What is paternalistic leadership style,your dreams are mine now,money and the law of attraction esther hicks pdf xchange - PDF 2016

I PIID, associate professor at the Business Faculty at Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Correspondencia Universidad de los andes, Mons Álvaro del Portillo 12455, las Condes, santiago (Chile). Although the use of a paternalistic style of management is widespread in the non-Western context, it has only recently received attention from Western scholars. Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. The first major study of leadership styles was performed in 1939 by Kurt Lewin who led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership (Lewin, Lippit, White, 1939). Although good leaders use all three styles, with one of them normally dominant, bad leaders tend to stick with one style, normally autocratic.
This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. Some people tend to think of this style as a vehicle for yelling, using demeaning language, and leading by threats. This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it).
This is normally used when you have part of the information, and your employees have other parts. Even if you have all the answers, gaining different perspectives and diversity of opinions normally provide greater creativity than insularity.
So as you think about diversity and its effects in organizations during this tough economic time, recognize that the most robust practical value of diversity is that it challenges everyone in an organization.
This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go wrong, rather this is a style to be used when you fully trust and have confidence in the people below you.
A good leader uses all three styles, depending on what forces are involved between the followers, the leader, and the situation. Using all three styles: Telling your employees that a procedure is not working correctly and a new one must be established (authoritarian). Notice that as you go from left to right, it moves from manager-oriented decision making to team or subordinate oriented decision making, thus the teama€™s freedom increases while the managera€™s authority decreases. Manager makes decision and announces it a€“ The team has no role in the decision-making role. Manager presents ideas and invites questions a€“ This allows the team to get a fuller explanation so they can gain a better understanding of what the manager is trying to accomplish. Manager presents a tentative decision that is subject to change a€“ This action invites the team to have some influence regarding the decision; thus, it can be changed based on the team's input. Manager presents the problem, gets suggestions, and then makes the decision a€“ Up to this point the manager has always presented the decision, although the last style allows it to change based upon the team's input. Manager defines limits, and requests the team to make a decision a€“ The manager delegates the decision making to the team; but instills specific limits on the team's solution.
Manager allows team to function within limits a€“ Now the team does the decision making, however, the manager's superior may have placed certain limits on the options they can make. Basically, the first two styles or behaviors are similar to the authoritarian style, the next three are similar to the participative style, while the last two are similar to the delegative style. This page describes seven behavior patterns or styles of leaders, to include Social Leadership as described by Howell and Costley (2001). Most leaders do not strictly use one or another, but are somewhere on a continuum ranging from extremely positive to extremely negative.
Consideration (employee orientation) — leaders are concerned about the human needs of their employees.
Structure (task orientation) — leaders believe that they get results by consistently keeping people busy and urging them to produce.
There is evidence that leaders who are considerate in their leadership style are higher performers and are more satisfied with their job (Schriesheim, 1982). Also notice that consideration and structure are independent of each other, thus they should not be viewed on a continuum (Stogdill, 1974).
Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid is a good example of a leadership model based upon the concept of consideration and structure. Leadership is influencing people by providing purpose, direction, and motivation while operating to accomplish the mission and improving the organization. A system under which an authority undertakes to supply needs or regulate conduct of those under its control in matters affecting them as individuals as well as in their relationships to authority and to each other. Thus, paternalism supplies needs for those under its protection or control, while leadership gets things done.
The last revolution in Sweden disposed of King Gustav IV, whom they considered incompetent, and surprising invited Jean Baptise Bernadotte, a French general who served under Napoleon, to become their new King. Bernadotte was a victim of culture shock—never in his French upbringing and military career had he experienced subordinates who laughed at the mistakes of their superior. Sweden differs from France in the way its society handles inequality (those in charge and the followers). For example, Malaysia has the highest PDI score, being 104, while Austria has the lowest with 11.
Keeping the above in mind, it seems that some picture paternalistic behavior as almost a barbaric way of getting things accomplished. That is what makes leadership styles quite interesting—they basically run along the same continuum as Hofstede's PDI, ranging from paternalistic to consultative styles of decision making.
