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The ATLAS detector is currently the largest experiment on the CERN site, weighing over 7,000 tonnes, spanning 50 m across and almost 50 m long. If the truth matching of data is successful, it could lead to a revolution in particle physics. LHCb, a huge science machine that lives underground on the Franco-Swiss border, is hiding a huge secret. A team of alchemists working on the ALICE Collaboration have today announced that their research program will end today. In recent weeks the media has reported on defacement of the LGBT CERN posters at the lab, with many being removed or subject to grafitti. Teams of administrators, including Gianotta herself, have been seen walking the corridors of CERN and instituting this new policy. By attacking all signs and posters at the lab, the aim is to make nobody feel victimised or isolated. In February 2016, the LIGO experiment announced it had observed gravitational waves, predicted over a century ago by Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity. There has been a lot of press about the recent DO result on the possible \(B_s \pi\) state.
First step: both the ATLAS and CMS experiments showed yesterday at the Moriond conference that the signal remains after re-analyzing the 2015 data with improved calibrations and reconstruction techniques.
The table below shows the results presented by CMS and ATLAS in December 2015 and February 2016. The label “local” means how strong the new signal appears locally at a mass of 750 or 760 GeV, while “global” refers to the probability of finding a small excess over a broad range of mass values. But mostly, the second step, we are closer to potentially confirming the presence of a new particle simply because the restart of the Large Hadron Collider is now imminent. We need more data to confirm or refute the existence of a new particle beyond any possible doubt. That does not mean than in the meantime, we are not dreaming since if this were confirmed, it would be the biggest breakthrough in particle physics in decades. Theorists have spent years trying to imagine what the new theory could be while experimentalists have deployed heroic efforts, sifting through huge amounts of data looking for the smallest anomaly. Premier pas : les experiences ATLAS et CMS ont montre hier a la conference de Moriond que les signes d’un signal persistent apres la reanalyse des donnees de 2015 a l’aide de calibrations et de techniques de reconstruction ameliorees. Le tableau ci-dessous montre les resultats presentes par CMS et ATLAS en decembre 2015 et fevrier 2016. Le deuxieme et bien plus grand pas franchi, c’est que la confirmation possible de la presence d’une nouvelle particule se rapproche simplement parce que la reprise du Grand Collisionneur de Hadrons est imminente. Cela n’empeche personne de rever en attendant, car si ceci etait confirme, ce serait la plus grande percee en physique des particules depuis des decennies.
Les theoriciens et theoriciennes ont passe des annees a essayer d’imaginer cette nouvelle theorie tandis que du cote experimental, on a deploye des efforts heroiques a trier des quantites faramineuses de donnees a la recherche de la moindre anomalie.
Pour en savoir plus sur la physique des particules et les enjeux du LHC, consultez mon livre : « Qu’est-ce que le boson de Higgs mange en hiver et autres details essentiels», en librairie en France et en Suisse des le 1er mai. Hadrons, the particles made of quarks, are almost unanimously produced in the two or three quark varieties in particle colliders.
The discovery of a new subatomic particle was announced last Thursday by the DO (DZero) collaboration at Fermilab in Chicago. The particle’s decay is best explained Strong force, aptly named since it’s the strongest known force in the universe[1], which also acts to hold quarks together in more stable configurations such as inside the proton.
Quarks are defined by the strong force, being the only particles known to physics that interact via QCD.
QCD is a very difficult theory to draw predictions from because unlike electromagnetism (the force responsible for holding atoms together and transmitting light between objects), the “force carriers” of QCD known as gluons are self-interacting. The hadrons discovered in the twentieth century tended to come in pairs of three quarks or quark-antiquark pairs. The first hints of the existence of tetraquarks were at the Belle experiment, Japan in 2003, with the observation of a state called X(3872) (again, labelled by its mass of 3872 MeV).
X(5568) is found to have a large width (22 MeV) in the distribution of its decays, implying that it decays very quickly, best explained by QCD. One of the long-standing controversies surrounding tetraquark states is whether the states are truly a joint four particle state or in fact a sort of molecule of two strongly bound mesons, which although they form a bound state of four particles in total, is actually analogous to two separate atoms in a molecule rather than a single, heavy atom. DO’s discovery is based on an analysis of the historic data collected from the Tevatron from the 28 years it was operating, since the collider itself ceased operation 2011.
Aujourd’hui, les scientifiques du Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory ou LIGO ont fierement annonce avoir detecte les toutes premieres ondes gravitationnelles.
En tombant sur le drap, l’objet lourd creera de petites ondulations qui se propageront autour de lui, comme des vaguelettes a la surface de l’eau.
C’est ce type d’ondulations que LIGO a enfin detectees, comme l’explique cette excellente video (mais en anglais). Un faisceau de lumiere, telle une vague a la surface de l’eau, possede des cretes et des creux. Le defi de cette experience consiste a eliminer toutes sources de vibrations, qu’elles proviennent des vagues de l’ocean, d’un tremblement de terre, ou meme du trafic car elles produiraient des effets semblables. Et voici ce signal, produit lors de la fusion de deux trous noirs d’environ 50 km mais trente fois plus massifs que le soleil.
Donc quand les deux instruments ont detecte simultanement ce signal, leur coincidence n’a laisse aucun doute. Pendant des siecles, les astronomes ont utilise des ondes electromagnetiques comme la lumiere pour explorer l’Univers. Pour en savoir plus sur la physique des particules et les enjeux du LHC, consultez mon livre : « Qu’est-ce que le boson de Higgs mange en hiver et autres details essentiels».
L’interferometre de LIGO sur le site de Hanford dans l’etat de Washington avec ses branches de 4 km de longueur. Today, scientists from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory or LIGO have proudly announced having detected the first faint ripples caused by gravitational waves. In 1916, Einstein explained that gravitation is a distortion of space and time, as if it was a fabric that could be distorted by the presence of massive objects. A light beam is a wave, and just like waves at the surface of water, it has crests and troughs. Now imagine that a gravitational wave, produced by the collisions of two black holes for example, sweeps across the interferometer. The challenge is that any vibration caused by waves crashing on the shore, earthquakes, or even heavy traffic would disturb such an experiment by producing similar effects. To ensure a signal really comes from a gravitational wave and not from some other disturbance, LIGO used two identical laboratories located more than 3000 km apart in the USA, one in Louisiana, one in Washington State.
