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Author: admin | 06.05.2015 | Category: One Ear Ringing

First she taught me to form sounds, then I learned to say letter sounds, and then syllables. Those were the words of an Ear, Nose, and Throat specialist that my parents consulted when I was about three years old. About this blog:This is the official blog of MED-EL, a leader in implantable hearing loss solutions. The researchers identified patterns of gene expression that may determine whether the ear’s inner pillar cells can give rise to new hair cells, which are key to hearing. Discoveries by Stefan Heller and his colleagues could lead to new ways of evaluating, in animal models, experimental drug treatments intended to prevent hearing loss or restore hearing.
School of Medicine scientists have discovered biological mechanisms that appear to play a role in the regeneration of cells in the inner ear. Over a lifetime, these cells often are damaged or die due to oxidative stress, excessive noise exposure or toxic drugs.
The discoveries could lead to new ways of evaluating, in animal models, experimental drug treatments intended to prevent hearing loss or restore hearing, and might even lead to methods for regenerating vital cells that have been lost, said Stefan Heller, PhD, professor of otolaryngology. A paper describing the findings, as well as new methods to quickly link changes in cell function during development to molecular changes within cells, was published June 9 in Cell Reports. Sound waves striking the eardrum cause vibrations that are transmitted through tiny bones in the middle ear to fluid within the snail-shell-shaped cochlea of the inner ear. By using new techniques to rapidly and deeply probe individual cells, Heller’s team has begun to close the knowledge gap.
However, little is known about the molecular biology that determines how hair cells develop at specific locations and how different electrical properties arise among hair cells specialized to detect different frequencies. The researchers identified patterns of gene expression that may determine whether inner pillar cells can give rise to new hair cells.
Using powerful number-crunching software to analyze the large amount of genetic data, Heller’s lab team accurately identified the two known types of hair cells and the seven known types of supporting cells and created a computer-generated map of their locations within the organ of Corti. The strategy the researchers used to predict the spatial location of cells within the organ of Corti from gene-expression data also should prove useful to biologists who study other types of cells in different organs, Heller said. Rapid advances in single-cell gene-expression analysis are likely to supplant a standard technique called in-situ hybridization, according to Heller. The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health (grants DC006167 and DC012250), the Stanford Initiative to Cure Hearing Loss and the Hearing Health Foundation’s Hearing Restoration Project.

Stanford Medicine integrates research, medical education and health care at its three institutions - Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford Health Care (formerly Stanford Hospital & Clinics), and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford.
Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have identified a group of progenitor cells in the inner ear that can become the sensory hair cells and adjacent supporting cells that enable hearing. Stanford Medicine's unrivaled atmosphere of breakthrough thinking and interdisciplinary collaboration has fueled a long history of achievements. I was overdue and born as a “blue baby”, and since the beginning of my life my parents realised that I was “different”. My parents were told that I was ‘ineducable disabled’ and should be institutionalized, but they refused to accept this. This allowed me to see the position of mother’s tongue and lips when she made a sound. In combination with speech reading and contextual cues, pictures, and showing objects I could better say single words. Again, it was hard work for them as well as for me, and it required much patience and persistence.
We blew out candles, blew bubbles, blew tissues for movement, made paper aeroplanes and blew them, blew balloons. It is a place where you can connect with MED-EL and learn all about hearing and hearing implants. Specialized cochlear cells in a region called the organ of Corti use hairlike sensors to detect the vibrations in cochlear fluid and then trigger nerve signals that are sent to the brain.
Different hair cells along the cochlear spiral are tuned to respond to distinct ranges of sound frequency based on differences in their electrical properties.
This makes it difficult for scientists to envision strategies to regenerate the specialized cells or to prevent their death, particularly in the high-frequency region of the cochlea, where cells are more susceptible to injury. But scientists have recently determined that a supporting cell type, called the inner pillar cell, has the potential to regenerate hair cells in newborn mice. The researchers determined which genes were turned on, or “expressed,” in each of 808 hair cells and supporting cells from either the apex or base of the organ of Corti.
Similarly, they discovered gradual changes in the expression of specific genes across cells that span the organ of Corti from its base to its apex that may be crucial for the establishment and maintenance of a population of hair cells that responds to a range of sound frequencies. They did this using only the genetic data, but then used other previously known DNA sequences to independently verify the accuracy of the cell identification and mapping.

The standard technique relies on labeled genetic probes to target individual genes one by one in order to identify specific cell types. Find out for yourself by asking numerous questions of numerous professionals and decide on your own gut feeling what is correct. Nearly one in four people ages 65-74, and half who are 75 or older, are candidates for hearing aids because of disabling hearing loss. Postdoctoral scholars Joerg Waldhaus, PhD, and Robert Durruthy-Durruthy, PhD, share the lead authorship.
Frequency is encoded by the place and the properties of the cells’ locations in the cochlea. They quantified this gene expression by measuring the amount of RNA produced from each gene.
The new approach of measuring hundreds of genes in parallel and reconstructing the organs in the computer appears to be more accurate and powerful.
Smith was born with congenital deafness and has since gone on to spend 20 years researching how to give more people with deafness and hearing loss access to a wider array of rehabilitation options. She took my hand, placed it on her throat so that I could feel the vibrations, and focused on making the sounds of language. They perish quickly, so we must work fast.” There are 120 million retinal cells in a mouse eye, Heller said, but only 3,200 hair cells in a mouse ear.
This understanding has led to the development of cochlear implants to restore hearing in deaf people. She has a Ph.D in the cost of disabling hearing impairment in South Africa, and her current research genetic testing for congenital deafness and hearing loss with associated syndromes.
It was like how Helen Keller would gently touch Sarah Fuller’s face, mouth, tongue, and throat.
My hands also probed my own mouth and neck as I have tried to copy what my mother was doing. I built on these initial sounds until I learned to say whole words and then later short sentences.

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