However, when paternalistic or autocratic styles are relied upon too much and the employees are ready for a more consultative type of leadership style, then it can becomes quite damaging to the performance of the organization if change is not advanced.
You may want to file this under ‘incredibly obvious’, but I haven’t seen it noted elsewhere.
This is usually true, but it neglects a coherent justification for many paternalistic policies that doesn’t require that anyone know more than you. Confusion about the intent of the paternalistic policy is generated by the fact that it is natural to say “this policy exists to help you”, without noting which instance of ‘you’ it is meant to help – you now, you tomorrow, you in ten years’ time, and so on. While this justification would make sense especially often where people engaged in ‘hyperbolic discounting’ and as a result were ‘time inconsistent’, it does not rely on that.
If you would apply this logic to allow serious interference with bodily integrity, such as forcibly preventing a suicide, would you also apply it to abortion?
What about when the mother, in hormone-charged near-mode, desires to keep a pregnancy, but an uninvolved outsider would realize that both she and her fetus would be harmed on net by keeping the pregnancy?
And probably a new objection for every situation in which paternalism is uncomfortable against our intuitions.
The converse of libertarians, who must articulate a justification for each paternalistic measure. Did he mean the greatest happiness and number now, or tomorrow – or was he just playing with abstractions?
Have you considered the atrophying affect these interventions might have on those who effectively have their future-oriented cognition (partly) exported to the paternalists? What seems to have happened with dogs is that their domestication has traded-off some abilities for others, for which they are now better-off (they live with affluent humans in nice homes). Actually traditionalist conservatives, like Russell Kirk, have tended to be lukewarm about capitalism. When you make a choice that trades off two future times against each other, those times will also be both in far mode, and so the later one won’t be discounted much relative to the earlier one.
Is there a reason to consider the discount rate bad, and having a lower discount rate better? Wait, doesn’t this also require that the paternalists can determine better than I can what present actions will benefit my future self most?
If your economics allows you to reach venal conclusions, then your economic calculation went wrong or was not economics in the first place — your equation missed an important factor like 2+(?) missed that which would produce four in straight up arithmetic. Most murders, rapes, and frauds are not made to impose an opinion on others, or even for the good of others. Well, if you are willing to take really painful means to have a small chance of a slightly good ends, do so. It seems that this piece is arguing that paternalism is okay because even though it might appear to violate people’s rights in the present, the violation is for their own good in the long run.
It is in the interest of the North Korean government to have workers who can live a long life & work a long time for the state.
The very fact that you have to pick some worst government in the world (which is also pretty damn bad at just being a government) means you already lost. Honestly, you’re just a rich kid, born in well developed country that does so many things to ensure parents behave well and tries very hard to discourage access to particularly harmful addictive substances novel to the white people. Peter D, there’s Type I error and Type II error when it comes to governments overriding parental authority.
Continuing on with the theme of adaptation executions, condoms did not exist during the evolutionary adaptive period.



As for whether I have benefited from the government’s paternalism, you would have to know what decisions my parents or I would have made without it. There is no way you are so ignorant as to not know what parents did to their children among the segment of population affected by your endorsement. Mesquita’s arguments concerned why Stalinist governments are great at universal health care and universal literacy. Selling organs is risky because it’s illegal everywhere except Iran (because, as Al Roth can tell you, it violates the taboos of most people).
If the important thing is that I know my own history & circumstances, what does it say that I don’t perceive myself as the beneficiary of paternalism? Do you dispute that there exist pairs of family willing to adopt and dysfunctional family, such that forcibly moving child from the dysfunctional family to the family willing to adopt improves the child’s well being? In so much as any such pairings do exist, the government can improve the child’s well being by moving children away from biological parents to adoptive parents, within those pairs.
The way genetic interests work, btw, is them make you take care of the children that you live with. WRT the organ donations, if it is legal to cut up your child for organs and sell them, well, if you look around at the worst of the worst, there are enough psychopaths who will grow their children to, say, age of 10, then cut them up for transplants.
This actually assumes that the paternal agent actually knows what is best for the future you.
