Types of communication methods in a business,jill jones classroom management plan,emergency management plan for mass casualty incidents - .

Communication is even more valuable in a business environment as there are several parties involved. We are therefore constantly using some form of communication or another to send a message across. Numerous new instruments have emerged over the years to help people communicate effectively.
We are constantly using words verbally to inform our subordinates of a decision, provide information, and so on. This shows therefore that you would need to cultivate both your listening and speaking skills, as you would have to carry out both roles in the workplace, with different people.
Writing is used when you have to provide detailed information such as figures and facts, even while giving a presentation. It is also generally used to send documents and other important material to stakeholders which could then be stored for later use as it can be referred to easily as it is recorded. It can be seen in recent years, however, that verbal communication has been replaced to a great extent by a faster form of written communication and that is email.
You could also use video conferencing and multiple way phone calls with several individuals simultaneously.
Although the most common methods of communication are carried out orally or in writing, when it comes to management techniques, the power of non-verbal communication must never be underestimated.
Your smile, your gestures and several other body movements send out a message to the people around you.
You may ask why it is important that we use different methods of communication in one organization. It is important that the most cost-effective methods of communication are chosen for any organization. You may have more questions to ask based on the type of work you carry out and the message that you need to send across. In conclusion, it is important to always remember the importance of communication in an organization. The methods of communication you choose could in a sense make or break the management structure of your organization and could also affect your relationship with customers, if not chosen carefully. It is vital therefore that you spend some time choosing the right methods to aid you in your management tasks. This type of communication can be either formal or informal and is usually taken place within a corporate house. When corporate houses or organizations have to communicate with officials outside the organization for business prospects, expansion, or for whatever reasons, it is called external communication. In this competitive age, where organizations are trying to vie for the top spot, getting more and more business has become challenging. In a business context, all communication can be divided into two categories namely, External Communication and Internal Communication. An organization, when it communicates with Governmental agencies, oth organizations, customers, clients and Public it is called external communication The media employed may be written media like letters, reports, proposals or visual media like posters, advertisements video tapes or electronic media like faxes, telegrams, e-mails, telexes. External communication helps an organization to keep its outsourcing agencies like distributors, wholesalers, retailers and clientele well informed about the company’s products, services, progress and goals.
Every organization has the necessity to maintain appropriate communication with its branches, staff and employees. In the new millennium, particularly in the context of globalization, business has become highly competitive. Downward communication means the flow of communication from the top echelon (level or rank) of an organisation to the lower levels of employees.
Communication maintained from lower level of employees to higher-ups is called upward communication. Every business organization adopts some formal channels of communication which may be upward, downward, or horizontal or all the three. Large organizations, where there are a large number of people working closely, generate certain informal or unofficial channels of communication.
In yet another situation, one person communicates to a few chosen associates who in turn communicate the same to yet another group.
Grapevine, is definitely dangerous to the health of an organization if allowed to grow without monitoring. Lately, I’ve been thinking a lot about how our means of communicating with one another are changing drastically. In the MTV show, the host Nev investigates other suspicious online relationships and usually the one who seeks out Nev finds out that their love interest is not who they thought they were.
However, the majority of social media users aren’t being duped into falling for complete strangers via social media.
More than this, what does communicating through social media mean for the future of interpersonal communication as a whole? Mia I completely agree with the fact that social media interactions have changed the face-to-face communication we experience today. Discuss the nature of communications in an organizational setting, including communication flows, channels, and networks. Explain barriers to communication, and discuss the most common types of barriers to group communication.
Clearly, the task of preparing and submitting a finished sales report doesna€™t require the same kinds of communication skills as talking on the phone with a classmate.
Communication may also flow laterally in organizational settings (as it does between you and your classmate), but more often it flows up or down. As the term suggests, downward communicationdownward communicationCommunication flow from higher to lower organizational levels. Upward communicationupward communicationCommunication flow from lower to higher organizational levels.
Lateral (or horizontal) communicationlateral (or horizontal) communicationCommunication flow across the organization, among personnel on the same level.
