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Although helped along by cosmetics, hair dyes, and the like, it is the superficial and deep anatomy that determines the appearance of external form.
Below we've collected, grouped, compared, and demonstrated important attributes (for instance, shape, height, fullness, and so on) for each of the major facial features found in people of East Asia or Europe and presented them side-by-side.
Since the fundamental steps of many popular facial plastic surgery operations were first developed decades ago on patients of European ancestry, the differences noted below must be considered by both patients when selecting a cosmetic procedure and plastic surgeons when performing it. Sections devoted to each of these features and attributes as well as any related operations can be found in our Knowledge Base.
This activity looks at East Asia, and in particular the countries of China, Taiwan, Japan and Korea (today, North and South Korea). The lesson idea does not look at each country individually, but at the connections between them. In groups (or as individuals, if you feel your students can handle this task as a homework assignment), students look at the TimeMap of World History, at the East Asia map pages from 3500 BC through to AD 1914. Various other meetings with regional and global partners have been coined with other terminology to facilitate discussions with India, Australia, New Zealand, Europe, Russia and the US. The map of Early European Farmer (EEF), Ancient North Eurasian (ANE) and West European Hunter-Gatherer (WHG) ancestry uses Eurogenes's EEF-WHG-ANE test. Note that the 'West European' admixture was renamed 'Northwest European' on Eupedia, as it fits better the overall distribution of this admixture. Please be aware that the maps are very approximate due to the scantity of regional data available, and the complete lack of data for some countries at present (including the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, and Macedonia).
This map compares the genes of modern people to the DNA of a Neolithic individual from Stuttgart in Germany, who lived 7500 years ago. This map compares the genes of modern people to the DNA of a Central Siberian mammoth hunter (known as MA-1), who lived 24,000 years ago and belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup R* and mtDNA haplogroup U*.
This map compares the genes of modern people to the DNA of a Mesolithic hunter-gatherer from the Loschbour cave in Luxembourg, who lived 8000 years ago and belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup I2a1b and mtDNA haplogroup U5. The Northwest European admixture appears to be strongly Indo-European and correlates particularly well with the haplogroup R1b-L11, representing essentially the Italic, Celtic and Germanic branches of the Indo-Europeans. This admixture peaks in the Basque population and may be correlated to the Mesolithic Western European Hunter-Gatherers. The Caucasian admixture was probably brought to Europe by various West Asian people during the Neolithic, Chalcolithic and Bronze Age.
The Gedrosian admixture was probably brought to Europe by Y-DNA haplogroup R1b, although its distribution in Asia correlates more with Y-haplogroups G, J2 and L. The Red Sea admixture peaks in Ethiopia and Somalia, the region of origin of Y-DNA haplogroup E1b1b, to which its distribution is closely linked, except in northwestern Europe. It is tempting to make analogies between the distribution of autosomal admixtures and that of Y-DNA haplogroups.