And here is the signal generated when two black holes, 50 km in diameter but 30 times more massive than the Sun, merged. So when both instruments detected the same signal, the coincidence between the two left no doubt. For centuries, astronomers have used electromagnetic waves such as light to explore the Universe.
It is interesting to note that the information presented today totally confirms the rumors that have been floating around for a couple of months.
Since the gravitational waves are quadrupole, the most straightforward way to see the gravitational waves is to measure the relative stretches of the its two arms (see another picture from the MIT LIGO site) that are perpendicular to each other. This is really a remarkable result, even though it was widely expected since the (indirect) discovery of Hulse and Taylor of binary pulsar in 1974! A few thousand years ago, Greek philosophers and Phoenician explorers began to cast doubt on the flat-earth model. Evidence backing the round-earth model grew through time and was sufficient five centuries ago to convince sailors they would not fall off earth’s edges. Yesterday evening, I had the privilege to discuss the science of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN with a group of 13 and 14 year-olds from Seward, Alaska, USA. More than fifty years ago, an idea was formed by a group of theorists, including Francois Englert, Robert Brout, and Peter Higgs, essentially describing how fundamental particles attain mass. We can take comfort in the fact that science is based on uncovering the truth and that truth ultimately reveals itself.
As a physicist, I am often challenged by friends and family to explain the relevance of our work. Powerful people who would like to be world leaders are acting similarly or worse, attacking evidence-based science for the sake of political gain. Personne ne sait si un tel engouement est justifie mais cela illustre combien les physiciens et physiciennes esperent une decouverte majeure dans les annees a venir. En raison des difficultes inherentes a la reprise du LHC a plus haute energie, la quantite de donnees recoltees a 13 TeV en 2015 par ATLAS et CMS a ete tres limitee.
Mais les theoriciens et theoriciennes, qui cherchent en vain depuis des decennies un signe quelconque de phenomenes nouveaux, ont saute sur l’occasion. Aucune nouvelle donnee ne viendra avant quelques mois en raison du de la maintenance annuelle.
La situation est donc tout ce qu’il y a de plus clair : tout est possible, y compris rien du tout. Un resume partiel du nombre d’articles publies jusqu’a maintenant et le type de solutions proposees pour expliquer la nature de la nouvelle particule, si nouvelle particule il y a.
Since December 15, I have counted 200 new theoretical papers, each one suggesting one or several possible explanations for a new particle not yet discovered. No one knows yet if all this excitement is granted but it clearly illustrates how much physicists are hoping for a huge discovery in the coming years. Due to the difficulties inherent to the restart of the LHC at higher energy, the amount of data collected at 13 TeV in 2015 by ATLAS and CMS was very limited.
Reasons for bad VR are numerous; some failures come from the limitations of technology, but many come from a lack of understanding perception, interaction, design principles, and real users. This book discusses such issues, focusing upon the human element of VR rather than technical implementation, for if we do not get the human element correct, then no amount of technology will make VR anything more than an interesting tool confined to research laboratories. Since taking over TED in the early 2000s, Chris Anderson has shown how carefully crafted short talks can be the key to unlocking empathy, stirring excitement, spreading knowledge, and promoting a shared dream. This book explains how the miracle of powerful public speaking is achieved, and equips you to give it your best shot.
Chris Anderson has worked behind the scenes with all the TED speakers who have inspired us the most, and here he shares insights from such favorites as Sir Ken Robinson, Amy Cuddy, Bill Gates, Elizabeth Gilbert, Salman Khan, Dan Gilbert, Mary Roach, Matt Ridley, and dozens more — everything from how to craft your talk’s content to how you can be most effective on stage. From the visionary bestselling author of The Second World and How to Run the World comes a bracing and authoritative guide to a future shaped less by national borders than by global supply chains, a world in which the most connected powers—and people—will win. In Connectography, visionary strategist Parag Khanna travels from Ukraine to Iran, Mongolia to North Korea, Pakistan to Nigeria, and across the Arctic Circle and the South China Sea to explain the rapid and unprecedented changes affecting every part of the planet.
This book predicts the decline of today’s professions and describes the people and systems that will replace them. Based on the authors’ in-depth research of more than ten professions, and illustrated by numerous examples from each, this is the first book to assess and question the relevance of the professions in the 21st century. One of America’s most accomplished entrepreneurs—a pioneer who made the Internet part of everyday life and orchestrated the largest merger in the history of business—shares a roadmap for how anyone can succeed in a world of rapidly changing technology. In The Third Wave, which pays homage to the work of the futurist Alvin Toffler (from whom Case has borrowed the title, and whose work inspired him as a young man), Case takes us behind the scenes of some of the most consequential and riveting business decisions of our time while offering illuminating insights from decades of working as an entrepreneur, an investor, a philanthropist, and an advocate for sensible bipartisan policies. Blackout Wars is about the historically unprecedented threat to our electronic civilization from its dependence on the electric power grid.
The rise of artificial intelligence has rekindled a long-standing debate regarding the impact of technology on employment. Drawing from nearly 600 years of technology history, Innovation and Its Enemies identifies the tension between the need for innovation and the pressure to maintain continuity, social order, and stability as one of today’s biggest policy challenges. A “rock star” (New York Times) of the computing world provides a radical new work on the meaning of human consciousness. While the program was a only a partial success, it laid the foundation for The Tides of Mind, a groundbreaking new exploration of the human psyche that shows us how the very purpose of the mind changes throughout the day. In the great introspective tradition of Wilhelm Wundt and Rene Descartes, David Gelernter promises to not only revolutionize our understanding of what it means to be human but also to help answer many of our most fundamental questions about the origins of creativity, thought, and consciousness. With fifty-five peer reviewed chapters written by the leading authors in the field, The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness is the most extensive and comprehensive survey of the study of consciousness available today. Model Zero is a toolkit for reconstructing yourself as someone who can thrive in an environment that is changing at an exponential pace.
Featuring numerous updates and enhancements, Science Fiction and Philosophy, 2nd Edition,  presents a collection of readings that utilize concepts developed from science fiction to explore a variety of classic and contemporary philosophical issues. Uses science fiction to address a series of classic and contemporary philosophical issues, including many raised by recent scientific developments.