Your bossa€™s request for a sales report is an instance of downward communication, and when youa€™ve finished and submitted it, you will have completed a task of upward communication. Finally, while horizontal flows are valuable for promoting cooperation, they can also be used to engage in conflicta€”for instance, between two departments competing for the same organizational resources. Note that FigureA 8.9, a€?Channels of Communicationa€? takes the form of a grid, thus creating four dimensions in which communication can take place.
An organizationa€™s formal communication networkformal communication networkNetwork consisting of all communications that flow along an organizationa€™s official lines of authority. Every company also has an informal communication network (or grapevine)informal communication network (or grapevine)Network that carries information whenever two or more employees get together and start talking about the company and their jobs., which goes to work whenever two or more employees get together and start talking about the company and their jobs. Though ita€™s sometimes called the grapevine, an informal network is an extremely important communication channel.
On the upside, savvy managers can tap into the informal network, either to find out what sort of information is influencing employee activities or to circulate more meaningful information, including new ideas as well as corrective information.
The organizationa€™s formal lines of communication arena€™t working as well as they should be. The best way to minimize informal communication and its potential damage is to provide better formal communication from the outseta€”or, failing that, to provide whatever formal communication will counteract misinformation as thoroughly as possible. Go to your supervisor or another senior manager and try to find out as much as you can about the organizationa€™s real plans. Ask a senior manager or a human resources representative to meet with your team and address membersa€™ concerns with accurate feedback.
Make it a priority to keep channels opena€”both between yourself and your team members and between team members and the human resources department. Because actions of this sort send a message, they can legitimately be characterized as a form of formal communication.
By barriers we mean anything that prevents people from communicating as effectively as possible. As for creating unnecessary verbal noise and failing to listen, we can probably chalk them up to poor communication habits (or maybe the same habit, for as legendary management expert Peter Drucker argues, a€?Listening is not a skill; it is a discipline. If it hasna€™t happened already, for example, one of these days youa€™ll find yourself having a work-related conversation with a member of the opposite sex. It really doesna€™t matter which a€?stylea€? (if either) is better suited to making a conversation more productive. Even if two people of the opposite sex enter a conversation with virtually identical viewpoints, their different styles of expressing themselves might very well present a barrier to their reaching an agreement. FigureA 8.11, a€?Functional Barriers to Communicationa€? illustrates the location of barriers that may be present when a team-based project must deal with a certain degree of functional diversity.
The company has assigned team members from different functional areas, notably marketing and operations (which, as at Motorola, includes design, engineering, and production). Information (which wea€™ve characterized as different types of a€?specsa€?) must be transferred from function to function, and at the key points where this occurs, wea€™ve built in communication barriers (symbolized by brick walls).
If, for example, marketing specs called for the new Motorola phone to change colors with the usera€™s mood, someone in engineering might have to explain the difficulties in designing the software. Each technical problema€”each problem that arises because of differences in team membersa€™ knowledge and expertisea€”becomes a problem in communication.
Downward communication flows from higher organizational levels (supervisors) to lower organizational levels (subordinates). Lateral (or horizontal) communication flows across the organization, among personnel on the same level.
Barriers to communication include anything that prevents people from communicating as effectively as possible. To your manager telling him what the sales were for the quarter and whether sales improved (or got worse), and why. To the vice president of the company recommending a new system for tracking sales in your division. Nothing can take place without some method of communication being used to express ourselves for whatever purpose. Various stakeholders, whether they are customers, employees or the media, are always sending important information to each other at all times. Without these different methods of communication available today, it would take eons for us to carry out business as efficiently as it is done today and with the same speed. Whether it is to present some important data to your colleagues or lead a boardroom meeting, these skills are vital.
Other important documents such as contracts, memos and minutes of meetings are also in written form for this purpose. Apart from a few glitches that could occur, these methods of communication have helped organizations come a long way.



The reason for this is the pivotal role that communication plays in the effective functioning of a business. How would a customer then be able to send an important proposal quickly and directly to the employer in-charge?