I could give more examples, but the point is that we can’t draw any conclusions just because we found *one* factor that speaks in favour of paternalists knowing best. Paternalists usually don’t pay the true costs of their paternalism, they force it onto others, while gaining social status for their alleged benevolence. This is a blog on why we believe and do what we do, why we pretend otherwise, how we might do better, and what our descendants might do, if they don't all die.
Paternalistic leadership (PL) is an indigenous Chinese leadership style that is rooted in China's patriarchal tradition and has been found to be prevalent in overseas Chinese family businesses. As seen by the employees, it includes the total pattern of explicit and implicit actions performed by their leader (Newstrom, Davis, 1993). If you have the time and want to gain more commitment and motivation from your employees, then you should use the participative style. A leader is not expected to know everything—this is why you employ knowledgeable and skilled people. We are more thoughtful, and we recognize and utilize more of the information that we have at our disposal, when diversity is present. Now the team is free to come up with options, however, the manager still has the final say on those options. If the manager sits in on the decision making, he or she attempts to do so with no more authority than the other members do.
This approach gives the leader more options that can be refined to specific situations or environments. Positive leaders use rewards, such as education, new experiences, and independence, to motivate employees, while negative employers emphasize penalties (Newstrom, Davis, 1993). They believe the only way to get things done is through penalties, such as loss of job, days off without pay, reprimanding employees in front of others, etc. People who continuously work out of the negative are bosses, while those who primarily work out of the positive are considered great leaders. They build teamwork, help employees with their problems, and provide psychological support.
For example, a leader who is more considerate does not necessarily mean that she is less structured.
Most definitions of leadership normally state or imply that one of the actions within leadership is that of influencing. Part of his study was on the dependence relationship or Power Difference—the extent to which the less powerful members of an organization expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
This story has a happy ending as he was considered very good and ruled the country as a highly respected constitutional monarch until 1844. Their key objection is: how can anyone else be expected to know what is good for you, better than you do?
In far mode we will want to encourage other folks to act toward their future selves in ways our far view thinks they ought to – usually patiently. Why then should we give a young woman unrestricted freedom to hurt her far-off 60 year old self, just because they happen to pass through the same body at different points in time? This particular justification is unlikely to be shared (or even understood) by lawmakers, but let’s keep it as it is.
Or when a suffering person desires to continue living, but an outsider would realize that he or she would likely suffer in ways he can’t appreciate in his fragile state? One of the defining ethics of the modern age should be totally clear about this, but is it? Maybe this change in some way mirrors the our own great leap forward, around 50 kya – a huge increase in culture but with no corresponding change in brain capacity, but instead a more optimal trade-off of cognitive abilities. This suggests that you should prefer to implement the commitments that people try to make trading off different futures, relative to the paternalistic interventions others try to make. Maybe I think memories of college parties will benefit me more than extra wage resulting from more structured study. Just make sure (to not be called inconsistent) to congratulate some rapists on their kindness of imposing unwanted children on today-women… they might have wanted to have children in five years, right?
Hopefully your stupid comment will be removed, or at least downshifted, because it does not deserve to be at the top of the discussion. However, Paternalism has been used to assault and destroy one’s future self, such as bureaucratic or legal impediments to the development of effective anti-aging bio-medicine or cryo-preservation. You just take everything for granted, and you want to believe it is some genetic or racial awesomeness of yourself personally that put you on top of this pile of other people’s win.
My point is not original to me, I borrowed it from a generalization Bruce Bueno de Mesquita made about a number of governments.
As I stated, there are evolutionary reasons for biological parents to share interests with their children and act on behalf of those interests, as well as SOME tendency for their interests to conflict. You are living in a shining example of paternalism that, while not perfect, worked for you. Infanticide did, and sometimes made sense (Steve Pinker had a good article on early-stage infanticide which I recommend but can’t link for fear of tripping the filter).
I believe that much insurance as it exists now (such as when people are required to have health insurance which covers certain enumerated things, whether they want it or not) does not function as an economist would conceive the insurance function (ex ante benefiting both the customer & supplier). That does not affect the regular family; it affects those where government currently intervenes. It is generally highly likely that someone’s current well being relied on goverment support or otherwise violated the principles of a libertarian poser.