Whereas Y-chromosomal lineages can be organised in a neat genealogical tree ('phylogenetic tree' is the technical word), it is much harder for autosomes due to the fact that they get mixed up ('recombined') at every generation with other autosomes. Any admixture can be broken down into a number of more specific admixtures, splitting populations that may otherwise have looked closely related.
Y chromosomes may suffer dramatic decline in frequency due to wars, in the event men from a tribe or ethnic group are killed in large numbers by their opponents, and their women taken by the winners.
While far from uniform across a large population, certain major features determined by genetics occur much more commonly and thus can be considered characteristic of a regional group.
What looks natural and attractive in one group does not always appear the same in the other. Vietnam and Tibet may also be included, but at the moment their national histories have not been written up for the TimeMap (this will happen soon).
In so doing, it will illuminate the history of East Asia as a key region in world history, as well as add to an understanding of each of these different countries.
List the technologies, ideas and other elements of civilization which have travelled from one country to another in East Asia, throughout history. They gradually came together to improve common political and economic ties and form a stronger political body as well as an more integrated and larger market. The African admixture was computed by adding up the Northwest African, East African, Neo African and Paleo African components, which were too minor in Europe on their own. In eastern Europe, the Northwest European admixture once merged with the East European admixture represents the Baltic and Slavic branches of the Indo-Europeans.
While both of them represent the migrations of certain populations and may roughly correspond to the same source populations, it is essential to understand that any correspondance has its limits for a number of reasons.
To trace back the origins of a population, the idea is to check which modern populations share the same unique mutations spread out on all 22 pairs of non-sex chromosomes.
The Northwest European admixture almost certainly comprises DNA markers from two completely different source populations. Y chromosomes are strictly inherited from fathers to sons and never recombine, while autosomes are inherited at 50% through each parent.
Mutations in one lineage can have a negative incidence on male fertility, causing men to have more female offspring (who do not pass on Y-DNA), have less children (contraction of the Y-DNA lineage), or in extreme cases even become sterile (extinction of the Y-DNA lineage).
Since autosomes are also passed on by women, autosomes would survive such a scenario even if all male lineages went extinct (which was probably very rare, but once in history is enough to affect a region permanently). It will also provide insight into influences (espcially one major element) coming into East Asia from further afield.
Give approximate dates when the "travelling" occurred, and specify the nature of the contacts which led to this "travel" - trade?
That is why it is found at high frequencies among the Finns, the Irish and the Iberians, three populations that do not share a lot in common history or phenotypes.

This will inevitably affect their respective geographic distribution since it is known that in most European societies through the ages male children (usually the eldest sons) were the ones who inherited the land, house, farm or even castle from their parents, and therefore stayed from generation to generation at the same place. It is supposed to reflect the percentage of similarity with Neolithic farmers who colonised Europe from the Near East. This admixture was absent from Mesolithic European samples, except in Scandinavia and Eastern Europe, and was completely absent from all Neolithic European samples tested to date. It is supposed to reflect the percentage of similarity with the Late Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic inhabitants of Western Europe.
The names for each admixture are arbitrary and do not necessarily refer to the source population who spread those genes, but usually the geographic region where it is most common today. It is also found at lower but still substantial frequencies in the Chuvash people (22%) from the Volga region, and the Adygey people (16%) from the North Caucasus, and the Uyghur people (10%) from Northwest China. Women, on the contrary, were married off to men from neighbouring tribes, villages or towns. The closest modern populations are the Ashkenazi Jews (93%), Maltese (93%) and Sicilians (90%). It is thought to have been spread across Europe and the Middle East by the Proto-Indo-Europeans (Y-haplogroups R1a and R1b) from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, and to a lower extent also by Uralic people (Finns, Estonians, Magyars) and Turkic people (Avars, Bulgars, Khazars, Kurds, Turks).
For example, the Southwest Asian admixture got its name because this set of mutations is most common in the Arabian peninsula nowadays.
In all likelihood, the Northwest European component is composed of markers belonging to the Paleolithic population of northern and western Europe (haplogroup I), as well as an Indo-European element (haplogroup R1b) that originated in the Black Sea region. They were sometimes sent quite far away, especially in royal and noble families that frequently used daughters to seal alliances with other families, or just sought a suitor of a similar social level which they could not find close to home (or at least not without risking inbreeding). The ANE admixture is particularly common today among North Caucasian and Volga-Ural ethnicities, who live in regions strongly associated with the development of Proto-Indo-European cultures in the Early Bronze Age. But Arabic people descend from nomadic herders who lived around the Zagros and Taurus mountains, around northern Mesopotamia, during the Neolithic period. This is also the case of Y-haplogroup J1, with which the Southwest Asian admixture best correlates.
This explains why maternal lineages (mtDNA) and autosomal DNA is much more evenly spread out geographically than paternal lineages (Y-DNA). Frequencies of over 20% of R1b have been found among the Lezgins, Kumyks and North Ossetians. In other words, the so-called Southwest Asian admixture found in a European individual may never have come from Southwest Asia (Arabic peninsula) at all, but rather from Anatolia.

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