Simply choosing a method of communication due to it being a famous instrument is not going to help. The media of oral communication are face to face conversation, telephone or mobile, conference, meetings etc. Major types of internal communication are – Upward communication, Downward communication and Horizontal communication.
This kind of communication encourages junior level employees to partake in the company’s policies and business. This facilitates the organization to benefit from the managerial expertise and experience of the top level management. This could be solving queries, exchange of vital information and ideas, or knowledge transfer, or to brainstorm for new ideas and concepts.
The main advantages of external communication are that management gets an inkling of what competitors are offering and what the expectations of the consumers are. Through seminars and exhibitions, products can be explained in detail and doubts regarding the product are cleared. E-mails can reach a wider audience and can be used to create awareness of the product or service. However, it would have been perfect if you would have added some sample examples to be more understood.
The communication might also be through teleconferences, face-to-face meetings, panel discussions or presentations, exhibitions and such events. Upward communication gives scope for the employees to offer their suggestions, opinions, make complaints and seek redressal of their grievances.
They are usually in the form of notices, announcements, reports, official or demi-official letters, advertisements, etc.
A transparent administration policy, employee-friendly attitude, fruitful peer group meetings, inter-action sessions, parties and outings where all those connected with the organisation participate are some of the strategies to monitor grapevine and use it to the advantage of the organization. Either they are hiding something like their gender, or true identity, or sexuality, every show is a strange look into how Facebook is being used to give some people new identities. On a much more mundane level, we are instead reconnecting with old flames and finding new ones. It seems so easy for people to act one way online or through text and another way in person. You all bring up valuable points and it is encouraging to see that this is a concern of mine that is widely shared. I personally think that the communication shift we have experienced in real life as a result of online communication is very sad. No matter what your a€?workstationa€? happens to bea€”whether your workplace office or your kitchen tablea€”youa€™re performing the task of preparing that sales report in an organizational setting. Leta€™s assume that you and the classmate you called on the phone are on roughly equal footinga€”youa€™re both juniors, your grades in the class are about the same, and so forth.
Downward communication, for example, is appropriate for giving instructions or directionsa€”telling people what to do. As information seeps downward, for instance, it tends to lose some of its original clarity and often becomes distorted or downright wrong. The problem is especially bad when such horizontal communications breach official upward or downward lines of communication, thus bypassing managers who might be able to resolve the conflict.
Informal communication, for example, can take place either among people within the company (internally) or between insiders and outsiders (externally). Informal communication can take place just about anywhere (in one persona€™s cubicle, in the cafeteria, on the golf course) and by just about any means (phone, e-mail, instant messaging, face-to-face conversation).
Because much of it is communicated orally, ita€™s likely to get distorted and often degenerates into outright misinformation.
In the 1970s, Chicago-area McDonalda€™s outlets found themselves fighting rumors about worms in their hamburgers. Because ita€™s your job to replace bad information with good information, you need to find out whata€™s really going on.
Its only function is to carry information, so therea€™s no reason why you cana€™t pump some useful information through it. In a practical sense, what can a managera€”say, the leader of a long-term product-development teama€”do to provide better communication? They also reflect good leadership: Even though the information in this case relates only indirectly to immediate team tasks, youa€™re sharing information with people who need it, and youa€™re demonstrating integrity (youa€™re being honest, and youa€™re following through on a commitment to the team).
Noise, for example, can be a barrier to communication; if you and other team members are mumbling among yourselves while your team leader is trying to explain task assignments, youa€™re putting up a barrier to group communication. None of these advantages, though, magically appears simply because workplace diversity increases.
If the conversation doesna€™t go as smoothly as youa€™d expected, therea€™s a good reason: Men and women in the workplace dona€™t communicate the same way. Much the same can be said of differences in style arising from other cultural filters, such as ethnicity, education, age, and experience.
Recall that when we introduced the organizational structure of Notes-4-You in ChapterA 6, Managing for Business Success, we characterized it as a functional organizationa€”one that groups together people who have comparable skills and perform similar tasks.