Explores questions relating to transhumanism, brain enhancement, time travel, the nature of the self, and the ethics of artificial intelligence. Features numerous updates to the popular and highly acclaimed first edition, including new chapters addressing the cutting-edge topic of the technological Singularity. Provides a gateway into classic philosophical puzzles and topics informed by the latest technology. Susan Schneider is an Associate Professor of Philosophy and Cognitive Science at the University of Connecticut and a faculty member in the technology and ethics group at Yale’s Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics.
A monumental work on the flow of time, from the universe’s creation to “now,” by the best-selling author of Physics for Future Presidents. With such compelling and provocative novels as Red Planet Blues, FlashForward and The WWW Trilogy, Robert J. Experimental psychologist Jim Marchuk has developed a flawless technique for identifying the previously undetected psychopaths lurking everywhere in society.
Jim is reunited with Kayla Huron, his forgotten girlfriend from his lost period and now a quantum physicist who has made a stunning discovery about the nature of human consciousness. For General Michael Hayden, playing to the edge means playing so close to the line that you get chalk dust on your cleats. As Director of CIA in the last three years of the Bush administration,  Hayden had to deal with the rendition, detention and interrogation program as bequeathed to him by his predecessors.
For 10 years, then, General Michael Hayden was a participant in some of the most telling events in the annals of American national security. As he writes, “There is a story here that deserves to be told, without varnish and without spin. Train an em to do some job and copy it a million times: an army of workers is at your disposal.
Some say we can’t know the future, especially following such a disruptive new technology, but Professor Robin Hanson sets out to prove them wrong. While human lives don’t change greatly in the em era, em lives are as different from ours as our lives are from those of our farmer and forager ancestors. Read about em mind speeds, body sizes, job training and career paths, energy use and cooling infrastructure, virtual reality, aging and retirement, death and immortality, security, wealth inequality, religion, teleportation, identity, cities, politics, law, war, status, friendship and love. This book shows you just how strange your descendants may be, though ems are no stranger than we would appear to our ancestors. This book illuminates the astonishing science behind his decision, and the transformative power of the patternist thinking that carried him to it. Written with empathy, searing insight, and dark humour Frozen to Life is both cutting edge and bleeding heart: a postmodern experiment in falling in love with life while preparing for death, in ways we can change ourselves radically without losing our treasured humanity, and in coming to understand that neither life nor death is what we think it is.
Everyone would benefit from seeing further into the future, whether buying stocks, crafting policy, launching a new product, or simply planning the week’s meals.
In Superforecasting, Tetlock and coauthor Dan Gardner offer a masterwork on prediction, drawing on decades of research and the results of a massive, government-funded forecasting tournament. In this groundbreaking and accessible book, Tetlock and Gardner show us how we can learn from this elite group.
The New York Times bestselling author of The Rational Optimist and Genome returns with a fascinating, brilliant argument for evolution that definitively dispels a dangerous, widespread myth: that we can command and control our world. The Evolution of Everything is about bottom-up order and its enemy, the top-down twitch—the endless fascination human beings have for design rather than evolution, for direction rather than emergence.
As compelling as it is controversial, authoritative as it is ambitious, Ridley’s stunning perspective will revolutionize the way we think about our world and how it works.
In this brilliant exploration of our cosmic environment, the renowned particle physicist and New York Times bestselling author of Warped Passages and Knocking on Heaven’s Door uses her research into dark matter to illuminate the startling connections between the furthest reaches of space and life here on Earth.
Sixty-six million years ago, an object the size of a city descended from space to crash into Earth, creating a devastating cataclysm that killed off the dinosaurs, along with three-quarters of the other species on the planet.
Working through the background and consequences of this proposal, Randall shares with us the latest findings—established and speculative—regarding the nature and role of dark matter and the origin of the Universe, our galaxy, our Solar System, and life, along with the process by which scientists explore new concepts. Already internationally acclaimed for his elegant, lucid writing on the most challenging notions in modern physics, Sean Carroll is emerging as one of the greatest humanist thinkers of his generation as he brings his extraordinary intellect to bear not only on Higgs bosons and extra dimensions but now also on our deepest personal questions.
In short chapters filled with intriguing historical anecdotes, personal asides, and rigorous exposition, readers learn the difference between how the world works at the quantum level, the cosmic level, and the human level–and then how each connects to the other. Carroll shows how an avalanche of discoveries in the past few hundred years has changed our world and what really matters to us. The Big Picture is an unprecedented scientific worldview, a tour de force that will sit on shelves alongside the works of Stephen Hawking, Carl Sagan, Daniel Dennett, and E.
Leading innovation expert Alec Ross explains what’s next for the world: the advances and stumbling blocks that will emerge in the next ten years, and how we can navigate them. While Alec Ross was working as Senior Advisor for Innovation to the Secretary of State, he traveled to forty-one countries, exploring the latest advances coming out of every continent.
In The Industries of the Future, Ross shows us what changes are coming in the next ten years, highlighting the best opportunities for progress and explaining why countries thrive or sputter. In each of these realms, Ross addresses the toughest questions: How will we adapt to the changing nature of work?
Ross blends storytelling and economic analysis to give a vivid and informed perspective on how sweeping global trends are affecting the ways we live. Professor Klaus Schwab, Founder and Executive Chairman of the World Economic Forum, has been at the centre of global affairs for over four decades. Visions of the Future is a collection of stories and essays including Nebula and Hugo award-winning works.

But these literary works are more than just a reprisal of the classical elements of science fiction and futurism. This book, Visions of the Future, is not just a handy collection of pulp scifi adventures and articles. Bestselling author David Agus unveils the brave new world of medicine, one in which we can take control of our health like never before and doctors can fine-tune strategies and weapons to prevent illness.
In his first bestseller, The End of Illness, David Agus revealed how to add vibrant years to your life by knowing the real facts of health. MLG Snake - blazniva MLG edice klasickeho hada, ve ktere si diky ruznym audiovizualnim efektum a meme obrazkum uzijete velkou porci zabavy. Hockey Stars - zahrajte si hokej proti hracum z celeho sveta a pokuste se jich co nejvice porazit. Money Balance 2 - umistete vsechny objekty ruznych tvaru na hraci plochu tak, aby zustaly po urcity casovy limit v rovnovaze.
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Check for systematics: changing mass and width of DO range, and effect of efficiency dependence on signal shape are the dominant sources of systematics. LHCb strategy: Perform 3 independent searches, confirm a qualitative approach, move forward with single approach with Run 1 dataset. Nobody knows yet, although we are now two steps closer than in December when the first signs of a possible discovery were first revealed.
