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It consists of a wooden base fitted with 4mm socket terminals, single wire and a 100cm wooden scale. It consists of nickel plated brass strips and connecting pieces with 4mm socket terminals, fitted on wooden base.
It is used to determine variation of resistance of a conductor with changes in length, material, diameter and the effect of series and parallel combination of resistances, this item is used. The relationship between Voltage, Current and Resistance in any DC electrical circuit was firstly discovered by the German physicist Georg Ohm. By knowing any two values of the Voltage, Current or Resistance quantities we can use Ohms Law to find the third missing value. Then by using Ohms Law we can see that a voltage of 1V applied to a resistor of 1Ω will cause a current of 1A to flow and the greater the resistance value, the less current that will flow for a given applied voltage.
Again, the three quantities have been superimposed into a triangle this time called a Power Triangle with power at the top and current and voltage at the bottom. So we can see that there are three possible formulas for calculating electrical power in a circuit.
To help us understand the the relationship between the various values a little further, we can take all of the Ohm’s Law equations from above for finding Voltage, Current, Resistance and of course Power and condense them into a simple Ohms Law pie chart for use in AC and DC circuits and calculations as shown. For the circuit shown below find the Voltage (V), the Current (I), the Resistance (R) and the Power (P).
Power within an electrical circuit is only present when BOTH voltage and current are present. As electrical power is the product of V x I, the power dissipated in a circuit is the same whether the circuit contains high voltage and low current or low voltage and high current flow. But dealing with joules, kilojoules or megajoules to express electrical energy, the maths involved can end up with some big numbers and lots of zero’s, so it is much more easier to express electrical energy consumed in Kilowatt-hours. If the electrical power consumed (or generated) is measured in watts or kilowatts (thousands of watts) and the time is measure in hours not seconds, then the unit of electrical energy will be the kilowatt-hours,(kWhr). Kilowatt-hours are the standard units of energy used by the electricity meter in our homes to calculate the amount of electrical energy we use and therefore how much we pay. So, consuming 1000 watts for one hour uses the same amount of power as 2000 watts (twice as much) for half an hour (half the time).
Now that we know what is the relationship between voltage, current and resistance in a circuit, in the next tutorial relating to DC Circuits, we will look at the Standard Electrical Units used in electrical and electronic engineering to enable us to calculate these values and see that each value can be represented by either multiples or sub-multiples of the standard unit.
Star Delta Transformations allow us to convert impedances connected together from one type of connection to another. A resistor therefore carries two ratings: 1) its ohmic value, and 2) its power dissipation ability.
A circuit containing six resistors is connected to a 120 V power supply as shown in the figure below. This applets allows the user to create series and parallel combinations of resistors and measure the resulting current. A simple buzzer consisting of a battery, a flexibile metal strip, a piece of iron, and some wire. This applets shows an animation of how lightning is formed and explains how lightning is an example of a natural capacitor.
RC Circuit models the dynamical behavior of a voltage source attached in series to a resistor and capacitor.
The resistance of a material depends upon the fallowing four factors, which are called laws of resistance. The resistance of the conductor is inversely proportional to the cross sectional area of the conductor. Where is called rho .it is a constant and is known as resistivity or specific resistance of a material.
The resistivity of a material is based on the resistance of define volume of that material the letter symbol for resistivity is ? (the Greek letter Rho). Specific resistance can be derived from the following relations of the resistance dependence factors.
Resistor is electrical or electronic components which resist the flow of current across the resistor device.
Resistors are incorporated within a electrical or electronic circuit create a known voltage drop or current to voltage relationship.
If the electrical current in a circuit is known (current is measured in amperes), then a resistor can be used to create a known potential difference (voltage difference) proportional to that current. Conversely, if the voltage drop (potential difference) across two points in a circuit is known, a resistor can be used to create a known current proportional to that difference. A line terminator is a resistor at the end of a transmission line or daisy chain bus, designed to match impedance and minimize reflections of the electronic signal.