The adoption research I’m more familiar with investigates what happens if twins are raised apart or how similar unrelated kids reared together turn out. But I have heard of a sizable number of cases where it has occurred, and when discussing the issue with others there was academic literature to discuss about organ sellers. And I’m completely aware that many would consider me evil for my own position on that. For example, Communist dictators such as Stalin and Mao used this idea that the short term costs (i.e. State paternalism, on the other hand, has to be instituted by politicians and administered through bureaucrats. We need to get an overview of the most important factors for and against (and even then, we’re unlikely to reach any degree of certainty). Farh and Cheng (2000) proposed a model of PL that has three components: authoritarianism, benevolence, and moral leadership.
We also examine the effects of these management practices on job satisfaction and organizational commitment in both contexts.
Identifying Management in Chile, International Studies of Management and Organization, 28(2), 18-37.
The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. R.(2005), Paternalistic Leadership and subordinated stress in Taiwanese enterprises, Research in Applied Psychology, 27, 111-131.
Paternalistic leadership and subordinate responses: establishing a leadership model in Chinese organizations.
Culture's consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations.
The mediating effects of Leader-member exchange quality to influence the relationships between paternalistic leadership and organizational citizenship behaviors. Understanding employee commitment in the public organization: A study of the juvenile detention center.


The effect of perceived organizational support on organizational commitment of diagnostic imaging radiographers. Alternative approaches to the employee-organization relationship: Does investment in employees pay off? The cultural orientations of entrepreneurs and employees' job satisfaction: The Turkish small and medium sized enterprises (SMES) case. Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect.
Using this style is of mutual benefit as it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. The negative approach has a place in a leader's repertoire of tools in certain situations; however, it must be used carefully due to its high cost on the human spirit. They believe their authority is increased by frightening everyone into higher levels of productivity. I care about the 60 year old too, perhaps even more than that young woman does, relative to herself. I think a new, specialized objection is necessary for each of those cases (forced abortion, murder).
While there are genetic conflicts of interest between children and their parents, parents have much more shared genetic interests with their children than children do with the government. So what if the paternalists more value my future self; who makes them king of what’s good for future me?
The base assumption in your post is that it is okay to use violence to impose an opinion on others. The answer is probably in child abuse according to leading psychologists and psychiatrists. This was actually a good post, and your comment almost stopped me from reading the better discussion below. And judging by the behavior of other (even white!) people I know, society hasn’t done that good a job of discouraging access to addictive substances. The substantial overlap in their strategies leads to reduced conflict (although it still exists), and like Robin Hanson I prefer peace.
I don’t believe its accurate to model drug addiction as a disease which people are helpless to resist either, but just as something they find very satisfying.
It is intended to redistribute from the healthy to the unhealthy, and a healthy person who would prefer to defer the purchase of insurance to a later date or to purchase a policy more narrowly tailored actually does understand their own interests. And as long as counties receive $4000 in federal grants for every foster child adoption, $8000 if the child is older than 9, I wouldn’t trust them to have the right incentives.
Unrelated people have even less shared genetic interest (which is why people overwhelmingly flee from East to West Germany or North to South Korea, despite the education & healthcare). Note that, even though psychopathy is inheritable, majority of the children will likely not be psychopaths themselves as in a family typically only one parent is a psychopath. Since then, a series of empirical studies have been conducted by Cheng and his colleagues to examine the validity of Farh and Cheng's PL model using a variety of samples from Taiwan and mainland China.
Results suggest that delegation of authority was more common in the Us than in Chile, whereas paternalism was higher in Chile than in the Us. A review of twenty years of research on the management of human resources in comparative and international perspective.
Chilean culture: entrepreneurs and workers, The Asian Journal of Latin American Studies, 14(2), 113-160.
Paternalism as a positive form of leadership in the Latin American context: Leader benevolence, decision-making control and human resource management practices.