Two hypotheses were tested, assuming different characteristics for the hypothetical new particle: the “spin 0” case corresponds to a new type of Higgs boson, while “spin 2” denotes a graviton.
And that’s what experimental physicists are paid to do: state what is known about Nature’s laws when there is not even the shadow of a doubt.
If this turns out to be true, it would be the first particle to be discovered outside the Standard Model, the current theoretical framework. No need to say then that the excitement is tangible at CERN right now as everybody is holding their breath, waiting for new data. Personne ne le sait encore, bien que nous ayons maintenant fait deux pas de plus depuis le devoilement des premiers signes d’une possible decouverte en decembre. Si elle existe, ce serait la premiere particule a etre decouverte a l’exterieur du Modele Standard, la theorie actuelle. Nul besoin de dire que l’atmosphere est febrile en ce moment au CERN; tout le monde retient son souffle en attendant les nouvelles donnees. DO researchers analysed data from the Tevatron, a proton-antiproton collider based at Fermilab. The Strong force is described by a theory known as Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD for short), a crucial part of the Standard Model of particle physics. They were originally conceived of in 1964 by two of the early pioneers of particle physics Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig, who posited the idea of “quarks” to explain the properties of a plethora of particles that were discovered in the mid-twentieth century.
One of the most plausible explanations for this anomalous resonance[3] was a tetraquark model, which in 2013, an analysis by the LHCb experiment at CERN found to be a compatible explanation of the same resonance found in their detector. In the analysis of the B0 decay, it was found that the Z(4430) was needed as an intermediate particle state to explain the resonant behaviour of the ?’ and ?–. Since quarks cannot change flavours in QCD interactions (while they can do so in weak nuclear interactions), this is what allowed DO to determine its quark content.
The analysis from DO, based on X(5568)’s mass seems to imply that it’s the former, a single particle of four quarks tightly bound in an exotic hadron, though the jury is still out on the matter. Despite LHCb having found tetraquark candidates in the past and being suited to finding such a particle again, it has not yet independently verified the existence of X(5568). Many theories of Beyond the Standard Model physics predict new forces, and it may turn out that all the forces are unified into a single entity at high energies.
See for example, one of the excesses of events that led to the discovery of the Higgs Boson.
Decrites il y a exactement cent ans dans la Theorie de la Relativite Generale par Albert Einstein, ces ondes, qu’on a longtemps crues etre beaucoup trop faibles pour etre captees, ont enfin ete detectees. De meme, le Big Bang ou une collision entre deux trous noirs peut aussi creer des ondulations qui atteindraient eventuellement la Terre.
Les scientifiques de LIGO ont utilise un interferometre, un appareil muni de deux branches identiques tel qu’indique sur l’image ci-dessous. Au retour, les deux faisceaux se chevauchent a nouveau, mais la longueur des branches est telle que la position des cretes du premier faisceau est decalee par rapport a celle de l’autre, de telle sorte qu’ils se neutralisent. Les faisceaux laser voyagent donc dans des tuyaux a vide et les miroirs sont montes sur des ressorts et suspendus a de fins fils. Cette collision a genere une onde gravitationnelle qui s’est propage pendant un milliard d’annees avant d’atteindre la Terre le 14 septembre dernier.
Les ondes gravitationnelles fourniront un nouvel outil pour pousser l’exploration de l’Univers encore plus loin. First predicted exactly one hundred years ago by Albert Einstein in the Theory of General Relativity, these gravitational waves, long believed to be too small to be seen, have at long last been detected. Likewise, the Big Bang or collisions between black holes would also create ripples that would eventually reach the Earth. As explained in this excellent video, the scientists used an interferometer, that is, an apparatus with two identical arms as shown below. The arms length is such that when the beams return and overlap again, the two sets of waves are shifted with respect to each other, such that they cancel each other out. So the laser beams travel in vacuum and the mirrors are mounted on shock-absorbing springs and suspended on fine wires to dampen any vibration by a factor of 10 billion.
This collision sent a gravitational wave that traveled for about a billion year before reaching the Earth on 14 September 2015. The event, which occurred on 14 September 2015, has been seen by two sites (Livingston and Hanford) of the experiment, as can be seen in the picture taken from their presentation. They noted differences in star visibility and the sun’s trajectory that depended on the observer’s location, leading them to propose the earth was a sphere.
Magellan was the first we know of to circumnavigate the globe and to live to tell about it. They connected via the ATLAS Virtual Visit system to see the experiment and to ask questions about our research. The proposed mechanism requires the existence of a pervasive, non-directional (we call it scalar) force field and its associated particle, now known as the Higgs boson. Just as sailors bet their lives that the earth was a sphere before seeing photos from space, physicists included the Higgs field in their theory and were able to make accurate predictions of the existence (and even the mass) of new particles before seeing images of the Higgs boson.
These finally came in 2012, in the form of high-energy proton collisions in the ATLAS and CMS detectors at CERN.
But human progress depends on our ability to build upon well-established bricks of knowledge.
So, when the opportunity came last fall to speak at TEDxTUM in Munich, I happily responded to that very question with a simple answer: We have no choice. And while a flat-earth conspiracy might be innocuous or even silly, those who deny important measurements, such as those of climate change, threaten our survival much more directly. Cette frenesie a commence lorsque les experiences CMS et ATLAS ont toutes deux rapporte avoir trouve quelques evenements qui pourraient reveler la presence d’une nouvelle particule se desintegrant en deux photons.
Est-ce que cela se passera comme pour le boson de Higgs, qui fut officiellement decouvert en juillet 2012, bien que quelques signes avant-coureurs apparurent un an auparavant ? De tels petits echantillons de donnees sont toujours sujets a de larges fluctuations statistiques et l’effet observe pourrait bien s’evaporer avec plus de donnees.
Le Grand Collisionneur de Hadrons repartira le 21 mars et devrait livrer les premieres collisions aux experiences le 18 avril. Le modele theorique actuel de la physique des particules, le Modele Standard, n’en prevoit aucune. Voila pourquoi tant d’explications theoriques differentes pour cette nouvelle particule ont ete proposees.
Mais n’oublions pas qu’a chaque fois qu’un accelerateur est monte en energie, on a eu droit a de nouvelles decouvertes.