Ohm's law is a simple equation that shows the relationship between resistance, voltage and current through a metal wire, or some other type of resistive material. A non-linear resistor is a resistor that has resistances that vary significantly with applied voltage, temperature or light. A type of cylindrical resistors made by depositing a resistive element made of a thin conducting film of a metal or metal alloy, such as nichrome, onto a cylindrical ceramic or glass core. A type of cylindrical resistor that uses materials such as ruthenium oxide or tin oxide as the resistive element. For thick film resistors, a ruthenium oxide film or metal glaze film is applied using traditional screen-printing technology.

A type of surface-mount film resistor with a relatively thin resistive element, measured in angstroms (millionths of an inch). Thin film resistors are made by sputtering (also known as vacuum deposition) a resistive material, such as nichrome or tantalum nitride, onto the surface of a substrate. A general class description for resistors consisting of a carbon mixture resistive core and a molded outer insulating core. A type of resistor that consists of a clay, alumina, and carbon mixture that has been blended and pressurized into a resistive core and then covered with a molded outer insulating core. A general class description for cylindrical resistors made by depositing a carbon film on the surface of a center core insulator. The cylindrical core is typically made from a ceramic, plastic, or fiberglass core material. Wirewound resistors are available as fixed, or adjustable to be used as a rheostat or potentiometer.
Typical application for wirewound resistors include device requiring high current handling capability, heat dissipation and resistance stability and accuracy. A variety of test instruments rely on stable, low TCR, High accuracy Resistive devices for use as reference devices in their circuits. While there are low cost metal film, chip devices, and wirewound resistors which offer the desired characteristics, Token's Thin-Film technology is unique in their performance as they could offer very high stability with very low TCR's and the ability to give a long drift free service.
Neutral grounding resistors are incorporated into electrical circuits to protect the system and devices. Neutral grounding resistors protect electrical circuit components by limiting the ground fault current to an acceptable level. Within three phase electric voltage system, the neutral branch is referenced to ground (earth). In the event that a current fault occurs (short to ground), extreme current causes by the fault will damage electrical circuit system and components.
By installing a neutral grounding resistor, the faulty current will be limited to a predetermined level. DC motors, unlike AC motors, act like a electrical generator when the motor has been disconnected from the power source.
The voltage and current produced by the DC motor (generator) is directed into the dynamic braking resistor to dissipate the heat energy. Dynamic braking resistors should be located and mounted into the target assembly such that maximum thermal dissipation through the resistor device may occur. Thermal dissipation will depend on the resistor selected and the power application duty cycle. Care should be taken to ensure the braking resistor installation is clear of combustible materials. Power Resistors are resistors which are capable of handling a lot of power, as their name implies. They are designed and manufactured to handle more power with respect to their size than other resistors types. Free wound power resistors typically require external sources of cooling in order to handle any significant amount of power. Typical power resistor cores for would type power resistors are; Steatite, Alumina, Beryllium Oxide, or hard anodized Aluminum. Variable resistors consist of a resistance track with connections at both ends and a wiper which moves along the track as you turn the spindle. The track is usually rotary but straight track versions, usually called sliders, are also available. The track may be made from carbon, cermet (ceramic and metal mixture) or a coil of wire (for low resistances). They are specified by their maximum resistance, linear or logarithmic track, and their physical size.
Variable resistors may be used as a rheostat with two connections (the wiper and just one end of the track) or as a potentiometer with all three connections in use.
Miniature versions called presets are made for setting up circuits which will not require further adjustment. They are used in many different applications, from light dimmers to the motor controllers in large industrial machines. Two terminals are used: one connected to an end of the track, the other to the moveable wiper. Turning the spindle changes the resistance between the two terminals from zero up to the maximum resistance. Rheostats are often used to vary current, for example to control the brightness of a lamp or the rate at which a capacitor charges. The rheostat is still a common and fundamental electronic component used to control the flow of current in a circuit. However, it has largely been replaced by the triac, a solid-state device also known as a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR). A triac do not waste as much power as a rheostat and has better reliability due to the absence of mechanical parts. Rheostats commonly fail because their contacts become dirty or the coil wire corrodes and breaks. This arrangement is normally used to vary voltage, for example to set the switching point of a circuit with a sensor, or control the volume (loudness) in an amplifier circuit.