Simply this: The more a€?divisionalizeda€? an organization becomes, the more likely it will be to encounter communication barriers. At the same time, each group must contribute to the company-wide effort to achieve common goals. If design specs called for quadraphonic sound, production might have to explain the difficulties in procuring sufficiently lightweight speaker components. In addition, communicating as a member of a team obviously requires much more than explaining the limitations of someone elsea€™s professional expertise. Its formal communication network consists of all communications that flow along an organizationa€™s official lines of authority.
Similarly, an organization may have to stall their work if certain managers are not in the country and are thereby unable to give a presentation to the board. To ensure clarity and eliminate the ambiguity in communication, it is essential to develop and have proper communication skills, vital for the success and growth of the organization. It motivates them to provide their valuable feedback, inputs and suggestions, helps them to gain confidence, makes them feel a part of the organization, and helps them to understand the functioning the organization a lot better.
Also, company’s policies, updates, current happenings are cascaded down which keeps the employees aware of what is happening and in the loop. Based on this information, the organization can look at improving their products or services, which will give them an edge over their competitors. All organizations have to maintain cordial relationships with government agencies, licensing authorities, suppliers of raw materials, ancillary industries and financial institutions. Internal communication is an essential feature of an organization’s administrative structure. The central organization or corporate office should keep its branches well informed of new policies and policy changes.
Downward communication has its own shortcomings, if it is not complemented by other directional communications. Upward communication helps an organization to receive and reset its objectives at realistic levels. Sales department, production department, quality control department and the stores department have to constantly interact and coordinate among themselves.
It gives mental satisfaction to the participants and gradually reduces emotional outbursts and reactions. Business houses and industries adopt one or several of these strategies to keep grapevine under reasonable control so that it does not degenerate into a rumour mill and promote unwanted gossip sessions among the employees. What immediately comes to mind is the movie Catfish, and the subsequent MTV reality show of the same name. While we need to stay social savvy within most communication career-fields, we also need to know how to facilitate effective communication outside of social-media sites.
The way we communicate is definitely changing and being able to recognize that is the first step to figuring out how to navigate our way through communicating in a digital age. Don’t get me wrong online networking and conversing is great, and very valuable, but we should without a doubt be able to differentiate between the two. Youa€™re still a sender transferring information to a receiver, but the organizational context of the task requires you to consider different factors for success in communicating effectively (including barriers to success). Your phone conversation, therefore, is a€?laterala€?: You belong to the same group (your accounting class), and your group activities take place on the same level.
If it looks familiar, thata€™s because wea€™ve borrowed it from ChapterA 6, Managing for Business Success, where it appeared as the organization chart for the fictional company Notes-4-You. External communicationexternal communicationChannel through which communication occurs between parties inside a company and parties outside it. By and large, though you can use the same set of tools (memos, reports, phone calls) to communicate in any of these four situations, some tools (team blogs, news releases, supplier Web sites) are useful only in one or two. For the simple reason that ita€™s typically widespread and can rarely be prevented, even if ita€™s not officially sanctioned by the companya€”indeed, even when the company tries to discourage or bypass it. Remember: The more you know about grapevine information, the better you can interact with employees (who, in turn, will probably come to regard you as someone who keeps in touch with the things that concern them).
As a matter of fact, youa€™re putting up two barriers: In addition to creating noise, youa€™re failing to listen. In the rest of this section, wea€™ll overlook personal barriers to communication and concentrate instead on two types of barriers that are encountered by groups of people, sometimes large and sometimes small, working toward organizational goals. To the contrary: As diversity increases, so does the possibility that a group will be composed of people who have different attitudes and different ways of expressing them. According to American linguist Deborah Tannen, men tend to assert their status, to exert confidence, and to regard asking questions as a sign of weakness. Not surprisingly, communication gets more complicated, for the same reason that an organization comes to rely on more levels of management.[290] Notes-4-You, for instance, needs two supervisors because its note takers dona€™t do the same work as its copiers.