Pratiquement tous les modeles theoriques connus peuvent etre adaptes pour accommoder une nouvelle particule compatible avec les quelques evenements observes. This flurry of activity started when the CMS and ATLAS Collaborations both reported having found a few events that could possibly reveal the presence of a new particle decaying to two photons.
Will it be like with the Higgs boson, which was officially discovered in July 2012 but had already given some faint signs of its presence a year earlier?
Even when VR principles are fully understood, first implementations are rarely novel and never ideal due to the complex nature of VR and the countless possibilities. This is the 21st-century’s new manual for truly effective communication and it is a must-read for anyone who is ready to create impact with their ideas.
Mankind is reengineering the planet, investing up to ten trillion dollars per year in transportation, energy, and communications infrastructure linking the world’s burgeoning megacities together. He shows how militaries are deployed to protect supply chains as much as borders, and how nations are less at war over territory than engaged in tugs-of-war over pipelines, railways, shipping lanes, and Internet cables.
In an Internet society, according to Richard Susskind and Daniel Susskind, we will neither need nor want doctors, teachers, accountants, architects, the clergy, consultants, lawyers, and many others, to work as they did in the 20th century. They argue that our current professions are antiquated, opaque and no longer affordable, and that the expertise of their best is enjoyed only by a few.
In an era when machines can out-perform human beings at most tasks, what are the prospects for employment, who should own and control online expertise, and what tasks should be reserved exclusively for people? The first wave saw AOL and other companies lay the foundation for consumers to connect to the Internet. With passion and clarity, Case explains the ways in which newly emerging technology companies (a growing number of which, he argues, will not be based in Silicon Valley) will have to rethink their relationships with customers, with competitors, and with governments; and offers advice for how entrepreneurs can make winning business decisions and strategies—and how all of us can make sense of this changing digital age.
Most Americans have experienced temporary blackouts, and regard them as merely an inconvenience. This is just one of many areas where exponential advances in technology signal both hope and fear, leading to public controversy. It reveals the extent to which modern technological controversies grow out of distrust in public and private institutions. Indeed, as Gelernter explains, when we are at our most alert, when reasoning and creating new memories is our main mental business, the mind is a computer-like machine that keeps emotion on a short leash and attention on our surroundings. You keep constructing and sticking with increasingly obsolete ideas about the world, even though many of them were rather fictional to begin with. Some very basic operating principles of your mind, mental models and language pull you towards fiction.
In this book, the Center for Curriculum Redesign (CCR) describes a framework built to address this question, so that curriculum is redesigned for versatility and adaptability, to thrive in our volatile present and uncertain future.
Sawyer has proven himself to be “a writer of boundless confidence and bold scientific extrapolation” (New York Times). But while being cross-examined about his breakthrough in court, Jim is shocked to discover that he has lost his memories of six months of his life from twenty years previously—a dark time during which he himself committed heinous acts. As a rising tide of violence and hate sweeps across the globe, the psychologist and the physicist combine forces in a race against time to see if they can do the impossible—change human nature—before the entire world descends into darkness. Otherwise, by playing back, you may protect yourself, but you will be less successful in protecting America. What else was set in motion during this period that formed the backdrop for the infamous Snowden revelations in 2013? He also had to ramp up the agency to support its role in the targeted killing program that began to dramatically increase in July 2008.
My view is my view, and others will certainly have different perspectives, but this view deserves to be told to create as complete a history as possible of these turbulent times.
When they can be made cheaply, within perhaps a century, ems will displace humans in most jobs. Applying decades of expertise in physics, computer science, and economics, he uses standard theories to paint a detailed picture of a world dominated by ems. Ems make us question common assumptions of moral progress, because they reject many of the values we hold dear. From the initial confusion and isolation of his upbringing on the Scottish islands of Benbecula and Skye comes a curious inkling that collides with dominant religious dogmas and alters relationships: What am I?
The Good Judgment Project involves tens of thousands of ordinary people—including a Brooklyn filmmaker, a retired pipe installer, and a former ballroom dancer—who set out to forecast global events.
Weaving together stories of forecasting successes (the raid on Osama bin Laden’s compound) and failures (the Bay of Pigs) and interviews with a range of high-level decision makers, from David Petraeus to Robert Rubin, they show that good forecasting doesn’t require powerful computers or arcane methods. Drawing on anecdotes from science, economics, history, politics and philosophy, Matt Ridley’s wide-ranging, highly opinionated opus demolishes conventional assumptions that major scientific and social imperatives are dictated by those on high, whether in government, business, academia, or morality.
The growth of technology, the sanitation-driven health revolution, the quadrupling of farm yields so that more land can be released for nature—these were largely emergent phenomena, as were the Internet, the mobile phone revolution, and the rise of Asia. In Dark Matter and the Dinosaurs, Randall tells a breathtaking story that weaves together the cosmos’ history and our own, illuminating the deep relationships that are critical to our world and the astonishing beauty inherent in the most familiar things. Our lives are dwarfed like never before by the immensity of space and time, but they are redeemed by our capacity to comprehend it and give it meaning.
From startup hubs in Kenya to R&D labs in South Korea, Ross has seen what the future holds. He examines the specific fields that will most shape our economic future, including robotics, cybersecurity, the commercialization of genomics, the next step for big data, and the coming impact of digital technology on money and markets. Incorporating the insights of leaders ranging from tech moguls to defense experts, The Industries of the Future takes the intimidating, complex topics that many of us know to be important and boils them down into clear, plainspoken language. He is convinced that the period of change we are living through is more significant, and the ramifications of the latest technological revolution more profound than any prior period of human history.
In this anthology, you’ll find stories and essays about artificial intelligence, androids, faster-than-light travel, and the extension of human life. In this book, he builds on that theme by showing why this is the luckiest time yet to be alive, giving you the keys to the new kingdom of wellness. In the old world, you followed general principles and doctors treated you based on broad, one-size-fits all solutions. At Moriond QCD, Jeroen Van Tilburg showed a few plots from LHCb which showed no signal in the same mass regions as explored by D?.
The fact that you haven’t seen anything anywhere else gives you confidence that the cut is safe.
One is bound to find a small anomaly when looking all over the place, which is why it is wise to look at the bigger picture. As of 1 March, 263 theoretical papers have been written on the subject since everybody is trying to find out what this could be.
The discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 had been predicted and simply completed an existing theory. La decouverte du boson de Higgs en 2012 avait ete prevue et avait simplement complete une theorie existante. Four-quark particles have begun to be observed, the most recent being announced last Thursday by a collaboration at Fermilab. The new found particle sports the catchy name “X(5568)” (It’s labelled by the observed mass of 5,568 Megaelectron-volts or MeV.
The properties of X(5568) will provide precision tests of the Standard Model, as well as improving our understanding of the nature of Confinement.
After a series of experiments in the late ‘60s and ‘70s, the evidence in favour of the quark hypothesis grew much stronger[2] and it was accepted that many of the particles that interacted and decayed very quickly (due to the magnitude of the strong force) in detectors were in fact made up of these quarks, which are now known to come in six different varieties known as “flavours”. These groups of quarks and anti-quarks are what we call Hadrons (hence the name Large Hadron Collider). Like clovers, however, although the fourfold or even fivefold variety would be much rarer to come by it turns out such states did, in fact, exist and could be observed. The same year, Belle and the BESIII experiment in China both found a resonance with the same characteristics, labelled Zc(3900), which is now believed to be the first independently, experimentally observed tetraquark. The LHCb detector, whose asymmetric design and high resolution makes it particularly well suited for the job, reconstructs these mesons and looks at their kinematic properties to determine the shape and properties of the resonance, which were found to be consistent with a tetraquark model.
The other properties of this anomalous particle, such as its mass and its lack of spin (i.e.
LHCb will now review their own data as well as future data that will recommence being collected later this year, to see if they too observe this unprecedented result and hopefully improve our understanding of its properties and whether they are consistent with the Standard Model. Un objet se deplacant dans cet espace, comme par exemple une balle de ping-pong, suivrait simplement la surface du drap. Un laser (en bas a gauche) emet un faisceau de lumiere qui vient frapper un morceau de verre (au centre). La longueur des branches de l’interferometre serait modifiee, decalant ainsi les cretes et les creux.
L’onde a modifie la longueur des branches de l’interferometre de 4 km d’a peine un millieme de la taille d’un proton.
Ce que ces ondes nous apprendrons vaudra bien d’avoir attendu cent longues annees pour les decouvrir.
Any object, like a ping-pong ball travelling in that space, would simply follow the surface of the sheet. Other experiments such as BICEP2 are already looking for the ripples left over from the Big Bang. It likely happened over a billion years ago (1.3B light years away) and is consistent with the merger of two black holes, of 29 and 46 solar masses.
Convinced by this data, as well as the roundness of earth’s shadow cast on the moon during a lunar eclipse, the Greek astronomer Eratosthenes went a step further to estimate the earth’s circumference in 240 BCE.
Even more convincing were the famous earthrise photos sent down from lunar orbit a few hundred years later.
It became central to a new theory, called the Standard Model, used by physicists to describe the fundamental particles that make up matter and the forces that act upon them.
Sure, we should check the solidity of those bricks from time to time, but let’s not waste effort trying to break them for no good reason.
C’est pourquoi les deux experiences se sont montrees si reservees lors de la presentation de ces resultats, declarant clairement qu’il etait bien trop tot pour sauter au plafond.

On espere un echantillon de donnees de 30 fb-1 en 2016, alors qu’en 2015 seuls 4 fb-1 furent produits.
Ce tableau est juste indicatif et en aucun cas, strictement exact puisque plusieurs articles etaient plutot difficiles a classer.
However, the VR principles discussed within enable us to intelligently experiment with the rules and iteratively design towards innovative experiences. This has profound consequences for geopolitics, economics, demographics, the environment, and social identity. The new arms race is to connect to the most markets—a race China is now winning, having launched a wave of infrastructure investments to unite Eurasia around its new Silk Roads.
At the same time, thriving hubs such as Singapore and Dubai are injecting dynamism into young and heavily populated regions, cyber-communities empower commerce across vast distances, and the world’s ballooning financial assets are being wisely invested into building an inclusive global society. In their place, they propose six new models for producing and distributing expertise in society.
It took a decade for AOL to achieve mainstream success, and there were many near-death experiences and back-to-the-wall pivots. The second wave saw companies like Google and Facebook build on top of the Internet to create search and social networking capabilities, while apps like Snapchat and Instagram leverage the smartphone revolution. Some Americans have experienced more protracted local and regional blackouts, as in the aftermaths of Hurricanes Sandy and Katrina, and may be better able to imagine the consequences of a nationwide blackout lasting months or years, that plunges the entire United States into the dark. This book shows that many debates over new technologies are framed in the context of risks to moral values, human health, and environmental safety. Using detailed case studies of coffee, the printing press, margarine, farm mechanization, electricity, mechanical refrigeration, recorded music, transgenic crops, and transgenic animals, it shows how new technologies emerge, take root, and create new institutional ecologies that favor their establishment in the marketplace. The way you interact with the world through mediating structures, ranging from electronic devices to words and mental models, creates an inertial force which leads you away from your goals. The topics she has written about most recently include the software approach to the mind, A.I. The framework focuses on knowledge (what to know and understand), skills (how to use that knowledge), character (how to behave and engage in the world), and meta-learning (how to reflect on and adapt by continuing to learn and grow). This was a time of great crisis at CIA, and some agency veterans have credited Hayden with actually saving the agency. As Wharton professor Philip Tetlock showed in a landmark 2005 study, even experts’ predictions are only slightly better than chance. It involves gathering evidence from a variety of sources, thinking probabilistically, working in teams, keeping score, and being willing to admit error and change course.
Just as skeins of geese form Vs in the sky without meaning to, and termites build mud cathedrals without architects, so brains take shape without brain-makers, learning can happen without teaching and morality changes without a plan.
Ridley demolishes the arguments for design and effectively makes the case for evolution in the universe, morality, genes, the economy, culture, technology, the mind, personality, population, education, history, government, God, money, and the future. In Dark Matter and the Dinosaurs, Lisa Randall proposes it was a comet that was dislodged from its orbit as the Solar System passed through a disk of dark matter embedded in the Milky Way. How can the world’s rising nations hope to match Silicon Valley in creating their own innovation hotspots?
This is an essential book for understanding how the world works—now and tomorrow—and a must-read for businesspeople in every sector, from every country.
How will we respond to androids, extraterrestrial life, and humans that have seemingly unlimited lifespan?
