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Difference between profound and severe hearing loss,what causes ear ringing loud jets,noise canceling in ear bose 5.1 - Step 2

Author: admin | 27.07.2015 | Category: Homeopathic Treatment For Tinnitus

In most people who suffer from the effects of Noise Induced Hearing Loss, diminished hearing at certain frequencies was often the first symptom discovered. Unfortunately, in cases of Noise Induced Hearing Loss, once the effects are noticed the damage has already reached an irreversible level and the symptoms will gradually worsen over time. The image below shows the visual difference, under magnification, between healthy and damaged hair cells. Listen to each of the three simulations of hearing loss below so you can understand what mild, medium and severe hearing loss could sound like. Unfortunately, in cases of Noise Induced Hearing Loss once the effects are noticed the damage has already reached an irreversible level.
The hearing loss usually effects the range of hearing needed to understand people speaking, often making it difficult to communicate. The Threshhold Audiogram below shows how the uneven impact of hearing loss creates a notch in the upper range of sound. The study population was composed of 1 040 systematically chosen households in 40 randomly selected census tracts (dwelling clusters) in the city of Canoas, which is in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil. The socioeconomic data that were gathered included the amount of schooling of all individuals tested and the income of the head of the household. The findings could help build awareness in the community, in universities, and in government agencies of the health care needs that hearing problems create. The use of estimates makes planning difficult and has hindered efforts to obtain funding and other support for projects involving the prevention and rehabilitation of deafness or to validate the needs of this part of the population. According to data for 2001 from the World Health Organization (WHO) (1) and from the Global Burden of Hearing Loss study (2), 250 million persons worldwide have disabling hearing impairments. Although they represent only 4.2% of the world's population, two thirds of these persons live in developing countries.
The study of deafness and hearing impairment has been a common pursuit among these institutions for many years due to their interest in its prevention and rehabilitation. As of 2001, Canoas had a population of some 306 000 inhabitants, distributed among 391 census tracts (3). These testers were trained by otorhinolaryngologists, audiologists, and lecturers at the Lutheran University of Brazil. To begin the random household selection, one street block was randomly selected in each of the 40 census tracts, and one street corner in this block was also randomly selected. The WHO Ear and Hearing Disorders Survey Protocol for a Population-Based Survey of Prevalence and Causes of Deafness and Hearing Impairment and Other Ear Diseases was used as a guide (5). To find out if socioeconomic determinants played a part in the health problems studied, questions about the individual schooling and the income of the head of the household were added to the WHO protocol. For both definitions, "hearing threshold level" was understood as the better ear average hearing threshold level for the four frequencies of 500, 1 000, 2 000, and 4 000 Hz (6). Although the WHO definition currently refers to permanent hearing threshold levels, this survey and the WHO protocol include the gathering of data on nonpermanent hearing loss, such as may be caused by otitis media.


Then, they were instructed to raise their hand every time they heard the sound emitted, even if very faint. If there was no response at this threshold, it was raised in 10-dB increments until the subject responded to sound. When the subject responded to a sound, the hearing threshold was then obtained, decreasing thresholds by 10-dB steps and increasing by 5-dB steps, until the threshold was established and confirmed on three consecutive occasions.
Ten patients in the Otorhinolaryngology Department of the Independência University Hospital were examined in order to standardize the procedures for otological examinations. Data were processed through the Earform program (World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland) and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 10.0 (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America), using standard statistical procedures. Therefore, it would be possible to examine only 3 328 subjects, a number lower than originally planned. By the end of the survey, 2 609 individuals had been examined, corresponding to 78.4% of the possible number. In the remaining 54 of the 98, the number of individuals ranged from 1 to 8 per household. This may introduce a bias because it is probable that a greater homogeneity exists inside the clusters than in a simple random sample. The number of people 40 years old and above identified in the sample was larger than expected, according to the information on the city's age structure shown in the available census data. Concerning men between the ages of 20 and 39, the number identified was smaller than expected, according to the age structure shown in the same census data.
To cope with this problem, a weight was attributed to each age and sex subgroup, mirroring the age and sex distribution in the city's general population. The design effect and the attributed weight were taken into account when the data were analyzed through the CSAMPLE module of the Epi Info 6.04b program (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America) in order to ascertain the true prevalence in the entire population. Figure 1 and Figure 2 describe the age distribution of the men and women, respectively, as compared with the city census data. The difference between the two last groups was not statistically significant (see Table 1).
Table 3 shows the sex and age distribution of subjects with disabling hearing impairments (DHIs). The survey examined 2 427 subjects who were 4 years old and older, in order to establish the prevalence of disabling hearing impairment. Possible explanations for high DHI prevalences include a meningococcal meningitis epidemic (8), meningitis (9), congenital rubella syndrome (10, 11), respiratory infections (12), the use of ototoxic antibiotics without medical control (13), and noise exposure (14).
However, the literature shows that in discussing the etiology of hearing impairment, a definite cause cannot be established in a substantial number of cases (15–17). However, the results were comparable with those found in India (6%), Myanmar (8%), Sri Lanka (9%), and Vietnam's northern provinces (7.8%) (18). As compared to the population of the city, the study population included fewer males and fewer individuals under 40 years of age.


This could have increased the prevalence found because the older population was overrepresented.
However, this mathematical procedure may give rise to limitations because people who were not examined may have had a different hearing pattern from those examined. Another possibly relevant aspect is the high level of violence in Brazil, especially in the metropolitan areas.
It hinders research of this type because of people's fears of making themselves accessible to strangers. In addition, people may have refused to participate because this study required home visits and the introduction of largely unfamiliar examination procedures they could have found burdensome.
Others may have found the presence of field workers to be a potential invasion of their privacy. The higher risk at older ages is biologically plausible because of the expected diminution of hearing acuity due to presbycusis. The association with fewer years of formal schooling may be the result of reverse causality since there are few adequate educational institutions available for individuals with disabling hearing impairments, and this may hinder opportunities for educational advancement. The association of hearing loss with lower income may be due to the fact that lower income is in turn associated with various causes of hearing disorders, such as systemic infectious processes, ear infections, congenital hearing loss, ototoxic drugs, and poor access to health care.
On the other hand, the association could also be the result of poor access to gainful employment due to the hearing loss. Protocol for a population-based survey of prevalence and causes of deafness and hearing impairment and other ear diseases. A simplified general method for cluster-sample surveys of health in developing countries.
Brazil accelerates control of rubella and prevention of congenital rubella syndrome program. The prevalence and causes of hearing impairment in Oman: a community-based cross-sectional study. Bilateral sensorineural hearing disorders in children: etiology of deafness and evaluation of hearing tests. Sensorineural hearing impaired children with unknown causes: a comprehensive etiological study. Report on informal consultation on epidemiology of deafness and hearing impairment in developing countries and update of the WHO protocol.
CBM supports the provision of services to persons with visual and other disabilities in more than 1 000 projects in 113 developing countries.



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