While lower numbers mean a more consultative style of leadership is used, which translates to employees who are not as afraid of their bosses.
The me of right now also has much more shared genetic interests with the me of the future than future-me does with the government.
Does the state have the right to push these students into a type of school that dominates their lives pushing them very hard to achieve academically.
Not to make a moral afgument, but i will just mention by example that this assumption is the same assumption that rapists, murderers and fraudsters use when they decide to act in the aforementioned ways. You posting here is example of this, me posting here is example of this, it’s ridiculous this point even needs to be made.
Most users, even of hard drugs, drift in and out of use rather than remaining trapped in it. It is like saying that because I am doing alright and we have farm subsidies, farm subsidies must benefit me. I don’t believe in rights, and will endorse on rule-consequentialist grounds the use of coercion, including by the state, if it seems beneficial due to externalities.
My understanding is that currently, being overweight predicts higher fertility (being slightly overweight is also predictive of being healthier, an artifact of our official definitions of appropriate BMI).
In real life, this frequently leads to decisions that are sub-optimal in relation to the stated goal and the available information. In this chapter, we review this body of research and identify promising areas for future research.IntroductionIn the second half of the twentieth century, entrepreneurship among overseas Chinese exploded not only in Chinese-dominated communities such as Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan, but also in South-east Asian countries, such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines, where the Chinese are in the minority (Weidenbaum, 1996).
Furthermore, delegation and paternalism were positively related to job satisfaction and organizational commitment in both countries. The Measurement and Antecedents of Affective, Continuance and Normative Commitment to the Organization.
Coverage of Latin American business and management issues in cross-cultural research: An analysis of JIBS and MIR 1987-1997. Cross-cultural generalizability of paternalistic leadership: An expansion of leader-member exchange theory (LMX). They have more juvenile characteristics maintained into adulthood (shorter, curlier tale, bigger ears,…). You claim that, assuming violence is a justifiable means to an end, it is okay to rape women because they *might* want children in the future.
You are living in a shining example of how paternalism works – in so much as you keep someone from gaining too much power and using it as excuse. If the genetic interests do not stop parents capable of raising a child from using condom, why on earth should they stop from killing a child or cutting child apart to sell for organs or the like?
I have heard that the Chinese government harvests the organs of large numbers of prisoners sentenced to death, and even sends their families bills for expenses. Without the documented existence of such a phenomenon, I don’t think it serves you as a very good argument. In the case of children I see that their biological relatives have the strongest genetic interests, while unrelated people have negligible interest and any disutility they get from hearing about what parents have done has the least-cost-avoidance strategy of ignoring it. There was also a study out recently indicating that castrated men live longer, and there has been ongoing research into life-extension gained from metabolic restriction (which significantly reduces fertility).
Scholars who were intrigued by this phenomenon embarked on a series of studies of the practices of overseas Chinese businesses. Unexpectedly, delegation had a stronger effect on job satisfaction and organizational commitment than a paternalistic style of management in the Chilean context, whereas the opposite was found in the Us sample. Research on leadership in a cross-cultural context: Making progress, and raising new questions.
These were not selected for, but occured in parallel with the artificial selection for less aggression. As for whether there is 2 or 3% of the population, again I’d like to see some studies.
We have about 1% of the population incarcerated, and when the FBI found serious errors in some of its forensic analysis used to convict people (focusing chiefly on the work of one scientist), they didn’t inform the convicted.
Most of our war on drugs is not nearly as effective and chiefly serves to immiserate users & their community, while enriching the few suppliers violent enough to climb to the top.
In my own life I do sometimes think that someone else has greater understanding about something that can benefit me, and I am apt to defer to their judgment. There is Dallas D.A Craig Watkins who has actually worked to free people convicted based on faulty evidence, but generally speaking the government is one of the last organizations I would defer to as more inclined to look after my own interests than myself.
But I don’t generally view paternalists as sharing my interests or facing any negative consequences from being wrong, and insofar as I can evade them I will. Paternalism, which is rooted in the traditional Chinese family structure, has crossed the boundary of families and generalized to the workplace.



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