Disch, in The Dreams Our Stuff Is Made Of, writes, “It is my contention that some of the most remarkable features of the present historical moment have their roots in a way of thinking that we have learned from science fiction.” Science fiction and futurism can be both predictive and prescriptive. But even the ones that will get it wrong (and let’s be honest, most science fiction does) are still critical for us now. In this new golden age, you’ll be able to take full advantage of the latest scientific findings and leverage the power of technology to customize your care. Tomorrow, there will be a special LHC seminar on the LHCb search for purported tetraquark, where we will get the full story from LHCb.
So globally, the excess of events observed so far is still very mild, far from the 5? criterion required to claim a discovery. This was a feat in itself but a new, unpredicted particle would at long last reveal the nature of a more encompassing theory that everybody suspects exists but that nobody has found yet. Apres beaucoup d’efforts et d’ingeniosite, ceci ajoute 20 % de donnees supplementaires. Un exploit, bien sur, mais la decouverte d’une particule imprevue revelerait enfin la nature d’une theorie plus vaste dont tout le monde soupconne l’existence, mais qui n’a pas encore ete trouvee.
These rare, fleetingly lived particles have the potential to shed some light on the Strong nuclear force and how it shapes our world. That’s about six times heavier than a proton.) X(5568) is a form of “tetraquark”, a rarer variety of the particles known as hadrons.
This is a dimly understood process by which quarks are bound up together to form the particles (such as protons) that make up most of the visible matter in the universe. A more precise model of the strong force, which came to be known as QCD, was also verified in such experiments. This self interaction arises from the fact that, unlike light which simply couples to positive or negative charges, QCD has a more complicated structure based on three charges labelled as Red, Green and Blue (which confusingly, have nothing to do with real colours, but are instead based on a mathematical symmetry known as SU(3)). The most recent evidence for the existence of tetraquarks, prior to last Thursday’s announcement, was found by the LHCb experiment in 2014, the Z(4430). The recent discovery of X(5568) by the DO collaboration involved a similar reconstruction from Bs and ?– mesons, which was used to infer its quark flavour structure (b, s, u, d, though which two are the particles and which two are the antiparticles remains to be determined). S = 0) are measured from the kinematics of the mesons it produces, and can help increase our understanding of how QCD combines the quarks in such an unfamiliar arrangement. This is definitely a result to look out for later this year and should shed some light on one of the fundamental forces of nature and how it acts to create the particles, such as protons, that make up the world around us.
Une petite oscillation durant seulement 20 millisecondes, accelerant rapidement puis disparaissant, exactement tel que predit par les equations de la relativite generale. On ne sait toujours pas si les ondes gravitationnelles sont quantifiees ou pas, et si elles s’accompagnent d’une particule appelee le graviton. A tiny ripple that lasted a mere 20 milliseconds, accelerating quickly before disappearing, exactly as General Relativity predicted.
We still do not know if gravitational waves are quantized or not, that is, if they come with a particle called the graviton. What we will learn from these waves will be well worth the hundred-year long wait from their prediction to their discovery. The resulting larger black hole’s mass is about 62 solar masses, which means that about 3 solar masses of energy (29+36-62=3) has been radiated in the form of gravitational waves.
This is done with the help of interferometry, where the laser beams bounce through the arms of the experiment and then are compared to each other. Using trigonometry and shadows cast during the solstice, he came to within a few percent of the actual value.
It is far better to ask questions than it is to blindly believe the authoritative figures who present “facts”.
Without our drive to explore and to understand the world, our species would not still be here. Lorsque ces nouvelles donnees seront disponibles cet ete, nous saurons alors si cette nouvelle particule existe ou pas. Mais puisque ce modele laisse encore plusieurs questions sans reponses, les theoriciennes et theoriciens sont convaincus qu’il doit exister une theorie plus vaste pour expliquer les quelques anomalies observees. Plusieurs de ces articles decrivent simplement les proprietes requises par un nouveau boson pour reproduire les donnees observees. And just as I wrote in July 2011, it is as if we were trying to guess if the train is coming by looking in the far distance on a grey winter day. The United States can only regain ground by fusing with its neighbors into a super-continental North American Union of shared resources and prosperity.
Beneath the chaos of a world that appears to be falling apart is a new foundation of connectivity pulling it together.
AOL became the top performing company of the 1990s, and at its peak more than half of all consumer Internet traffic in the United States ran through the service.
Now, Case argues, we’re entering the Third Wave: a period in which entrepreneurs will vastly transform major “real world” sectors like health, education, transportation, energy, and food—and in the process change the way we live our daily lives.
But it argues that behind these legitimate concerns often lie deeper, but unacknowledged, socioeconomic considerations.
The book uses these lessons from history to contextualize contemporary debates surrounding technologies such as artificial intelligence, online learning, 3D printing, gene editing, robotics, drones, and renewable energy.
By mastering these forces, you can evolve towards a mentally and physically greater being who inhabits a very different kind of reality. This book is essential for teachers, department heads, heads of schools, administrators, policymakers, standard setters, curriculum and assessment developers, and other thought leaders and influencers, who seek to develop a thorough understanding of the needs and challenges we all face, and to help devise innovative solutions.
He himself won’t go that far, but he freely acknowledges that CIA helped turn the American security establishment into the most effective killing machine in the history of armed conflict. However, an important and underreported conclusion of that study was that some experts do have real foresight, and Tetlock has spent the past decade trying to figure out why. Superforecasting offers the first demonstrably effective way to improve our ability to predict the future—whether in business, finance, politics, international affairs, or daily life—and is destined to become a modern classic.
Are our emotions, our beliefs, and our hopes and dreams ultimately meaningless out there in the void?
Crowdsourcing ideas, insights and wisdom from the World Economic Forum’s global network of business, government, civil society and youth leaders, this book looks deeply at the future that is unfolding today and how we might take collective responsibility to ensure it is a positive one for all of us. If our relationship today with what is both new, unknown, and different is derived from fear, it’s not a far extrapolation to see that mentality carried forward. It’s difficult to overstate the significance of the practice of science fiction on shaping us today.