If the terminals at the ends of the track are connected across the power supply then the wiper terminal will provide a voltage which can be varied from zero up to the maximum of the supply. They are designed to be mounted directly onto the circuit board and adjusted only when the circuit is built.
For example to set the frequency of an alarm tone or the sensitivity of a light-sensitive circuit. Presets are much cheaper than standard variable resistors so they are sometimes used in projects where a standard variable resistor would normally be used. The screw must be turned many times (10+) to move the slider from one end of the track to the other, giving very fine control. The board is fitted with 4 mm terminals connected to a length of resistance wire which runs along a scale. Design & aesthetics are subject to change without prior notice due to our continuous R&D efforts for product improvements. Ohm found that, at a constant temperature, the electrical current flowing through a fixed linear resistance is directly proportional to the voltage applied across it, and also inversely proportional to the resistance.
Here the three quantities of V, I and R have been superimposed into a triangle (affectionately called the Ohms Law Triangle) giving voltage at the top with current and resistance below. A source of energy such as a voltage will produce or deliver power while the connected load absorbs it. Again, this arrangement represents the actual position of each quantity within the Ohms law power formulas. If the calculated power is positive, (+P) in value for any formula the component absorbs the power, that is it is consuming or using power.
So for example, an electrical motor will covert electrical energy into a mechanical force, while an electrical generator converts mechanical force into electrical energy. For example, in an open-circuit condition, voltage is present but there is no current flow I = 0 (zero), therefore V x 0 is 0 so the power dissipated within the circuit must also be 0. Generally, electrical power is dissipated in the form of Heat (heaters), Mechanical Work such as motors, Energy in the form of radiated (Lamps) or as stored energy (Batteries).
Electrical energy is the product of power multiplied by the length of time it was consumed.
Although electrical energy is measured in Joules it can become a very large value when used to calculate the energy consumed by a component. Then our 100 watt light bulb above will consume 2,400 watt hours or 2.4kWhr, which is much easier to understand the 8,640,000 joules.
This is what is measured by the utility meter and is what we as consumers purchase from our electricity suppliers when we receive our bills. So if you switch ON an electric fire with a heating element rated at 1000 watts and left it on for 1 hour you will have consumed 1 kWhr of electricity. Then for a 100 watt light bulb to use 1 kWhr or one unit of electrical energy it would need to be switched on for a total of 10 hours (10 x 100 = 1000 = 1kWhr). Select the battery voltage and little stick figures move charges from one end of the battery to the other. Use the mouse cursor to control the Switch Position slider, and discover how a capacitor is charged and discharged with current from the battery. The source voltage can be chosen to be either a 10 volt sinusoidal or square wave with an adjustable frequency. Greater is the length of conductor greater will be the resistance, similarly smaller is the length, and smaller will be the resistance of the conductor. Mind quotes can help you to think about life in general and change your looks in a good way. This relationship between the Voltage, Current and Resistance forms the basis of Ohms Law and is shown below. This arrangement represents the actual position of each quantity within the Ohms law formulas. Light bulbs and heaters for example, absorb electrical power and convert it into either heat, or light, or both. But if the calculated power is negative, (-P) in value the component produces or generates power, in other words it is a source of electrical power such as batteries and generators. Likewise, if we have a short-circuit condition, current flow is present but there is no voltage V = 0, therefore 0 x I = 0 so again the power dissipated within the circuit is 0. So if we know how much power, in Watts is being consumed and the time, in seconds for which it is used, we can find the total energy used in watt-seconds. Then we can say that one watt is equal to one joule per second and electrical power can be defined as the rate of doing work or the transferring of energy.
If you switched on two electric fires each with 1000 watt elements for half an hour the total consumption would be exactly the same amount of electricity – 1kWhr.
Sockets are provided on it so that the board can be used as a 40 cm bridge or potentiometer. The higher their value or rating in watts the more electrical power they are likely to consume. Therefore electrical power is related to energy and the unit given for electrical energy is the watt-seconds or joules.

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