Moreover, certain organizational projects, like Motorolaa€™s cell phone project, may require the two groups to work together more closely than usual. Once theya€™ve surfaced, technical and other problems have to be resolveda€”a process that will inevitably require even more communication. External communication occurs between parties inside a company and parties outside the company, such as suppliers, customers, and investors. The informal communication network, sometimes called the grapevine, goes to work whenever two or more employees get together and start talking about the company and their jobs.


Cultural barriers, sometimes called cultural filters, are the barriers that result from differences among people of different cultures. In the modern day, there are innumerable ways by which employees communicate with each other in the corporate house and even beyond the borders. However, the management of the organization should ensure that downward communication should not hinder upward communication as it is beneficial for the success and growth of the organization. Continual and updated information without any communication gap is essential for business houses.
In modern times, the Human Resource Department plays an important role in maintaining internal communication. The growth in business, the future projections for business, increased specializations make a great demand on the central office to maintain an uninterrupted flow of internal communication.
The shortcomings will be pronounced if an organization adopts only unidirectional communication namely downward communication.
Horizontal communication leads to a better understanding among individuals and departments, cooperation and coordination.
It promotes understanding, motivates employees and gives a sense of belonging and involvement to all people at all levels.
In some other situation, an individual passes an information without any restriction to all those with whom he comes into contact. They talk online for awhile before taking their conversations to texts and after only two months she decided to go visit him in Alaska.
So that leads me to the question, how well do we really know the people we are getting to know through Facebook? One of the things that employeesa€”the receiversa€”most want to know is: What, exactly, does my job entail?[279]) Like a sales report, upward communication usually provides managers with information that they need for making decisions, but ita€™s also the vehicle for new ideas, suggestions, and complaints.
The same thing may happen when bad newsa€”say, a negative status reporta€”must be sent upward.
Because it incorporates the organization chart for Notes-4-You, it shows the companya€™s lines of authoritya€”what, in ChapterA 6, Managing for Business Success, we called its reporting relationships. Unofficial information crosses virtually every boundary drawn by a firma€™s organization chart, reaching out and touching everyone in the organization, and whata€™s more, it travels a lot faster than official information. About 80 percent of top executives say that learning to listen is the most important skill in getting things done in the workplace,[286] and as President Calvin Coolidge once remarked, a€?No man ever listened himself out of a job.a€? Business people who dona€™t listen risk offending others or misinterpreting what theya€™re saying. In this respect, our structure shares certain characteristics with another form of organizationa€”divisional, which groups people into units that are more or less self-contained and that are largely accountable for their own performance. In addition, because their groups dona€™t perform the same work, the two supervisors dona€™t call on the same resources from the companya€™s four functional managers. When that happens, employees from each of the two groups may find themselves working together on the same team, but even so, one crucial fact remains: Information that one group possesses and the other doesna€™t must still be exchanged among team members.
As wea€™ve seen in this part of the chapter, improving communication is a top priority for most organizations (for one thing, developing a team-based environment is otherwise impossible), and the ongoing task of improving communication is pretty much the same thing as the ongoing task of overcoming barriers to it.
Functional barriers arise when communication must flow among individuals or groups who work in different functional areas of an organization. Employees need to be motivated and exposed to the business objectives and ethical ideas of a company so that they get an involvement in the work they do. Business and industry continued the age old tradition of the feudal system even after the industrial revolution.
But such communication should not be allowed to degenerate to a meaningless criss-cross communication which will lead to chaos and confusion. Grapevine communication is an informal, unofficial, horizontal channel of communication because generally peer groups participate in it. Even if these people aren’t complete strangers, what exactly do we lose when we choose to communicate through social media instead of face-to-face?
So whether the future is bright or not remains to be seen, but it is without question that we are experiencing a paradigm shift in communication.
I think about this very often with texting and how easy it is to build a relationship with another person. Horizontal communication supports efforts to coordinate tasks and otherwise help people work together. Both internal and external forms of communication include everything from formal e-mail and official reports to face-to-face conversations and casual phone calls. Here we can see that the reporting relationships in question consist of upward communication from subordinates to superiors. Employees on production line should be aware of the targets so that they overcome obstacles. But soon areas of conflict got promoted by sectarian interests (of homogenous groups) within an organization. Moreover, it may get delayed or distorted as it goes down through the various levels of the hierarchical set up as all decisions are taken without any proper feedback. But on the whole, modern management recognises the need for healthy upward communication to make the organization responsive to suggestions and ideas.