Only those who know how to access and adapt to these breakthroughs—without being distracted by hyped ideas and bad medicine—will benefit. Meanwhile, ATLAS showed that all data collected at lower energy up to 2012 were also compatible with the presence of a new particle. Yesterday at the Moriond conference, Alessandro Strumia, a theorist from CERN, also predicted that this particle would probably come with a string of companions. Hier a la conference de Moriond, Alessandro Strumia, un theoricien du CERN, a predit que cette particule s’accompagnerait probablement d’une kyrielle de nouvelles particules. Tetraquarks consist of two quarks and two antiquarks (rather than the usual three quarks or quark-antiquark pairs that make up hadrons particle physicists are familiar with). This verified an earlier result from Belle in 2007, with an astonishingly high statistical significance of 13.9? (for comparison, one typically claims a discovery with a significance of 5?). La balle de ping-pong ne roulera plus en ligne droite, mais suivra naturellement la courbe de l’espace deforme.
Les deux faisceaux parcourent exactement la meme distance (4 km) avant d’etre reflechis par un miroir.
Un detecteur detecterait une lumiere oscillante durant le passage d’une onde gravitationnelle a travers l’appareil. The ping-pong ball would no longer roll along a straight line but would naturally follow the curve of the distorted space. A light-sensitive detector would now detect some light that would pulsate as the gravitational wave sweeps across the apparatus. The small change of phase of the beams can be related to the change of the relative distance traveled by each beam. This is irresponsible for anyone, but especially for someone who is seen as an authoritative figure by his fans, and moreover for someone who has the means and ability to know better. Seule un peu de patience nous dira si la forme indistincte a peine visible au loin est bien le train longuement attendu ou juste une illusion.
La decouverte d’une nouvelle particule ou la mesure d’une valeur differente de celle prevue par la theorie reveleraient enfin la nature de cette nouvelle physique allant au-dela du Modele Standard.
Les solutions proposees sont incroyablement diversifiees, les plus recurrents etant diverses versions de modeles de matiere sombre ou supersymetriques, de Vallee Cachee, de Grande Theorie Unifiee, de bosons de Higgs supplementaire ou composites, ou encore des dimensions cachees. Only time will tell if the indistinct shape barely visible above the horizon is the long awaited train or just an illusion. After Case engineered AOL’s merger with Time Warner and he became Chairman of the combined business, Case oversaw the biggest media and communications empire in the world. But success in the Third Wave will require a different skill set, and Case outlines the path forward. Technological tensions are often heightened by perceptions that the benefits of new technologies will accrue only to small sections of society while the risks will be more widely distributed.
It ultimately makes the case for shifting greater responsibility to public leaders to work with scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs to manage technological change, make associated institutional adjustments, and expand public engagement on scientific and technological matters. Self-awareness fades, reflection blinks out, and at last we are completely immersed in our own minds. She is also a fellow with the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies and the Center of Theological Inquiry in Princeton. They’ve even beaten the collective judgment of intelligence analysts with access to classified information. Here are vivid tales about possible tomorrows, from the keen eye and colorful pen of David Brin, a modern master of speculative fiction. Hugh Howey’s “The Automated Ones” projects current fear-based bigotry into our relationship with AI life.
Swift’s Electric Rifle, referencing the pulp science fiction classic that gave inspiration to the modern-day inventor. Through resilience and incredible fortune, the future may turn out far more marvelous than even the stories in this book could imagine. The most important aspect about explorations of the future is that they be written and be read.
Imagine being able to get fit and lose weight without dieting, train your immune system to fight cancer, edit your DNA to avoid a certain fate, erase the risk of a heart attack, reverse aging, and know exactly which drugs to take to optimize health with zero side effects. Vyvojari, kteri minuly rok obdrzeli toto zarizeni, tak ho museli nabijet za pomoci sveho notebooku. Requirement that the \(\pi\) comes from the PV, and the \(p_T\) cut on the pion kill the most. While similar tetraquark particles have been observed before, the new addition breaks the mould by consisting of four quarks of totally different flavours: bottom, strange, up and down. LHCb would also go on, unexpectedly, to find a pentaquark (four quarks and an antiquark) state in 2015, which could provide a greater understanding of QCD and even a window into the study of neutron stars. The shape of the signal is exactly what one should expect from the merging of two black holes, with 5.1 sigma significance.
This difference is induced by the passing gravitational wave, which contracts one of the arms and extends the other. Il faudra plus de donnees pour pouvoir trancher, mais en attendant, tout le monde garde les yeux rives sur cet endroit.
Il y en a pour tous les gouts : des axizillas au dilatons, en passant pas les cousins de pions sombres, les technipions et la trinification. Similarly, innovations that threaten to alter cultural identities tend to generate intense social concern. The evidence of dramatic change is all around us and it’s happening at exponential speed. Patterns of thought and belief that are thousands of years old still hold sway in shaping our reactions. Nicole Anderson’s “The Birth of the Dawn” shows a different relationship to human 2.0—one built on enthusiasm and wonder.
Beyond technological foresight, science fiction functions as a lab for thought experiments.
Ce qui est tres fort par contre, c’est que les deux experiences l’ont trouve independamment. The way noise that can mimic gravitational wave signal is eliminated should be a subject of another blog post. Communications, transportation, industry, business and finance—all of the critical infrastructures that support modern civilization and the lives of the American people would be paralyzed by collapse of the electric power grid.
As such, societies that exhibit great economic and political inequities are likely to experience heightened technological controversies.
What seemed to be obvious societal advances, in hindsight, were actually challenging battles. Once upon a time there were three little pigs and the time came for them to leave home and seek their fortunes. Threats to the electric power grid are posed by cyber attack, sabotage, a geomagnetic super-storm, and electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from the high-altitude detonation of a nuclear weapon. Blackout Wars warns that terrorists and rogue states are developing a revolutionary new military strategy that could exploit all of these threats in combination, including exploiting the opportunity of severe weather or a geo-storm, to collapse the national electric grid and all the critical infrastructures.
On the other hand, might fantastically potent new beings emerge out of ourselves, as revealed in “Chrysalis”? Featuring guest appearances by Gregory Benford, Jules Verne, and Galileo, this adventure takes you beyond the very singularity in “Stones of Significance,” pondering what could happen after humans are like gods. For the first time in history, the most dysfunctional societies, like North Korea that cannot even feed its own people, or even non-state actors like terrorists, could destroy the most successful societies on Earth—by means of a Blackout War. Attacking the electric grid enables an adversary to strike at the technological and societal Achilles Heel of U.S. Blackout Wars likens this new Revolution in Military Affairs to Nazi Germany’s Blitzkrieg strategy, secretly developed and tested in low-profile experiments during the 1930s, sprung upon the Allies in 1939-1941 in a series of surprise attacks that nearly enabled the Third Reich to win World War II.

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