seeks to redress lived inequities? What ethical demands accompany scholarship and activism in international landscapes characterized by globalization, neo-colonialism, and rapid technological shifts? Researching Post-Violent Conflict: The Emotional Challenges Faced by Researchers Concerned with Social Change and Community Building, Rudi Sukandar, Endah Agustiana, and Claudia L. Sustainability of ICT Interventions: Lessons from Rural Projects in China and India, Arul Chib and Jinqiu Zhao. Building the Case for Change: Reflections on Knowledge Practices of Media Reform and Media Justice Movements in the United States, Seeta Pena Gangadharan. When Counting Counts: Marrying Advocacy and Academics in the Media Ownership Research Wars at the FCC, Mark Cooper. Communicating about Homelessness: Using Experiential Learning to Change Attitudes and Perceptions, Gina G.

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