Message can be transmitted with the help of our body movements which is called body language.
External communication also takes such forms as customer and supplier Web sites, news releases, and advertising. In reporting to the operations manager, for example, the note-takersa€™ supervisor communicates upward.
Even the shifting of the canteen and a re-adjustment of the lunch-breaks and tea-breaks have to be informed well in advance to the employees. But it helps in creating an awareness among employees of the objectives, targets and goals. But this definitely gets rid of a certain level of intimacy that was afford to us because or real time interactions. Conversely, when the note-takersa€™ manager needs to give direction to note takers, she will use downward communication.
In turn, employees should be able to tell people at higher levels their grievances, expectations and difficulties.
It has been discovered that a multidirectional communication system demolishes the barriers and removes friction. Looking at the generation of up and coming youngsters, things are really only getting worse. If the note-takersa€™ manager and the copiersa€™ manager must get together to prepare a joint report for the operations manager, theya€™ll engage in lateral communication. Effective internal communication forges a strong bond between the employees and management, promotes co-operation among different sections in an establishment. Business depends on such anew communication paradigm (pattern or model) to ensure the success of business and the realization of even difficult objectives. At ordinary times, they exist for their own sake without any objective, as a formality and routine. Facial expressions for happiness, sadness, anger and fear are similar throughout the world. How many “real” relationships are possible when you have 1,000+ friends on Facebook? The main purpose of this communication is to ensure smooth functioning of organizational activities.
It remove’s misunderstanding and aids the growth of the organization at a desirable and optimum level.
Internal communication in short, ensures involvement of all the people without alienating any section.
I remember in interpersonal communication we were taught that there is only a limited amount of relationships a person is able to maintain.
External parties include customers, suppliers, investors, bankers, insurance companies, government agencies, local communities etc. Our clothes an dresses provide a good visual signal to our interest, age, personality, taste and sex.
Our choice of color, clothing, hairstyles and other factors affecting appearance are also considered a means of nonverbal can evoke different moods. Consider differing cultural standards on what is attractive in dress and on what constitutes modesty. Personal communication occurs among the parties within the organization and outside the organization. Mass communication: Mass communication is a process of transmitting messages to a large number of scattered audiences. Left hand is for toilet functions.Islamic cultures generally don’t approve of any touching to opposite genders (even handshakes). Through mass communication, information can be transmitted quickly to a large number of people who generally stay far away form the sources of information. But consider such touching (including hand holding, hugs) between same sexes to be appropriate. Silence: Silence is another form of non-verbal communication which expresses the positive or negative meanings of particular messages.
Space or proximity: People often refer to their need for “personal space”, which are also important types of nonverbal communication. If someone you don’t know stand too close or touches too often, you will probably begin to feel uncomfortable.C. For example, begin late in work everybody a worker can be considered as a man of carelessness but if a manager does it; we say it is a symbol of power. Paralinguistic (Tone and volume of voice): Paralinguistic refers to vocal communication that is separate from actual language.
Paralanguage also include such vocal characteristics as rate (speed of speaking), pitch (highness of lowness of tone), inflection, volume (loudness) and quality (pleasing or unpleasant sound).Vocal characterizers (laugh, cry, yell, moan, whine, belch and yawn).
These send different message in different cultures (Japan- giggling indicates embarrassment; India- belch indicates satisfaction)Vocal qualifiers (volume, pitch, rhythm, tempo and tone). Gender based as well women tend to speak higher and more softly than men.Vocal segregates (UN-huh, shh, uh, ooh, mmmh, hummm, eh mah, lah). Visual communication: When communication takes place by means of any visual aid, it is known as visual communication. Such as facial expression, gesture, eye contact, signals, map, chart, poster, slide, sign etc.



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